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GIFT  OF 


Serial  No.  34 


DEPARTMENT  OF  COMMERCE 

U.  S.  COAST  AND  GEODETIC  SURVEY 
E.  LESTER  JONES,  SUPERINTENDENT 


UNITED  STATES  COAST  PILOT 

ALASKA 


PART   II 


YAKUTAT  BAY  TO  ARCTIC  OCEAN 


FIRST  EDITION 


PRICE,- 5'6  GEM'S 


WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT  FEINTING  OFFICE 
1916 


DEPARTMENT  OF    COMMERCE, 
U.  S.  COAST  AND  GEODETIC  SURVEY, 

Washington,  D.  C.,  February  29,  1916. 

This  publication  covers  the  coast  of  Alaska  from  Yakut  at  Bay  to 
the  Arctic  Ocean,  including  the  Aleutian  Islands. 

In  the  surveyed  areas  it  is  based  upon  the  work  of  the  United 
States  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey,  while  in  the  unsurveyed  areas  it 
is  a  compilation  of  information  gathered  from  a  wide  variety  of 
sources. 

The  material  was  gathered  by  the  coast  pilot  section,  assisted  by 
various  field  officers,  and  the  final  compilation  made  by  R.  S.  Patton, 
chief,  coast  pilot  section,  and  A.  L.  Giacomini,  nautical  expert,  under 
the  direction  of  Herbert  C.  Graves,  chief  of  the  division  of  hydrog- 
raphy and  topography,  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey. 

Navigators  are  requested  to  notify  the  Superintendent  of  the  Coast 
and  Geodetic  Survey  of  any  errors  or  omissions  they  may  find  in  this 
publication,  or  of  additional  matter  which  they  think  should  be 
inserted  for  the  information  of  mariners. 

E.  LESTER  JONES, 

Superintendent. 
3 


335671 


CONTENTS. 


Note 

Navigational  aids  and  the   use  of 

charts 

General  information  (Yakutat  Bay 

to  Arctic  Ocean) 

Tides 

Currents 

Directions,  Yakutat  Bay  to  Kodiak 
Yakutat  Bay  to  Cape  St.  Elias. . . . 
Cape  St.  Elias  to  Prince  William 
Sound : 

Controller  Bay 

Katalla  Bay 

Copper  River 

Middleton  Island 

Prince  William  Sound : 

Currents,  Prince  William  Sound . 

Port  Etches 

Constantino  Harbor 

Zaikof  Bay 

Rocky  Bay 

Northwest  shore  of  Hinchinbrook 
Island 

Orca  Bay 

Orca  Inlet 

Currents,  Orca  Inlet 

Directions,  Orca  Bay 

Fidalgo  Bay 

Tatitlek  Narrows  and  Virgin  Bay 

Valdez  Arm • 

Directions,  Port  Valdez 

Islands  in  Prince  William  Sound 

Prince  William  Sound,  northwest 
part 

Passage  Canal 

Directions,"  Passage  Canal 

Knight  Island  and  associated  is- 
lands  

Knight  Island  Passage 

Directions,   Knight  Island  Pas- 


Drier  Bay 

Directions,  Drier  Bay. 


Page. 


20 
21 

23. 

25 

28 


30 
32 
34 
34 

35 
36 
38 
38 
39 

39 
40 
42 
43 
43 
44 
48 
48 
50 
51 

52 
54 
55 

55 
58 

61 
62 
63 


Page. 

Prince  William  Sound — Contd. 

Montague  Strait 64 

Latouche    and    Elrington    Pas- 
sages   66 

Directions,    Latouche    and    El- 
rington Passages 68 

Prince  of  Wales  Passage 68 

Kenai  Peninsula,  South  Coast : 

Cape  Puget  to  Cape  Resurrection  69 

Resurrection  Bay •. 70 

Directions,  Resurrection  Bay. . .  71 

AialikBay 72 

NukaBay 73 

Point  Gore 75 

Port  Dick 76 

Chugach  Islands 76 

Directions,  inside  Pearl  and  Eliz- 
abeth Islands 78 

Directions,    Point   Gore,    inside 

East  Chugach  Island 78 

Barren  Islands 79 

Cook  Inlet 80 

Currents,  Cook  Inlet 83 

Directions,  Cook  Inlet 85 

Port  Chatham 86 

Directions,  Port  Chatham 87 

Coast  from  Port  Chatham  to  Sel- 

dovia 87 

Port  Graham 88 

Directions,  Port  Graham 89 

Seldovia  Bay 90 

Directions,  Seldovia  Bay 91 

Eastern  shore  of  Cook  Inlet 92 

Western  shore  of  Cook  Inlet 97 

Kodiak  and  Afognak  Islands 105 

East  coast  of  Shuyak  and  Afog- 
nak Islands 105 

Marmot  Bay 107 

Danger  Bay '. 109 

Directions,  Danger  Bay 110 

Afognak  Bay 110 

Directions,  Afognak  Bay Ill 

Afognak  Strait 112 


6 


CONTENTS. 


Page. 

Kodiak    and    Afognak    Islands^- 
Continued. 

Directions,  Afognak  Strait 113 

Chiniak     Bay    and     St.     Paul 

Harbor 114 

Southern  entrance 115 

Northern  entrance 115 

Channel  westward  of  Near  Is- 
land   116 

Directions,  St.  Paul  Harbor. . .  117 

Narrow  Strait  to  Whale  Passage.  119 

Whale  Passage 120 

Kupreanof  Strait 121 

Directions,   Kodiak  to  Shelikof 

Strait 123 

Shelikof  Strait 124 

West  Coast  of  Shuyak  and  Afog- 
nak Islands 125 

MalinaBay 127 

Viekoda  Bay 128 

Uganik  Passage 129 

Uganik  Bay 130 

Directions,  Uganik  Bay 132 

Uyak  Bay 132 

Directions,  Uyak  Bay 135 

Cape  Uyak  to  Cape  Karluk 135 

Kodiak  Island,  south  coast 136 

Trinity  Islands 139 

Alitak  Bay 141 

Directions,  Alitak  Bay 145 

Chirikof  Island 146 

Semidi  Islands 147 

Alaska  Peninsula 147 

Directions,    Cape   Ikti  to   Cape 

Kalekta 148 

Shaw  Island  to  Takli  Island ....  152 

Takli  Island  to  Cape  Ikti 156 

ChignikBay 157 

Cape  Ikti  to  Kupreanof  Point. . .  161 
Kupreanof  Point  to  Cape  Aliak- 

sin 164 

Shumagin  Islands 166 

Simeonof  Island 166 

Little  Koniuji  Island 167 

Chernabura  Island 168 

Bird  Island 168 

Big  Koniuji  Island 168 

East  Nagai  Strait 169 

Nagai  Island 170 

West  Nagai  Strait 173 

Andronica  Island 174 

Gorman  Strait 174 

Korovin  Island..  174 


Page. 

Alaska  Peninsula — Continued. 
Shumagin  Islands — Continued. 

Karpa  Island 175 

Popof  Island 175 

Popof  Strait 176 

Directions,  Popof  Strait 176 

Unga  Island 178 

ZacharyBay 181 

Unga  Strait 181 

Cape  Aliaksin  to  Belkofski 182 

Pavlof  Islands 183 

Belkofski  to  Ikatan  Bay 185 

Sannak  Islands 187 

Ikatan  Bay  and  Isanotski  Strait.  191 

Ikatan  Peninsula 192 

Unimak   Island,  Otter  Cove  to 

Cape  Sarichef 194 

Aleutian  Islands 196 

Fox  Islands  and  Passes 196 

Directions,  Unimak  Pass 198 

Ugamak  Island 199 

Tigalda  Island 200 

Avatanak  Island 200 

Rootok  Island 201 

Akun  Island 201 

Akutan  Island 202 

Akutan  Pass 204 

Directions,  Akutan  Pass 204 

Unalga  Island 205 

Unalga  Pass 205 

Directions,  Unalga  Pass 205 

Unalaska  Island 206 

Beaver  Inlet 206 

English  Bay..... 207 

KalektaBay 208 

Unalaska  Bay 208 

Dutch  Harbor 209 

Iliuliuk  Harbor 210 

Directions,  Unalaska  Bay 211 

North   coast   of  Unalaska   Is- 
land   213 

South   coast  of  Unalaska   Is- 
land   214 

Umnak  Pass 215 

Bogoslof  Island 215 

Umnak  Island 216 

Islands  of  Four  Mountains 217 

Yunaska,  Amukta,  and  Chagu- 

lak  Islands 218 

Seguam  Island 218 

Andreanof  Islands 218 

Adak  Island 220 

Rat  Islands...  222 


CONTENTS. 


Aleutian  Islands — Continued.  Page. 

Kiska  Island 222 

Buldir  Island 223 

Agattu  Island 224 

Attu  Island 224 

Bering  Sea 224 

Bristol  Bay 229 

Coast   from   Unimak   Pass   to 

PortMoller 229 

PortMoller 231 

Herendeen  Bay 232 

Port  Moller  to  Kvichak  River.  233 

Kvichak  Bay  and  River 236 

Nushagak  Bay  and  River 238 

Directions,  Nushagak  Bay  and 

River 243 

Cape     Constantino     to     Cape 

Newenham 245 

Kuskokwim  Bay  and  River 246 

Currents,  Kuskokwim  Bay  and 

River 250 

Directions,  Kuskokwim  Bay  and 

River 251 

Pribilof  Islands 254 

St.  George  Island 254 

Otter  Island 255 

Walrus  Island 255 

St.  Paul  Island 255 

Nunivak  Island. .                    257 


Bering  Sea — Continued.  Page. 

St.     Matthew     and     adjoining 

islands 259 

Cape  Vancouver  to  Apoon  Pass  .  260 

St.  Lawrence  Island 263 

Norton  Sound 265 

St.  Michael 266 

St.  Michael  Bay  to  Cape  Darby.  266 

Golofnin  Bay 267 

Rocky  Point  to  Cape  Nome. . .  268 

Directions,  Unimak  Pass  or  Cape 
Kalekta  to   Norton   Sound  or 

Port  Clarence 269 

Directions,  Isanotski  Strait  to  St. 

Michael 270 

Coast  from  St.  Michael  to  Apoon 

Pass 271 

Apoon  Pass 273 

Coast  from  Cape  Nome  to  Bering 

Strait 274 

Port  Clarence 276 

Directions,  Port  Clarence 277 

Arctic  Ocean 277 

Kotzebue  Sound 282 

Hotham  Inlet 284 

Kotzebue  Sound  to  Point  Bar- 
row   285 

Coast  Eastward  of  Point  Barrow.  289 

INDEX..  291 


NOTE. 

The  courses  and  bearings  given  in  degrees  are  true,  reading  clock- 
wise from  0°  at  north  to  360°,  and  are  followed  by  the  equivalent 
magnetic  value  in  points  in  parentheses.  General  directions,  such  as 
northeastward,  west-southwestward,  etc.,  are  magnetic. 

Distances  are  in  nautical  miles,  and  may  be  converted  approxi- 
mately to  statute  miles  by  adding  15  per  cent  to  the  distances  given. 

Currents  are  expressed  in  knots,  which  are  nautical  miles  per  hour. 

Except  where  otherwise  stated,  all  depths  are  at  mean  lower  low 
water. 

Supplements  and  other  corrections  for  this  volume  are  issued  from 
time  to  time,  and  will  be  furnished,  free  of  charge,  on  application  to 
the  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey,  Washington,  D.  C.,  provided  the 
volume  itself  has  not  been  superseded  by  a  subsequent  edition. 
3 


UNITED  STATES  COAST  PILOT. 


ALASKA— PART  II— YAKUTAT  BAY  TO  ARCTIC  OCEAN. 


NAVIGATIONAL  AIDS  AND  THE  USE  OF  CHARTS. 

The  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey  is  charged  with  the  survey  of  the 
coasts,  harbors,  and  tidal  estuaries  of  the  United  States  and  its  insu- 
lar possessions  and  issues  the  following  publications  relating  to  these 
waters  as  guides  to  navigation:  Charts,  Coast  Pilots,  Tide  Tables,  a 
catalogue  of  these  publications,  and  Notice  to  Mariners,  the  last 
named  published  weekly  by  the  Bureau  of  Lighthouses  and  Coast 
and  Geodetic  Survey. 

Charts  bear  three  dates  which  should  be  understood  by  persons 
using  them — (1)  the  date  (month  and  year)  of  the  edition,  printed  on 
the  late  charts  below  the  border  in  a  central  position  and  on  the 
older  ones  on  the  face  of  the  chart;  (2)  the  date  of  the  latest  correc- 
tion to  the  chart  plate,  printed  in  the  lower  left-hand  corner  below 
the  border;  (3)  the  date  of  issue,  stamped  below  the  border  and  just 
to  the  left  of  the  subtitle. 

Charts  show  all  necessary  corrections  as  to  lights,  beacons,  buoys, 
and  dangers,  which  have  been  received  to  the  date  of  issue,  being  hand 
corrected  since  the  latest  date  printed  in  the  lower  left-hand  corner. 
All  small  but  important  corrections  occurring  subsequent  to  the  date 
of  issue  of  the  chart  are  published  in  Notices  to  Mariners,  and  should 
be  applied  by  hand  to  the  chart  immediately  after  the  receipt  of  the 
notices. 

The  date  of  the  edition  of  the  chart  remains  unchanged  until  an 
extensive  correction  is  made  on  the  plate  from  which  the  chart  is 
printed.  The  date  is  then  changed  and  the  issue  is  known  as  a  new 
edition. 

When  a  correction,  not  of  sufficient  importance  to  require  a  new 
edition,  is  made  to  a  chart  plate,  the  year,  month,  and  day  are  noted 
in  the*wwer  left-hand  corner. 

All  the  notes  on  a  chart  should  be  read  carefully,  as  in  some  cases 
they  relate  to  the  aids  to  navigation  or  to  dangers  that  can  not  be 
clearly  charted. 

The  charts  are  various  in  character,  according  to  the  objects  which 
they  are  designed  to  subserve.  The  most  important  distinctions  are 
the  following: 

1.  Sailing  charts,  mostly  on  a  scale  of  approximately  17200,000 
which  exhibit  the  approaches  to  a  large  extent  of  coast,  give  the 
offshore  soundings,  and  enable  the  navigator  to  identify  his  position 
as  he  approaches  from  the  open  sea. 

9 


10  NAVIGATIONAL  AIDS. 

2.  General  charts  of  the  coast,  on  scales  of  40o?ooo  and  20o?ooo 
intended  especially  for  coastwise  navigation. 

3.  Coast  charts,  on  a  scale  of  80j^00,  by  means  of  which  the  navi- 
gator is  enabled  to  avail  himself  of  the  channels  for  entering  the 
larger  bays  and  harbors. 

4.  Harbor  charts,  on  larger  scales,  intended  to  meet  the  needs  of 
local  navigation. 

COAST  PILOTS,  relating  to  the  surveyed  waters  of  the  United  States, 
Porto  Rico,  and  a  part  of  Alaska,  and  Sailing  Directions  of  the 
Philippine  Islands,  contain  full  nautical  descriptions  of  the  coast, 
harbors,  dangers,  and  directions  for  coasting  and  entering  harbors. 
Similar  information  relating  to  parts  of  Alaska  and  Hawaii  is  pub- 
lished in  Coast  Pilot  Notes. 

Coast  Pilots  are  corrected  for  important  information  received  to 
the  date  of  issue,  which  is  stamped  on  the  correction  sheets  accom- 
panying the  volume.  From  time  to  time,  as  the  material  accumu- 
lates, supplements  are  issued,  containing  the  more  important  cor- 
rections since  the  publication  of  the  volume.  The  supplements  are 
printed  on  one  side  of  the  paper  only,  so  that  they  may  be  cut  and 
pasted  in  the  appropriate  places  in  the  volume.  Supplements  and 
other  corrections  for  any  volume  can  be  furnished,  free  of  charge, 
on  application  to  the  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey,  Washington,  D.  C., 
provided  the  volume  itself  has  not  been  superseded  by  a  subsequent 
edition. 

TIDE  TABLES. — The  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey  Tide  Tables  are 
issued  annually  in  advance  of  the  year  for  which  they  are  made,  and 
contain  the  predicted  time  and  height  of  the  tides  for  each  day  in  the 
year  at  the  principal  ports  of  the  world,  including  the  United  States 
and  its  possessions.  A  table  of  tidal  differences  is  given  by  means 
of  which  the  tides  at  more  than  3,000  intermediate  ports  may  be 
obtained.  Separate  reprints  from  the  general  Tide  Tables  are  issued 
for  the  Atlantic  and  Pacific  coasts  of  the  United  States  and  its 
dependencies. 

AGENCIES  for  the  sale  of  the  Charts,  Coast  Pilots,  and  Tide  Tables 
of  the  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey  are  established  in  many  ports  of 
the  United  States  and  in  some  foreign  ports.  They  can  also  be 
purchased  in  the  office  of  the  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey,  Washing- 
ton, D.  C.,  or  any  of  the  suboffices  of  the  Survey.  If  ordered  by 
mail,  prepayment  is  obligatory.  Remittances  should  be  made  by 
postal  money  order  or  express  order,  payable  to  the  "Coast  and 
Geodetic  Survey."  Postage  stamps,  checks,  and  drafts  can  not  be 
accepted.  The  sending  of  money  in  an  unregistered  letter  is  unsafe. 
Only  catalogue  numbers  of  charts  need  be  mentioned.  Th«  cata- 
logue of  charts  and  other  publications  of  the  Survey  can  be  obtained 
free  of  charge  on  application  at  any  of  the  sale  agencies  or  to  the 
Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey  Office,  Washington,  D.  C. 

OTHER  PUBLICATIONS. — Lists  of  Lights,  Buoys,  and  other  Day- 
marks  of  the  United  States,  its  insular  possessions,  and  the  Great 
Lakes,  are  published  by  the  Bureau  of  Lighthouses.  Notice  to 
Mariners,  relating  to  the  same  waters,  are  published  weekly  by  the 
Bureau  of  Lighthouses  and  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey.  These  pub- 
lications can  be  obtained  free  of  charge  on  application  to  the  Divi- 
sion of  Publications,  Department  of  Commerce,  Washington,  D.  C. 


NAVIGATIONAL   AIDS.  11 

USE   OF   CHARTS. 

ACCURACY  OF  CHART. — The  value  of  a  chart  depends  upon  the  char- 
acter and  accuracy  of  the  survey  on  which  it  is  based,  and  the  larger 
the  scale  of  the  chart  the  more  important  do  these  become.  In  these 
respects  the  source  from  which  the  information  has  been  compiled  is 
a  good  guide. 

This  applies  particularly  to  the  charts  of  the  Alaska  Peninsula, 
Aleutian  Islands,  Arctic  Ocean,  and  part  of  Bering  Sea  and  the 
Philippine  Islands.  The  early  Russian  and  Spanish  surveys  were 
not  made  with  great  accuracy,  and  until  they  are  replaced  by  later 
surveys  these  charts  must  be  used  with  caution. 

With  respect  to  these  regions  the  fullness  or  scantiness  of  the 
soundings  is  another  method  of  estimating  the  completeness  of  a 
chart.  When  the  soundings  are  sparse  or  unevenly  distributed  it 
may  be  taken  for  granted  that  the  survey  was  not  in  great  detail. 

A  wide  berth  should  therefore,  be  given  to  every  rocky  shore  or 
patch,  and  this  rule  should  invariably  be  followed,  viz,  that  instead 
of  considering  a  coast  to  be  clear  unless  it  is  shown  to  be  foul,  the 
contrary  should  be  assumed. 

With  respect  to  a  well-surveyed  coast  only  a  fractional  part  of  the 
soundings  obtained  are  shown  on  the  chart,  a  sufficient  number  being 
selected  to  clearly  indicate  the  contour  of  the  bottom.  When  the 
bottom  is  uneven  the  soundings  will  be  found  grouped  closely  to- 
gether, and  when  the  slopes  are  gradual  fewer  soundings  are  given. 
Each  sounding  represents  an  actual  measure  of  depth  and  location 
at  the  time  the  survey  was  made. 

Shores  and  shoals  where  sand  and  mud  prevail,  and  especially  bar 
harbors  and  the  entrances  of  bays  and  rivers  exposed  to  strong  tidal 
currents  and  a  heavy  sea,  are  subject  to  continual  change  of  a  greater 
or  less  extent,  and  important  ones  may  have  taken  place  since  the 
date  of  the  last  survey.  In  localities  which  are  noted  for  frequent 
and  radical  changes,  such  as  the  entrance  to  a  number  of  estuaries  on 
the  Atlantic,  Gulf,  and  Pacific  coasts,  notes  are  printed  on  the  charts 
calling  attention  to  the  fact. 

It  should  also  be  remembered,  that  in  coral  regions  and  where  rocks 
abound  it  is  always  possible  that  a  survey  with  lead  and  line,  however 
detailed,  may  have  failed  to  find  every  small  obstruction.  For  these 
reasons  when  navigating  such  waters  the  customary  sailing  lines  and 
channels  should  be  followed,  and  those  areas  avoided  where  the  irregular 
and  sudden  changes  in  depth  indicate  conditions  which  are  associated 
with  pinnacle  rocks  or  coral  heads. 

DREDGED  CHANNELS. — These  are  generally  shown  on  the  chart 
by  two  broken  lines  to  represent  the  side  limits  of  the  improvement. 
Before  completion  of  the  project  the  depth  given  is  that  shown  by  the 
latest  survey  received  from  the  engineer  in  charge.  Alter  completion 
the  depth  given  is  the  one  proposed  to  be  maintained  by  redredging 
when  necessary. 

The  actual  depth  of  a  completed  channel  may  be  greater  than  the 
charted  depth  shortly  after  dredging,  and  less  when  shoaling  occurs 
as  a  result  of  storms  or  other  causes.  These  changes  are  of  too 
frequent  occurrence  and  uncertain  duration  to  chart.  Therefore 
when  a  vessel's  draft  approximates  the  charted  depth  of  a  dredged 
channel,  the  latest  information  should  be  obtained  before  entering. 


12  NAVIGATIONAL  AIDS. 

DANGER  CURVES. — The  curves  of  depth  will  be  found  useful  in 
giving  greater  prominence  to  outlying  dangers.  It  is  a  good  plan 
to  trace  out  with  a  colored  pencil  the  curve  next  greater  than  the 
draft  of  the  vessel  using  the  chart,  and  regard  this  as  a  "danger 
curve,"  which  is  not  to  be  crossed  without  precaution. 

Isolated  soundings  shoaler  than  surrounding  depths  should  be 
avoided,  as  there  is  always  the  possibility  that  the  shoalest  spot 
may  not  have  been  found. 

CAUTION  IN  USING  SMALL-SCALE  CHARTS. — It  is  obvious  that 
dangers  to  navigation  can  not  be  shown  with  the  same  amount  of 
detail  on  small-scale  charts  as  on  those  of  larger  scale,  therefore  in 
approaching  the  land  or  dangerous  banks  regard  should  be  had  to 
the  scale  of  the  chart  used.  A  small  error  in  laying  down  a  position 
means  only  yards  on  a  large-scale  chart,  whereas  on  a  small  scale 
the  same  amount  of  displacement  means  large  fractions  of  a  mile. 

For  the  same  reason,  bearings  to  near  objects  should  be  used  in 
preference  to  objects  farther  off,  although  the  latter  may  be  more 
prominent,  as  a  small  error  in  bearing  or  in  laying  it  down  on  the 
chart  has  a  greater  effect  in  misplacing  the  position  the  longer  the 
line  to  be  drawn. 

DISTORTION  OF  PRINTED  CHARTS. — The  paper  on  which  charts 
are  printed  has  to  be  dampened.  On  drying,  distortion  takes  place 
from  the  inequalities  in  the  paper,  which  varies  with  the  paper  and 
the  amount  of  the  original  dampening;  but  it  is  not  sufficient  to 
affect  ordinary  navigation.  It  must  not,  however,  be  expected 
that  accurate  series  of  angles  taken  to  different  points  will  always 
exactly  agree,  when  carefully  plotted  upon  the  chart,  especially  if 
the  lines  to  objects  be  long.  The  larger  the  chart  the  greater  the 
amount  of  this  distortion. 

BUOYS. — Too  much  reliance  should  not  be  placed  on  buoys  always 
maintaining  their  exact  position,  especially  when  in  exposed  posi- 
tions; it  is  safer,  when  possible,  to  navigate  by  bearings  or  angles 
to  fixed  objects  on  shore  and  by  the  use  of  soundings. 

GAS  BUOYS  and  other  unwatched  lights  can  not  be  implicitly  relied 
on;  the  light  may  be  altogether  extinguished,  or,  if  intermittent, 
the  apparatus  may  get  out  of  order. 

LIGHTS. — The  distances  given  in  the  light  lists  and  on  the  charts 
for  the  visibility  of  lights  are  computed  for  a  height  of  15  feet  for 
the  observer's  eye.  The  table  of  distances  of  visibility  due  to  height, 
published  in  the  Light  List,  affords  a  means  of  ascertaining  the  effect 
of  a  greater  or  less  height  of  the  eye.  The  glare  of  a  powerful  light 
is  often  seen  far  beyond  the  limit  of  visibility  of  the  actual  rays  of 
the  light,  but  this  must  not  be  confounded  with  the  true  range. 
Again,  refraction  may  often  cause  a  light  to  be  seen  farther  than 
under  ordinary  circumstances. 

When  looking  for  a  light,  the  fact  may  be  forgotten  that  from  aloft 
the  range  of  vision  is  increased.  By  noting  a  star  immediately  over 
the  light  a  bearing  may  be  afterwards  obtained  from  the  standard 
compass. 

The  actual  power  of  a  light  should  be  considered  when  expecting 
to  make  it  in  thick  weather.  A  weak  light  is  easily  obscured  by 
haze,  and  no  dependence  can  be  placed  on  its  being  seen. 

The  power  of  a  light  can  be  estimated  by  its  candlepower  as  given 
in  the  light  lists  and  in  some  cases  by  noting  how  much  its  visibility 


NAVIGATIONAL  AIDS.  13 

in  clear  weather  falls  short  of  the  range  due  to  the  height  at  which  it 
is  placed.  Thus  a  light  standing  200  feet  above  the  sea  and  recorded 
as  visible  only  10  miles  in  clear  weather  is  manifestly  of  little  bril- 
liancy, as  its  height  would  permit  it  to  be  seen  over  20  miles  if  of  suffi- 
cient power. 

FOG  SIGNALS. — Sound  is  conveyed  in  a  very  capricious  way  through 
the  atmosphere.  Apart  from  the  wind,  large  areas  of  silence  have 
been  found  in  different  directions  and  at  different  distances  from  the 
origin  of  the  sound  signal,  even  in  clear  weather.  Therefore  too 
much  confidence  should  not  be  felt  as  to  hearing  a  fog  signal.  The 
apparatus,  moreover,  for  sounding  the  signal  may  require  some  time 
before  it  is  in  readiness  to  act.  A  fog  often  creeps  imperceptibly 
toward  the  land  and  is  not  observed  by  those  at  a  lighthouse  until 
it  is  upon  them,  whereas  a  vessel  may  have  been  in  it  for  many  hours 
while  approaching  the  land.  In  such  a  case  no  signal  may  be 
sounded.  When  sound  travels  against  the  wind,  it  may  be  thrown 
upward;  in  such  a  case  a  man  aloft  might  hear  it  when  it  is  inaudi- 
ble on  deck.  The  conditions  for  hearing  a  signal  will  vary  at  the 
same  station  within  short  intervals  of  time;  mariners  must  not,  there- 
fore, judge  their  distance  from  a  fog  signal  by  the  force  of  the  sound 
and  must  not  assume  that  a  signal  is  not  sounding  because  they  do 
not  hear  it. 

Taken  together,  these  facts  should  induce  the  utmost  caution  when 
nearing  the  land  or  danger  in  fog.  The  lead  is  generally  the  only 
safe  guide  and  should  be  faithfully  used. 

SUBMAEINE  BELLS  have  an  effective  range  of  audibility  greater 
than  signals  sounded  in  air,  and  a  vessel  equipped  with  receiving 
apparatus  can  determine  the  approximate  bearing  of  the  signal. 
These  signals  can  be  heard  also  on  vessels  not  equipped  with  receiv- 
ing apparatus  by  observers  below  the  water  line,  but  a  bearing  of 
the  signal  can  not  then  be  readily  determined. 

TIDES. — A  knowledge  of  the  tide,  or  vertical  rise  and  fall  of  the 
water,  is  of  great  and  direct  importance  whenever  the  depth  at  low 
water  approximates  to  or  is  less  than  the  draft  of  the  vessel  and 
wherever  docks  are  constructed  so  as  to  be  entered  and  left  near  the 
time  of  high  water.  But  under  all  conditions  such  knowledge  may 
be  of  indirect  use,  as  it  often  enables  the  mariner  to  estimate  in 
advance  whether  at  a  given  time  and  place  the  current  will  be  run- 
ning flood  or  ebb.  In  using  the  tables  slack  water  should  not  be 
confounded  with  high  or  low  tide  nor  a  flood  or  ebb  current  with 
flood  or  ebb  tide.  In  some  localities  the  rise  or  fall  may  be  at  a 
stand  while  the  current  is  at  its  maximum  velocity. 

THE  TIDE  TABLES  published  by  the  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey 
give  the  predicted  times  and  heights  of  high  and  low  waters  for  most 
of  the  principal  ports  of  the  world  and  tidal  differences  and  constants 
for  obtaining  the  tides  at  all  important  ports. 

PLANE  OF  REFERENCE  FOR  SOUNDINGS  ON  CHARTS. — For  the  Atlan- 
tic coast  of  the  United  States  and  Porto  Rico  the  plane  of  refer- 
ence for  soundings  is  the  mean  of  all  low  waters;  for  the  Pacific 
coast  of  the  United  States  and  Alaska,  with  the  two  exceptions  noted 
below,  and  for  the  Hawaiian  and  Philippine  Islands,  it  is  the  mean 
of  the  lower  low  waters.  For  Puget  Sound,  Wash.,  the  plane  of  ref- 
erence is  2  feet  below  mean  lower  low  water  and  for  Wrangell  Strait, 
Alaska,  it  is  3  feet  below  mean  lower  low  water. 


14  NAVIGATIONAL  AIDS. 

For  the  Atlantic  coast  of  the  Canal  Zone,  Panama,  the -plane  of 
reference  for  soundings  is  mean  low  water,  and  for  the  Pacific  coast 
of  the  same  it  is  low-water  springs. 

For  foreign  charts  many  different  planes  of  reference  are  in  use, 
but  that  most  frequently  adopted  is  low-water  springs. 

It  should  be  remembered  that  whatever  plane  of  reference  is  used 
for  a  chart  there  may  be  times  when  the  tide  falls  below  it.  When 
the  plane  is  mean  low  water  or  mean  lower  low  water  there  will 
generally  be  as  many  low  waters  or  lower  low  waters  below  those 
planes  as  above  them.  Also  the  wind  may  at  times  cause  the  water 
to  fall  below  the  plane  of  reference. 

TIDAL  CURRENTS. — In  navigating  coasts  where  the  tidal  range  is 
considerable  special  caution  is  necessary.  It  should  be  remembered 
that  there  are  indrafts  into  all  bays  and  bights,  although  the  general 
set  of  the  current  is  parallel  to  the  shore. 

The  turn  of  the  tidal  current  offshore  is  seldom  coincident  with  the 
time  of  high  and  low  water  on  the  shore. 

At  the  entrance  to  most  harbors  without  important  tributaries  or 
branches  the  current  turns  at  or  soon  after  the  times  of  high  and  low 
water  within.  The  diurnal  inequality  in  the  velocity  of  current  will 
be  proportionately  but  half  as  great  as  in  the  height  of  the  tides. 
Hence,  though  the  heights  of  the  tide  may  be  such  as  to  cause  the 
surface  of  the  water  to  vary  but  little  in  level  for  10  or  12  hours,  the 
ebb  and  flow  will  be  much  more  regular  in  occurrence. 

A  swift  current  often  occurs  in  narrow  openings  between  two 
bodies  of  water,  because  the  water  at  a  given  instant  may  be  at 
different  levels. 

Along  most  shores  not  seriously  affected  by  bays,  tidal  rivers,  etc., 
the  current  usually  turns  soon  after  high  and  low  waters. 

Where  there  is  a  large  tidal  basin  with  a  narrow  entrance,  the 
strength  of  the  current  in  the  entrance  may  occur  near  the  time  of 
high  and  low  water,  and  slack  water  at  about  half  tide,  outside. 

The  swiftest  current  in  straight  portions  of  tidal  rivers  is  usually 
in  the  mid-channel,  but  in  curved  portions  the  strongest  current  is 
toward  the  outer  edge  of  the  curve. 

Counter  currents  and  eddies  may  occur  near  the  shores  of  straits, 
especially  in  bights  and  near  points. 

TIDE  KIPS  AND  SWIRLS  occur  in  places  where  strong  currents  occur, 
caused  by  a  change  in  the  direction  of  the  current,  and  especially  over 
shoals  or  in  places  where  the  bottom  is  uneven.  Such  places  should 
be  avoided  if  exposed  also  to  a  heavy  sea,  especially  with  the  wind 
opposing  the  current;  when  these  conditions  are  at  their  worst  the 
water  is  broken  into  heavy  choppy  seas  from  all  directions,  which 
board  the  vessel,  and  also  make  it  difficult  to  keep  control,  owing  to 
the  bearing  of  the  propeller  and  rudder. 

CURRENT  ARROWS  on  charts  show  only  the  usual  or  mean  direction 
of  a  tidal  stream  or  current.  It  must  not  be  assumed  that  the  direc- 
tion of  the  current  will  not  vary  from  that  indicated  by  the  arrow. 
In  the  same  manner,  the  velocity  of  the  current  constantly  varies 
with  circumstances,  and  the  rate  given  on  the  chart  is  a  mean  value, 
corresponding  to  an  average  range  of  tide.  At  some  stations  but  few 
observations  have  been  made. 

FIXING  POSITION. — The  most  accurate  method  available  to  the 
navigator  of  fixing  a  position  relative  to  the  shore  is  by  plotting  with 


NAVIGATIONAL  AIDS.  15 

a  protractor  sextant  angles  between  well-defined  objects  on  the  chart; 
this  method,  based  on  the  "three-point  problem"  of  geometry, 
should  be  in  general  use. 

In  many  narrow  waters,  also,  where  the  objects  may  yet  be  at  some 
distance,  as  in  coral  harbors  or  narrow  passages  among  mud  banks, 
navigation  by  sextant  and  protractor  is  invaluable,  as  a  true  position 
can  in  general  be  obtained  only  by  its  means.  Positions  by  bearings 
are  too  rough  to  depend  upon,  and  a  small  error  in  either  taking  or 
plotting  a  bearing  might  under  such  circumstances  put  the  ship 
ashore. 

For  its  successful  employment  it  is  necessary:  First,  that  the  ob- 
jects be  well  chosen;  and,  second,  that  the  observer  be  skillful  and 
rapid  in  his  use  of  the  sextant.  The  latter  is  only  a  matter  of 
practice. 

Near  objects  should  be  used  either  for  bearings  or  angles  for  posi- 
tion in  preference  to  distant  ones,  although  the  latter  may  be  more 
prominent,  as  a  small  error  in  the  bearing  or  angle  or  in  laying  it  on 
the  chart  has  a  greater  effect  in  misplacing  the  position  the  longer 
the  line  to  be  drawn. 

On  the  other  hand,  distant  objects  should  be  used  for  direction 
because  less  affected  by  a  small  error  or  change  of  position. 

The  three-arm  protractor  consists  of  a  graduated  circle  with  one 
fixed  and  two  movable  radial  arms.  The  zero  of  the  graduation  is  at 
the  fixed  arm  and  by  turning  the  movable  arms  each  one  can  be  set 
at  any  desired  angle  with  reference  to  the  fixed  arm. 

To  plot  a  position,  the  two  angles  observed  between  the  three 
selected  objects  are  set  on  the  instrument,  which  is  then  moved  over 
the  chart  until  the  three  beveled  edges  in  case  of  a  metal  instrument, 
or  the  radial  lines  in  the  case  of  a  transparent  or  celluloid  instru- 
ment, pass  respectively  and  simultaneously  through  the  three  objects. 
The  center  of  the  instrument  will  then  mark  the  ship's  position, 
which  may  be  pricked  on  the  chart  or  marked  with  a  pencil  point 
through  the  center  hole. 

The  tracing-paper  protractor,  consisting  of  a  graduated  circle 
printed  on  tracing  paper,  can  be  used  as  a  substitute  for  the  brass  or 
celluloid  instrument.  The  paper  protractor  also  permits  the  laying 
down  for  simultaneous  trial  of  a  number  of  angles  in  cases  of  fixing 
important  positions.  Plain  tracing  paper  may  also  be  used  if  there 
are  any  suitable  means  of  laying  off  the  angles. 

The  value  of  a  determination  depends  greatly  on  the  relative  posi- 
tions of  the  objects  observed.  If  the  position  sought  lies  on  the  circle 
passing  through  the  three  objects  it  will  be  indeterminate,  as  it  will 
plot  afl  around  the  circle.  An  approach  to  this  condition,  which  is 
called  a  revolver,  must  be  avoided.  In  case  of  doubt  select  from  the 
chart  three  objects  nearly  in  a  straight  line,  or  with  the  middle  object 
nearest  the  observer.  Near  objects  are  better  than  distant  ones,  and, 
in  general,  up  to  90°  the  larger  the  angles  the  better,  remembering 
always  that  large  as  well  as  small  angles  may  plot  on  or  near  the  circle 
and  hence  be  worthless.  If  the  objects  are  well  situated,  even  very 
small  angles  will  give  for  navigating  purposes  a  fair  position,  when 
that  obtained  by  bearings  of  the  same  objects  would  be  of  little  value. 

Accuracy  requires  that  the  two  angles  be  simultaneous.  If  under 
way  and  there  is  but  one  observer,  the  angle  that  changes  less  rapidly 


16  NAVIGATIONAL  AIDS. 

may  be  observed  both  before  and  after  the  other  angle  and  the  proper 
value  obtained  by  interpolation. 

A  single  angle  and  a  range  give  in  general  an  excellent  fix,  easily 
obtained  and  plotted. 

THE  COMPASS. — It  is  not  intended  that  the  use  of  the  compass  to 
fix  the  position  should  be  given  up;  there  are  many  circumstances 
in  which  it  may  be  usefully  employed,  but  errors  more  readily  creep 
into  a  position  so  fixed.  Where  accuracy  of  position  is  desired, 
angles  should  invariably  be  used,  such  as  the  fixing  of  a  rock  or 
shoal,  or  of  additions  to  a  chart,  as  fresh  soundings  or  new  build- 
ings. In  such  cases  angles  should  be  taken  to  several  objects,  the 
more  the  better;  but  five  objects  is  a  good  number,  as  the  four  angles 
thus  obtained  prevent  any  errors. 

When  only  two  objects  are  visible,  a  sextant  angle  can  be  used  to 
advantage  with  the  compass  bearings  and  a  better  fix  obtained  than 
by  two  bearings  alone. 

DOUBLING  THE  ANGLE  ON  THE  Bow. — The  method  of  fixing  by 
doubling  the  angle  on  the  bow  is  invaluable.  The  ordinary  form  of 
it,  the  so-called  "bow  and  beam  bearing,"  the  distance  from  the 
object  at  the  latter  position  being  the  distance  run  between  the  times 
of  taking  the  two  bearings,  gives  the  maximum  of  accuracy,  and  is  an 
excellent  fix  for  a  departure,  but  does  not  insure  safety,  as  the  object 
observed  and  any  dangers  off  it  are  abeam  before  the  position  is 
obtained. 

By  taking  the  bearings  at  two  points  and  four  points  on  the  bow,  a 
fair  position  is  obtained  before  the  object  is  passed,  the  distance  of 
the  latter  at  the  second  position  being,  as  before,  equal  to  the  distance 
run  in  the  interval,  allowing  for  current.  Taking  afterwards  the 
beam  bearing  gives,  with  slight  additional  trouble,  the  distance  of  the 
object  when  abeam :  such  beam  bearings  and  distances,  with  the  times, 
should  be  continuously  recorded  as  fresh  departures,  the  importance 
of  which  will  be  appreciated  in  cases  of  being  suddenly  shut  in  by  fog. 

A  graphic  solution  of  the  problem  for  any  two  bearings  of  the  same 
object  is  frequently  used.  The  two  bearings  are  drawn  on  the  chart, 
and  the  course  is  then  drawn  by  means  of  the  parallel  rulers  so  that 
the  distance  measured  from  the  chart  between  the  lines  is  equal  to 
the  distance  made  good  by  tiie  vessel  between  the  times  of  taking  the 
bearings. 

DANGER  ANGLE. — The  utility  of  the  danger  angle  in  passing  out- 
lying rocks  or  dangers  should  not  be  forgotten.  In  employing  the 
horizontal  danger  angle,  however,  charts  compiled  from  early  Rus- 
sian and  Spanish  sources,  referred  to  in  a  preceding  paragraph, 
should  not  be  used. 

SOUNDINGS. — In  thick  weather,  when  near,  or  approaching  the  land 
or  danger,  soundings  should  be  taken  continuously  and  at  regular 
intervals,  and,  with  the  character  of  the  bottom,  systematically 
recorded.  By  marking  the  soundings  on  tracing  paper,  according  to 
the  scale  of  the  chart,  along  a  line  representing  the  track  of  the  ship, 
and  then  moving  the  paper  over  the  chart  parallel  with  the  course 
until  the  observed  soundings  agree  with  those  of  the  chart,  the  ship's 
position  will  in  general  be  quite  well  determined. 

SUMNER'S  METHOD. — Among  astronomical  methods  of  fixing  a 
ship's  position  the  great  utility  of  Sumner's  method  should  be  well 


NAVIGATIONAL   AIDS.  17 

understood,  and  this  method  should  be  in  constant  use.  The  Sumner 
line — that  is,  the  line  drawn  through  the  two  positions  obtained  by 
working  the  chronometer  observation  for  longitude  with  two  assumed 
latitudes,  or  by  drawing  through  the  position  obtained  with  one  lati- 
tude a  line  at  right  angles  to  the  bearing  of  the  body  as  obtained  from 
the  azimuth  tables — gives  at  times  invaluable  information,  as  the 
ship  must  be  somewhere  on  that  line,  provided  the  chronometer  is 
correct.  If  directed  toward  the  coast,  it  marks  the  bearing  of  a  defi- 
nite point;  if  parallel  with  the  coast,  the  distance  of  the  latter  is 
shown.  Thus  the  direction  of  the  line  may  often  be  usefully  taken 
as  a  course.  A  sounding  at  the  same  time  with  the  observation  may 
often  give  an  approximate  position  on  the  line.  A  very  accurate 
position  can  be  obtained  by  observing  two  or  more  stars  at  morning 
or  evening  twilight,  at  which  time  the  horizon  is  well  defined.  The 
Sumner  lines  thus  obtained  will,  if  the  bearings  of  the  stars  differ 
three  points  or  more,  give  an  excellent  result.  A  star  or  planet  at 
twilight  and  the  sun  afterwards  or -before  may  be  combined;  also  two 
observations  of  the  sun  with  sufficient  interval  to  admit  of  a  consid- 
erable change  of  bearing.  In  these  cases  one  of  the  lines  must  be 
moved  for  the  run  of  the  ship.  The  moon  is  often  visible  during  the 
day  and  in  combination  with  the  sun  gives  an  excellent  fix. 

CHANGE  OF  VARIATION  OF  THE  COMPASS. — The  gradual  change 
in  the  variation  must  not  be  forgotten  in  laying  down  positions  by 
bearings  on  charts.  The  magnetic  compasses  placed  on  the  charts 
for  the  purpose  of  facilitating  plotting  become  in  time  slightly  in 
error,  and  in  some  cases,  such  as  with  small  scales,  or  when  the  lines 
are  long,  the  displacement  of  position  from  neglect  of  this  change  may 
be  of  importance.  The  compasses  are  reengraved  for  every  new  edi- 
tion if  the  error  is  appreciable.  Means  for  determining  the  amount  of 
this  error  are  provided  by  printing  the  date  of  constructing  the  com- 
pass and  the  annual  change  in  variation  near  its  edge. 

The  change  in  the  magnetic  variation  in  passing  along  some  parts 
of  the  coast  of  the  United  States  is  so  rapid  as  to  materially  affect 
the  course  of  a  vessel  unless  given  constant  attention.  This  is  par- 
ticularly the  case  in  New  England  and  parts  of  Alaska,  where  the 
lines  of  equal  magnetic  variation  are  close  together  and  show  rapid 
changes  in  magnetic  variation  from  place  to  place,  as  indicated  by 
the  large  differences  in  variation  given  on  neighboring  compass  roses. 

LOCAL  MAGNETIC  DISTURBANCE. — The  term  "local  magnetic  dis- 
turbance" or  "local  attraction"  has  reference  only  to  the  effects  on 
the  compass  of  magnetic  masses  external  to  the  ship.  Observation 
shows  that  such  disturbance  of  the  compass  in  a  ship  afloat  is  expe- 
rienced only  in  a  few  places. 

Magnetic  laws  do  not  permit  of  the  supposition  that  it  is  the  visible 
land  which  causes  such  disturbance,  because  the  effect  of  a  magnetic 
force  diminishes  in  such  rapid  proportion  as  the  distance  from  it 
increases  that  it  would  require  a  local  center  of  magnetic  force  of  an 
amount  absolutely  unknown  to  affect  a  compass  half  a  mile  distant. 

Such  deflections  of  the  compass  are  due  to  magnetic  minerals  in 
the  bed  of  the  sea  under  the  ship,  and  when  the  water  is  shallow  and 
the  force  strong  the  compass  may  be  temporarily  deflected  when 
passing  over  such  a  spot,  but  the  area  of  disturbance  will  be  small, 
unless  there  are  many  cen  ters  near  together. 

31056°— 16 2 


18  NAVIGATIONAL   AIDS. 

The  law  which  has  hitherto  been  found  to  hold  good  as  regards 
local  magnetic  disturbances  is  that  north  of  the  magnetic  equator 
the  north  end  of  the  compass  needle  is  attracted  toward  any  center 
of  disturbance;  south  of  the  magnetic  equator  it  is  repelled. 

It  is  very  desirable  that  whenever  an  area  ol  local  magnetic  dis- 
turbance is  noted  the  position  should  be  fixed  and  the  facts  reported 
as  far  as  they  can  be  ascertained. 

USE  or  OIL  FOR  MODIFYING  THE  EFFECT  OF  BREAKING  WAVES. — 
Many  experiences  of  late  years  have  shown  that  the  utility  of  oil  for 
this  purpose  is  undoubted  and  the  application  simple. 

The  following  may  serve  for  the  guidance  of  seamen,  whose  atten- 
tion is  called  to  the  fact  that  a  very  small  quantity  of  oil  skillfully 
applied  may  prevent  much  damage  both  to  ships  (especially  of  the 
smaller  classes)  and  to  boats,  by  modifying  the  action  of  breaking 
seas. 

The  principal  facts  as  to  the  use  of  oil  are  as  follows: 

1.  On  free  waves — i.  e.,  waves  in  deep  water — the  effect  is  greatest. 

2.  In  a  surf,  or  waves  breaking  on  a  bar,  where  a  mass  of  liquid  is 
in  actual  motion  in  shallow  water,  the  effect  of  the  oil  is  uncertain, 
as  nothing  can  prevent  the  larger  waves  from  breaking  under  such 
circumstances,  but  even  here  it  is  of  some  service. 

3.  The  heaviest   and   thickest  oils   are  most  effectual.     Kefined 
kerosene  is  of  little  use;  crude  petroleum  is  serviceable  when  nothing 
else  is  obtainable;  but  all  animal  and  vegetable  oils,  such  as  waste 
oil  from  the  engines,  have  great  effect. 

4.  A  small  quantity  of  oil  suffices,  if  applied  in  such  a  manner  as  to 
spread  to  windward. 

5.  It  is  useful  in  a  ship  or  boat,  either  when  running  or  lying-to  or 
in  wearing. 

6.  No  experiences  are  related  of  its  use  when  hoisting  a  boat  at  sea 
or  in  a  seaway,  but  it  is  highly  probable  that  much  time  would  be 
saved  and  injury  to  the  boat  avoided  by  its  use  on  such  occasions. 

7.  In  cold  water  the  oil,  being  thickened  by  the  lower  temperature 
and  not  being  able  to  spread  freely,  will  have  its  effect  much  reduced. 
This  will  vary  with  the  character  of  oil  used. 

8.  For  a  ship  at  sea  the  best  method  of  application  appears  to  be 
to  hang  over  the  side,  in  such  a  manner  as  to  be  in  the  water,  small 
canvas  bags,  capable  of  holding  from  1  to  2  gallons  of  oil,  the  bags 
being  pricked  with  a  sail  needle  to  facilitate  leakage  of  the  oil.     The 
ou  is  also  frequently  distributed  from  canvas  bags  or  oakum  inserted 
in  the  closet  bowls. 

The  positions  of  these  bags  should  vary  with  the  circumstances. 
Running  before  the  wind,  they  should  be  hung  on  either  bow — e.  g., 
from  the  cathead — and  allowed  to  tow  in  the  water. 

With  the  wind  on  the  quarter  the  effect  seems  to  be  less  than  in 
any  other  position,  as  the  oil  goes  astern  while  the  waves  come  up  on 
the  quarter. 

Lying-to,  the  weather  bow  and  another  position  farther  aft  seem 
the  best  places  from  which  to  hang  the  bags,  using  sufficient  line  to 
permit  them  to  draw  to  windward  while  the  ship  drifts. 

9.  Crossing  a  bar  with  a  flood  tide,  to  pour  oil  overboard  and  allow 
it  to  float  in  ahead  of  the  boat,  which  would  follow  with  a  bag  towing 
astern,  would  appear  to  be  the  best  plan.     As  before  remarked,  under 
these  circumstances  the  effect  can  not  be  so  much  trusted. 


NAVIGATIONAL  AIDS.  19 

On  a  bar,  with  the  ebb  tide  running,  it  would  seem  to  be  useless  to 
try  oil  for  the  purpose  of  entering. 

10.  For  boarding  a  wreck,  it  is  recommended  to  pour  oil  overboard 
to  windward  of  her  before  going  alongside.  The  effect  in  this  case 
must  greatly  depend  upon  the  set  of  the  current  and  the  circum- 
stances of  the  depth  of  water. 

1  ] .  For  a  boat  riding  in  bad  weather  from  a  sea  anchor,  it  is  recom- 
mended to  fasten  the  bag  to  an  endless  line  rove  through  a  block  on 
the  sea  anchor,  by  which  means  the  oil  can  be  diffused  well  ahead  of 
the  boat  and  the  bag  readily  hauled  on  board  for  refilling,  if  necessary. 


COAST  WATERS,  YAKUTAT  BAY  TO  ARCTIC  OCEAN. 
GENERAL  INFORMATION. 

The  information  contained  in  this  volume  relates  to  the  coast 
waters  from  Yakutat  Bay  to  the  Arctic  Ocean,  including  the  various 
groups  of  islands  along  the  south  side  of  the  Alaska  Peninsula,  the 
Aleutian  Islands,  Prince  William  Sound,  Cook  Inlet,  Bristol  Bay, 
and  the  various  other  indentations. 

Westward  to  Cook  Inlet  the  characteristic  formation  is  rocky;  the 
waters  in  general  are  deep,  but  there  are  also  great  variations  in 
depth.  The  visible  topographic  features,  characterized  by  moun- 
tainous areas,  numerous  rugged  islands,  rocks  and  reefs,  are  undoubt- 
edly duplicated  beneath  the  surface  of  the  water.  A  safe  rule  to 
follow  in  the  navigation  of  these  waters  is  to  avoid  all  areas  where 
the  chart  shows  great  irregularities  in  depth. 

In  Cook  Inlet  the  characteristic  formation  is  the  result  of  glacial 
action.  At  low  water  the  shores  will  be  seen  strewn  with  bowlders, 
some  of  them  of  great  size,  and  the  soundings  indicate  that  these 
bowlders  also  occur  in  the  deeper  waters,  particularly  in  areas  of  hard 
bottom,  where  they  have  not  been  buried  by  the  subsequent  deposit 
of  silt. 

Westward  from  Cook  Inlet,  along  the  south  side  of  the  peninsula, 
throughout  the  offlying  islands,  and  throughout  the  entire  extent  of 
the  Aleutian  Islands,  the  rocky  formation  above  described  is  again 
found. 

Bering  Sea  is  characterized  in  general  by  shoal  waters,  with  exten- 
sive sand  or  mud  flats  along  the  shores,  particularly  in  the  approaches 
to  the  various  bays  and  rivers.  There  is  little  rocky  formation,  and 
its  occurrence,  where  found,  is  limited  in  area. 

Weather. — The  weather  in  general  is  misty  or  rainy,  with  fog  and 
frequent  blows.  It  will  usually  be  found  that  an  on-shore  wind  brings 
misty  weather,  and  an  offshore  wind,  clearing  weather.  It  will  also 
be  found  that  the  weather  noticeably  improves  as  one  proceeds 
toward  the  head  of  the  various  inlets.  Thus,  at  the  head  of  Prince 
William  Sound,  Cook  Inlet,  Nushagak  Bay,  or  Kuskokwim  Bay, 
bright  clear  weather  will  occur  when  there  is  wind  and  rain  at  the 
entrances.  The  weather  is  discussed  in  greater  detail  under  the 
heading  of  the  various  localities. 

Harbors  and  ports. — From  Yakutat  Bay  to  Cape  St.  Elias  the  coast 
is  open  and  unbroken,  affording  no  shelter.  From  this  point  west- 
ward to  the  end  of  the  Aleutian  Islands,  there  are  numerous  good 
harbors  where  vessels  may  find  shelter  from  any  weather.  In  Bering 
Sea,  northward  and  eastward  of  Unimak  Pass,  the  harbors  are  few 
and  are  characterized  by  shoals  in  the  approaches,  so  that  in  the 
absence  of  detailed  surveys  local  knowledge  is  necessary  to  enter. 

The  principal  ports  are  Cordova  and  Yaldez  in  Prince  William 
Sound,  Seward  in  Resurrection  Bay,  Anchorage  at  the  head  of  Cook 
20 


YAKUT  AT   BAY   TO   ARCTIC   OCEAN.  21 

Inlet,  Kodiak  on  Kodiak  Island,  and  St.  Michael  in  Bering  Sea.  At 
each  of  these  places  there  are  blacksmith  and  machine  shops  where 
repairs  to  machinery  may  be  made,  and  carpenters  available  for 
woodwork  above  water:  Similar  facilities  are  available  at  Nome, 
but  the  anchorage  is  in  an  open  roadstead. 

There  are  no  dry  docks  or  marine  railways,  but  the  great  range  of 
uide  makes  it  an  easy  matter  to  choose  a  spot  at  low  water  for  beach- 
ing a  vessel  at  high  water  where  she  will  be  high  and  dry  at  low  tide. 

At  any  of  the  canneries  there  are  facilities  for  making  minor  repairs 
to  machinery. 

Ice  will  seldom  be  encountered  south  of  Unimak  Pass.  It  occurs 
locally  where  discharged  from  glaciers,  and  in  winter  is  formed  at 
the  head  of  the  various  inlets,  but  never  gets  far  from  its  source.  Its 
occurrence,  and  also  the  ice  in  Bering  Sea,  are  discussed  in  detail 
under  the  headings  of  the  various  localities. 

Kelp  grows  on  nearly  every  danger  having  a  rocky  bottom,  and  will 
be  seen  on  the  surface  of  the  wat^r  during  the  summer  and  autumn 
months;  during  the  winter  and  spring  it  is  not  always  to  be  seen, 
especially  where  it  is  exposed  to  a  heavy  sea.  Kelp  should  always 
be  considered  a  sign  of  clanger,  and  no  vessel  should  pass  through  it 
unless  the  spot  has  been  carefully  sounded.  There  are,  however, 
many  rocks  not  marked  by  it;  a  heavy  sea  will  occasionally  tear  the 
kelp  away  from  rocks,  and  a  moderate  current  will  ride  it  under 
water  so  that  it  will  not  be  seen.  It  is  well  to  note  that  dead,  detached 
kelp  floats  on  the  water  in  masses,  while  live  kelp  attached  to  rocks 
streams  away  level  with  the  surface. 

Pilotage  is  not  compulsory  for  Alaska  except  as  provided  in  the 
United  States  laws  governing  the  Steamboat-Inspection  Service. 
Vessels  making  canneries,  mines,  and  other  settlements  in  unsurveyed 
areas  can  usually  obtain  the  services  of  some  one  with  local  knowledge, 
although  not  a  licensed  pilot. 

Supplies. — Vessels  usually  obtain  their  supply  of  provisions  and 
ship-chandler's  stores  at  California,  Washington,  and  British  Columbia 
ports.  The  principal  towns  and  settlements  in  western  Alaska  can 
furnish  provisions  and  a  limited  supply  of  ship-chandler's  stores. 
Nearly  all  the  canneries  and  mining  settlements  carry  a  limited  supply 
of  provisions  for  sale.  (For  supplies  see  also  the  different  headings.) 

Fuel  oil  is  usually  obtained  from  the  larger  vessels  which  use  it  as 
fuel.  Coal  can  be  obtained  at  Cordova,  Kodiak,  and  Unalaska.  It 
may  at  times  be  obtained  at  other  places,  but  such  supply  should  not 
be  counted  on  without  previous  arrangement. 

Naval  radio  stations  are  operated  at  Cordova  (Point  Whitshed), 
Kodiak,  Unalaska,  and  St.  Paul  Island.  There  is  a  station  at  Nome 
maintained  by  the  United  States  Army,  and  many  of  the  canneries 
are  equipped  with  radio  outfits  which  are  in  operation  during  the 
season. 

TIDES. 

Along  the  outer  coast  of  Alaska  between  Yakutat  Bay  and  the 
western  end  of  Alaska  Peninsula  the  tide  is  nearly  simultaneous, 
high  water  occurring  near  the  time  of  the  transit  of  the  moon. 
Between  Yakutat  Bay  and  Cape  Whitshed  mean  high  water  rises 
from  9  to  10  feet  above  the  plane  of  reference.  Extreme  variations 


22  TIDES. 

from  4  feet  below  to  15  feet  above  the  datum  may  occasionally  be 
expected. 

Throughout  Prince  William  Sound  the  tide  is  practically  the  same 
in  regard  both  to  time  and  to  height.  High  water  occurs  near  the 
time  of  the  transit  of  the  moon,  and  the  mean  height  of  high  water  is 
about  11  feet  above  the  plane  of  reference.  Extreme  variations  from 
4  feet  below  to  16  feet  above  the  datum  may  sometimes  occur. 

In  Resurrection  Bay  the  rise  of  tide  is  about)  1  foot  less  than  in 
Prince  William  Sound. 

In  passing  up  Cook  Inlet  the  time  and  height  of  the  tide  changes 
very  rapidly.  At  Fire  Island  the  tide  is  about  five  hours  later  than 
at  Port  Chatham.  At  Anchorage  in  Knik  Arm  it  is  about  one-half 
hour  later,  and  at  Sunrise  in  Turnagain  Arm  about  one  hour  later 
than  at  Fire  Island.  The  height  of  mean  high  water  above  the  plane 
of  reference  varies  from  about  13  feet  in  the  vicinity  of  Port  Chatham 
tg  30  feet  in  Knik  Arm  and  33  feet  in  the  eastern  part  of  Turnagain 
Arm.  Variations  from  6  feet  below  the  plane  of  reference  to  6  feet 
above  mean  high  water  may  occasionally  occur.  The  mean  range  of 
tide  on  the  west  side  of  Cook  Inlet  is  less  than  it  is  on  the  east  coast, 
the  difference  being  as  great  as  3  feet  at  the  widest  part  of  the  inlet. 

On  the  eastern  side  of  Kodiak  Island  the  height  of  mean  high  water 
is  about  9  feet  above  the  plane  of  reference,  but  in  Shelikof  Strait 
the  mean  high  w^ater  rises  from  13  to  14  feet  above  the  datum. 
Extreme  variations  from  4  feet  below  to  1 4  feet  above  the  datum  on 
the  eastern  side  and  from  4  feet  below  to  18  feet  above  the  datum 
on  the  western  side  of  the  island  will  occasionally  occur.  In  Shelikof 
Strait  the  tide  will  occur  about  15  minutes  later  than  on  the  eastern 
side  of  the  island. 

From  Kodiak  Island  to  the  westward  the  range  of  tide  diminishes 
rapidly.  In  the  vicinity  of  the  Shumagin  and  Sannak  Islands  the 
mean  high  water  is  approximately  6  feet  above  the  plane  of  reference. 
There  is,  however,  very  little  difference  in  the  time  of  the  tide  until 
the  western  end  of  the  Alaska  Peninsula  is  reached. 

Around  the  Aleutian  Islands  the  tide  is  very  irregular  and  at  times 
becomes  diurnal.  The  mean  high-water  interval  varies  from  zero  to 
four  hours,  and  the  mean  rise  of  tide  from  2  to  6  feet  above  the  datum. 

At  the  Pribilof  Islands,  St.  Matthew  Island,  and  St.  Lawrence 
Island,  in  the  Bering  Sea,  the  tide  is  small  and  irregular >  the  mean 
rise  being  less  than  4  feet  above  the  datum. 

In  Bristol  Bay  the  range  of  tide  increases  very  rapidly  in  passing 
toward  the  head  of  the  bay.  At  Port  Moller  the  mean  rise  is  9}| 
feel  above  the  datum,  and  at  Clark  Point,  Nushagak  Bay,  it  is  18 
feet.  At  the  latter  place  the  tide  occurs  approximately  five  hours 
later  than  at  Port  Moller. 

In  Kuskokwim  Bay  the  height  of  mean  high  water  above  the  plane 
of  reference  increases  from  7  feet  at  Goodnews  Bay  entrance  to  10J^ 
feet  off  Warehouse  Creek  and  then  diminishes  to  2^  feet  at  Bethel. 
At  Apokak  the  tide  occurs  nearly  five  hours  later  than  at  Goodnews 
Bay  entrance,  and  at  Bethel  it  is  about  five  and  one-half  hours  later 
than  at  Apokak.  The  range  of  tide  is  greater  on  the  east  side  than 
it  is  on  the  west  side  of  the  bay,  the  difference  being  about  1  foot  in 
the  vicinity  of  Apokak. 


YAKUTAT   BAY   TO   ARCTIC    OCEAN'.  23 

In  Norton  Sound  the  tide  is  generally  small  and  irregular  and 
during  a  large  part  of  the  time  diurnal.  The  mean  rise  and  fall  is 
about  3  feet. 

In  the  vicinity  of  Bering  Strait  the  tide  is  too  small  to  be  of  prac- 
tical importance. 

Along  the  Bering  Sea  coast  of  Alaska  extreme  tides,  varying  from 
3  feet  below  the  plane  of  reference  to  6  feet  above  mean  high  water, 
may  occur  occasionally. 

For  more  detailed  information  concerning  the  tides  in  Alaska, 
the  General  or  Pacific  Coast  Tide  Tables  for  the  current  year  should 
be  consulted.  These  are  published  annually  in  advance  by  the 
United  States  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey,  and  may  be  obtained 
from  the  office  or  from  any  of  the  agencies  of  this  Bureau  on  receipt 
of  the  price,  which  is  50  cents  for  the  general  tables  and  10  cents  for 
the  Pacific  Coast  reprint. 

CURRENTS. 

A  prevailing  current  sets  northward  and  westward  along  the 
coast  of  British  Columbia  and  Alaska.  The  distance  it  extends 
offshore  is  not  known,  but  it  is  believed  to  be  strongest  near  the 
coast  and  inside  of  the  100-fathom  curve. 

The  estimated  velocity  of  the  current  is  0  to  1^  knots,  and  is 
greatly  affected  by  strong  winds.  In  winter,  with  strong  northerly 
and  westerly  winds  prevailing  in  the  Gulf  of  Alaska,  it  is  probable 
that  the  current  is  stopped,  and  there  may  be  a  set  in  the  reverse 
direction.  No  systematic  observations  have  been  made,  but  the 
following  sample  reports  indicate  what  may  be  expected: 

Capt.  J.  A.  O'Brien,  of  the  steamer  Northwestern,  reports  that 
from  February  to  May,  1911,  during  six  round  trips  between  Cape 
Flattery  and  Cape  St.  Elias  his  log  showed  an  average  of  977  miles 
northbound  and  1,104  miles  southbound,  an  average  current  of 
63.5  miles  for  the  run  of  about  1,040  miles.  On  each  of  the  six 
voyages  he  found  a  strong  set  toward  the  coast  between  Cape  Cook, 
Vancouver  Island,  and  Cape  St.  James,  Queen  Charlotte  Islands, 
and  between  the  northwest  end  of  Queen  Charlotte  Islands  and. 
Sitka.  Between  Cape  Flattery  and  Cape  Cook  an  average  of  over 
40  voyages  indicated  a  northwesterly  current  with  a  velocity  of  1.5 
knots  in  winter  and  about  nil  in  summer. 

On  May  1,  1910,  on  a  run  from  Ocean  Cape  to  Cape  St.  Elias  with 
light  easterly  winds,  a  vessel  with  a  speed  of  8.1  miles  by  log  was 
set  in  13.5  hours  about  28.5  miles  in  a  291°  true  (W  %  S  mag.) 
direction  by  the  coast  current,  the  average  velocity  of  which  was 
2.1  knots.  Land  was  made  on  the  eastern  side  of  Kayak  Island  7 
miles  northward  of  the  projected  course.  This  report  shows  the 
necessity  for  using  caution  in  approaching  Cape  St.  Elias  from 
southeastward,  as 'the  prevailing  northwesterly  current  will  cause 
the  vessel  to  be  ahead  of  her  reckoning. 

Surveying  parties  report  a  constant  set  southwestward  along  the 
coast  of  Hinchinbrook  Island. 

A  constant  set  southwestward  is  reported  along  the  east  coast  of 
Montague  Island  and  south  coast  of  Kenai  Peninsula.  A  whaleboat 
lost  off  Wooded  Islands  was  washed  ashore  on  Cape  Douglas  and  a  spar 
lost  off  Point  Gore  was  found  on  the  northwest  side  of  Sitkinak 


24  CURRENTS. 

Island.  The  velocity  is  not  known,  but  has  been  reported  to  be 
1  knot  or  more  at  times. 

Currents  of  the  Alaska  Peninsula  Westward  of  Kodiak. — It  seems  clear 
from  all  reports  that  the  Japan  current  does  not  touch  the  shores  of 
the  Alaska  Peninsula;  and  there  is  doubt  if  it  touches  even  the  south- 
ernmost of  Che  Aleutian  Islands.  It  is  even  disputed  that  this  current 
is  found  at  all  this  far  eastward ;  no  such  warm  water  can  be  found  as 
that  of  the  Gulf  Stream,  but  a  fairly  definite  stream  of  slightly 
warmer  water  can  generally  be  found.  This  stream  is  well  offshore 
and  far  out  of  sight  of  land;  the  current  phenomena  met  with  in  the 
vicinity  of  the  coast  have  no  connection  with  it. 

It  is  generally  agreed  that  there  is  a  continual  current  of  con- 
siderable strength  following  the  coast  all  the  way  from  Shelikof 
Strait  to  Unalaska  Island.  It  has  been  called  a  warm  current 
originating  in  the  Gulf  of  Alaska,  and  it  doubtless  assists  in  causing 
the  southern  side  of  the  peninsula  to  be  warmer  than  Bering  Sea. 
It  is  well  known  that  all  the  islands  off  this  coast  have  a  milder 
climate  than  the  mainland;  the  inhabitants  choose  the  islands  and 
almost  the  entire  population  is  found  on  them  in  preference  to  the 
mainland  shore.  This  current  searches  out  all  the  passages,  large 
and  small,  between  and  around  the  many  islands,  and  in  some  of 
them  it  becomes  strong  enough  to  be  important.  The  tide  has  little 
effect  upon  it,  for  the  tide  sets  generally  on  and  offshore,  while  this 
current  sets  along  the  coast.  For  this  reason  a  vessel  generally  finds 
it  setting  her  ahead  or  back  along  the  course  and  not  to  one  side.  An 
approaching  northeast  storm  gives  warning  by  strengthening  this 
current;  in  many  places  the  current  will  indicate  northeast  weather 
a  day  before  the  barometer  falls.  It  may  be  that  on  some  occasions 
this  current  turns  in  the  other  direction  on  its  offshore  side,  near  the 
100-fathom  curve,  but  this  is  not  frequent,  and  there  are  no  reports 
that  it  turns  in  the  inshore  part  near  the  land.  It  has  been  supposed 
that  the  strong  currents  of  Unimak,  Akutan,  and  Unalga  Passes  are 
due  to  this  current  deflected  into  the  passes  and  strengthened  by  a 
rising  tide.  It  is  reported  by  all  that  the  strongest  currents  are 
found  entering  Bering  Sea  in  these  passes  and  that  the  currents  flow- 
ing out  are  always  weaker. 

In  the  Aleutian  Island  passages,  as  far  as  Attu,  reports  agree  that 
the  currents  almost  always  flow  into  Bering  Sea.  There  are  many 
reports  of  strong  currents  in  all  the  passages  in  this  direction,  and 
almost  none  in  the  opposite  direction.  These  currents  are  not  to  be 
regarded  as  branches  of  the  Japan  stream,  for  the  water  temperatures 
do  not  show  a  warm  current;  but  it  is  agreed  that  they  carry  much 
small  animal  and  plant  life  to  the  shores  of  the  islands  and  into  Bering 
Sea.  Southward  of  the  Aleutian  Islands  there  is  often  a  current 
toward  them  and  toward  all  the  passes;  but  farther  offshore,  well  out 
of  sight  of  land,  the  Japan  stream  is  found  setting  eastward. 

Along  the  northern  side  of  the  islands,  on  a  line  from  Unalaska  to 
Attu,  it  is  agreed  that  the  current  sets  eastward,  and  is  not  influenced 
by  tide.  But  in  all  this  region  and  in  Bering  Sea  the  normal  currents 
may  be  disturbed  by  bad  weather,  and  will  then  set  with  the  wind  or 
toward  a  low  barometer;  an  abnormal  current  may  often  be  a  valuable 
storm  warning.  In  all  the  Aleutian  Islands  the  navigator  must  heed 
the  currents  carefully;  a  vessel  is  in  more  danger  there  from  that 
cause  than  from  any  other,  except  the  lack  of  surveys. 


CURRENTS.  25 

The  currents  of  Bristol  Bay  are  usually  considered  as  partly  tidal. 
Here,  also,  a  northeast  storm  disguises  all  other  effects  and  causes  a 
strong  current  to  sweep  out  of  the  bay.  In  normal  weather  the  tidal 
currents  set  on  and  onshore  and  more  or  less  in  and  out  of  the  bay, 
and  become  more  important  as  the  water  shoals;  the  local  effects 
in  places  are  pronounced.  Beside  the  tidal  currents,  it  is  considered 
that  Bristol  Bay  forms  the  eastern  side  of  a  permanent  eddy  which 
enters  past  Cape  Newenham  flowing  eastwara  and  discharges  along 
the  north  shore  of  Unimak  Island  flowing  westward.  On  the  Bering 
Sea  side  of  Unimak  Pass  it  is  generally  found  that  there  is  a  current 
flowing  northwest. 

DIRECTIONS,  YAKUTAT  BAY  TO  KODIAK. 

From  Cape  St.  Elias  to  the  head  of  Cook  Inlet  and  southward  to 
Chiniak  Bay,  Cape  Karluk,  and  Takli  Island,  and  from  Cape  Ikti  to 
Unalaska,  the  principal  points  jdong  the  coast  are  determined  by 
triangulation,  and  accurate  courses  and  distances  for  coasting  along 
those  sections  can  be  taken  from  charts  8502  and  8802  (1915  edi- 
tion). Some  of  the  bays  and  arms  are  not  surveyed,  and  their 
delineation  on  the  chart  is  taken  from  the  sketches  of  the  early 
navigators  adjusted  to  known  points  determined  by  later  surveys. 

Vessels  approaching  Prince  William  Sound  from  southeastward 
generally  make  Cape  St.  Elias  and  pass  2  miles  or  more  southward 
of  Southeast  Rock.  On  page  30  bearings  and  distances  are  given 
from  Southeast  Rock  to  the  principal  coast  points  of  Southeast 
Alaska.  A  current,  constant  so  far  as  known,  sets  northwestward 
and  westward  along  the  coast  of  Alaska.  This  current  is  increased 
by  southeast  winds  and  decreased  by  northwest  winds,  but  its  esti- 
mated velocity  under  ordinary  conditions  is  about  %  knot.  This 
should  be  kept  in  mind,  especially  when  approaching  Cape  St.  Elias 
from  southeastward,  as  a  vessel  will  generally  overrun  her  log  when 
bound  westward.  (See  also  the  remarks  on  currents  preceding.) 

Cape  St.  Elias  to  Cape  Hinchinbrook. — From  a  position  2  miles 
southward  of  Southeast  Rock  a  295°  true  (W  J^.S  mag.)  course 
made  good  for  67  miles  will  lead  to  a  position  l£j  miles  southward 
of  Cape  Hinchinbrook. 

An  examination  of  the  logs  of  several  courses  between  Cape  St. 
Elias  and  Cape  Hinchinbrook  indicates  that  the  currents  are  in- 
fluenced by  the  tides,  being  stronger  with  the  larger  tides,  and  that 
the  current  on  the  ebb  has  frequently,  but  not  always,  caused  a 
southerly  set,  and  the  current  on  the  flood  a  northerly  set.  On 
some  occasions  when  the  range  of  the  tides  was  small  no  marked 
set  of  current  was  noted.  Results  seem  to  point  to  a  stronger  cur- 
rent toward  Cape  St.  Elias  than  Cape  Hinchinbrook.  Surveying 
parties  report  a  constant  set  southwestward  along  the  coast  of 
Hinchinbrook  Island,  and  the  probability  of  a  constant  westerly 
set  from  Cape  St.  Elias  to  Cape  Hinchinbrook  should  be  kept  in 
mind.  Strong  tidal  currents  were  noticed  across  the  reef  at  Cape 
St.  Elias.  At  Middleton  Island  the  tidal  currents  have  a  velocity 
of  2  to  3  knots,  setting  northward  on  the  flood  and  southward  on 
the  ebb. 

Prince  William  Sound. — Vessels  from  southeastward  enter  Prince 
William  Sound  through  Hinchinbrook  Entrance,  and  leave  the 


26  YAKUTAT  BAY  TO   KODIAK DIRECTIONS. 


sound  through  Ellington  Passage  when  bound  southwestward. 
The  principal  ports  of  call  are  Cordova  and  Valdez.  Directions  for 
Orca  Bay  to  Cordova  are  given  on  page  43.  Directions  for  the 
sound  from  Hinchinbrook  Entrance  and  Latouche  Passage  to  Valdez 
are  given  on  page  50.  Directions  for  Elrington  Passage  are  given 
on  page  68. 

Elrington  Passage  to  Resurrection  Bay. — Having  come  from 
Elrington  Passage  to  a  position  3  miles  168°  true  (SE  ^  S  mag.) 
from  "Cape  Puget,  steer  263°  true  (SW  by  W  mag.)  for  26  miles, 
passing  2  miles  off  Cape  Junken.  The  south  end  of  Rugged  Island 
should  be  ahead,  and  the  course  and  distance  made  good  should 
lead  to  a  position  1  mile  173°  true  (SE  by  S  mag.)  from  Barwell 
Island  off  Cape  Resurrection.  Then  follow  the  directions  for  entering 
Resurrection  Bay  from  eastward. 

Elrington  Passage  to  Seal  Rocks. — Having  come  from  Elrington 
Passage  to  a  position  3  miles  168°  true  (SE  }/%  S  mag.)  from  Cape 
Puget,  a  235°  true  (SSW  j/£  W  mag.)  course  made  good  for  43  miles 
will  lead  to  a  position  3  miles  150°  true  (SE  by  E  mag.)  from  Seal 
Rocks. 

There  is  little  information  about  the  currents  between  Cape  Cleare 
and  Seal  Rocks.  When  out  of  the  bight  of  the  coast  between  these 
points  a  southwesterly  set  may  be  experienced.  The  principal 
flood  and  ebb  current  to  and  from  Prince1  William  Sound  westward 
of  Montague  Island  is  through  Montague  Strait. 

The  passage  between  Seal  Rocks  and  Chiswell  Islands  is  nearly 
3  miles  wide  and  is  frequently  used  by  vessels  between  Resurrection 
Bay  and  the  coast  southwestward.  In  thick  weather  or  at  night, 
and  also  when  vessels  are  standing  along  the  coast  and  not  entering 
Resurrection  Bay,  it  is  better  to  pass  outside  of  Seal  Rocks. 

Seal  Rocks  to  East  Chugach  Island. — From  a  position  3  miles  150° 
true  (SE  by  E  mag.)  from  Seal  Rocks,  make  good  a  245°  true  (SW 
Yi  S  mag.)  course  for  26  miles  to  a  position  3^2  miles  155°  true 
(SE  Yz  E  mag.)  from  the  peak  of  the  outer  Pye  Island;  Pye  Island 
Reef  should  then  bear  296°  true  (W  mag.)  distant  2^  miles.  Or 
vessels  from  Resurrection  Bay  going  inside  Seal  Rocks,  pass  \y%  to 
2  miles  southeastward  of  the  easterly  Chiswell  Island  and  make  good 
a  236°  true  (SSW  Y%  W  mag.)  course  for  30  miles,  passing  1  to  1^ 
miles  northwestward  of  Seal  Rocks  and  to  a  position  3^  miles  155° 
true  (SE  y2  E  mag.)  from  the  peak  of  the  outer  Pye  Island. 

From  a  position  3^2  miles  155°  true  (SE  ^  E  mag.)  from  the  peak 
of  the  outer  Pye  Island,  make  good  a  246°  true  (SW  %  S  mag.) 
course  for  35  ^  miles,  passing  2  miles  off  Point  Gore,  1%  miles  off 
the  sunken  rock  nearly  midway  between  Point  Gore  and  East  Chu- 
gach Island,  and  to  a  position  with  the  southeast  point  of  East 
Chugach  Island  bearing  on  the  starboard  beam,  336°  true  (NW  % 
W  mag.)  distant  3  miles. 

Under  ordinary  conditions  the  current  may  be  expected  to  set 
southwestward  along  the  coast,  but  its  rate  is  not  known.  It  is 
reported  that  the  flood  current  sets  strongly  southwestward  toward 
Cook  Inlet,  while  the  ebb  current  is  almost  negligible.  When  cross- 
ing the  entrances  to  the  larger  bays,  the  tidal  current  setting  to  or 
from  them  will  be  noticed. 


YAKUTAT  BAY  TO   KODIAK DIRECTIONS.  27 

In  1908  a  breaker  in  a  heavy  sea  was  reported  about  9  miles  177° 
true  (SSE  J/£  E  mag.)  from  the  southeast  point  of  East  Chugach 
Island. 

East  Chugach  Island  to  entrance  of  Cook  Inlet. — The  following  is 
the  usual  route  followed  by  large  vessels.  The  smaller  vessels,  espe- 
cially with  local  knowledge,  frequently  go  through  the  passage  inside 
Pearl  and  Elizabeth  Islands.  Directions  for  this  passage  are  given 
on  page  78. 

From  a  position  3  miles  156°  true  (SE  %  E  mag.)  from  the  south- 
east point  of  East  Chugach  Island,  make  good  a  269°  4rue  (SW  by 
W  %  W  mag.)  course  for  15  miles,  passing  2  miles  off  the  southeast 
bare  rock  near  Pearl  Island,  the  same  distance  southward  of  Dora 
Reef,  and  to  a  position  with  Cape  Elizabeth  bearing  on  the  starboard 
beam  359°  true  (NNW  M  W  mag.),  distant  5J^  miles.  Then  follow 
the  directions  for  Cook  Inlet. 

The  tidal  currents  in  the  entrance  of  Cook  Inlet  have  great  velocity, 
especially  among  and  around  Chugach  and  Barren  Islands  and  off 
the  north  end  of  Shuyak  Island.  "  With  the  large  tides,  rips  dangerous 
to  small  craft  occur  in  the  channels  among  the  islands  and  in  the 
wake  of  many  projecting  points.  With  an  ebb  current  of  the  large 
tides  and  easterly  winds,  a  very  heavy  sea  and  tide  rips  will  be  found 
in  mid-channel  on  either  side  of  Barren  Islands. 

From  Pearl  Island  nearly  to  Seldovia  and  southward  in  the  entrance 
of  Cook  Inlet  the  tidal  currents  have  an  estimated  velocity  of  3  to  5 
knots  at  strength,  and  care  will  be  required  to  make  courses  good. 

Cook  Inlet  to  Kodiak. — The  usual  route  is  through  Marmot  Strait. 
With  heavy  easterly  weather  vessels  sometimes  go  down  Shelikof 
Strait  and  pass  eastward  through  Kupreanof  Strait. 

From  a  position  1J/2  miles  westward  of  Flat  Island  steer  185°  true 
(S  by  E  %  E  mag.)  for  24  miles  to  a  midchannel  position  between 
the  northeast  end  of  Ushagat  Island  and  the  southwest  end  of  West 
Amatuli  Island. 

Then  steer  170°  true  (SE  by  S  mag.)  for  36  miles  to  a  position 
\Y±  miles  off  a  point  1V£  miles  southeastward  of  Tonki  Cape.  Then 
steer  180°  true  (SSE  y%  E  mag.)  for  about  4Vo  miles  to  a  position 
about  1J/4  miles  off  a  prominent  point  on  the  western  shore;  the 
northern  end  of  Marmot  Island  should  then  bear  about  80°  true 
(NEbyEmag.). 

Then  steer  203°  true  (S  l/%  E  mag.)  giving  the  western  shore  of 
Marmot  Strait  a  berth  of  about  1  mile;  the  distance  to  Pillar  Cape 
abeam  is  8^2  miles.  Continue  the  course  across  Marmot  Bay, 
passing  3  miles  eastward  of  Spruce  Island  and  the  same  distance 
westward  of  Williams  Reef.  The  eastern  end  of  Woody  ^  Island 
should  be  made  ahead,  and  the  course  made  good  for  28  miles,  or 
19  1/2  miles  from  Pillar  Cape  abeam,  will  le'ad  to  a  position  J/2  mile 
eastward  of  Hutch inson  Reef  bell  buoy.  Then  enter  St.  Paul 
Harbor  on  one  of  the  ranges  for  the  northern  entrance. 

See  tidal  currents  in  the  entrance  of  Cook  Inlet  above.  In  Marmot 
Strait  the  tidal  currents  have  an  estimated  velocity  of  1  to  3  knots, 
the  flood  current  setting  northward  and  the  ebb  southward. 


28  GENERAL   DESCRIPTION. 

YAKUTAT  BAY   TO   CAPE    ST.  ELIAS. 

Point  Manby  is  low  and  wooded  for  about  4  miles  back  to  Malas- 
pina  Glacier. 

Sitkagi  Bluffs  are  about  4  miles  long,  and  are  formed  by  Malas- 
pina  Glacier,  which  at  the  bluffs  comes  down  to  high-water  mark, 
but  does  not  discharge  into  the  sea.  From  Sitkagi  Bluffs  the  glacier 
recedes  from  the  coast  about  4  miles  up  the  Yahtse  and  Yana  Rivers, 
and  then  comes  to  the  coast  again  at  Icy  Cape. 

Icy  Bay  has  been  formed  by  the  recession  of  an  arm  ot  Malaspina 
Glacier,- which  discharges  in  the  bay;  there  are  large  quantities  of 
drift  ice,  at  least  during  the  summer.  Dep'hs  of  6  to  8  fathoms 
extend  in  places  about  5  miles  off  the  entrance.  The  entrance 
points  are  low  spits,  and  the  depths  between  them  and  in  the  bay 
are  not  known.  The  west  side  of  Icy  Bay  appears  to  be  shallow  for 
a  distance  of  at  least  Y^  mile  from  shore,  judging  by  the  stranding 
of  comparatively  small  bergs.  Smaller  ice  masses  are  generally  so 
packed  along  the  shores  that  boats  would  find  it  difficult  to  make  a 
landing,  especially  as  the  ice  grinds  together  when  moved  by  the  ocean 
swell  which  enters  the  bay. 

From  Icy  Bay  to  Cape  Suckling  the  beach  is  remarkably  even, 
with  no  irregularities  except  Umbrella  Reef  and  Yakataga  Reef. 
There  are  numerous  small  streams,  the  larger  ones  with  lagoons  and 
shallow  bars  at  the  entrance.  The  streams  are  dangerous  to  cross 
because  of  quicksand  in  places  in  their  shifting  channels.  The  coast 
is  low  and  wooded  and  backed  by  ice  fields  and  glaciers. 

Umbrella  Reef,  13  miles  east  of  Yakataga  Reef,  is  a  narrow  ledge 
y%  mile  wide  and  %  m^e  l°ng  parallel  with  the  shore.  Little  of  it 
shows  above  high  water. 

Yakataga  Reef  extends  about  ^  mile  from  shore  at  Cape  Yaka- 
taga, and  parts  of  it  show  above  high  water.  This  is  the  best  landing 
place  between  Icy  Bay  and  Controller  Bay,  but  landing  is  possible 
only  under  exceptional  conditions  of  a  smooth  sea.  There  are  a  few 
houses. 

Mount  St.  Elias  is  18,025  feet  high,  and  at  the  top  is  a  massive 
pyramid  with  a  shoulder  on  each  side  as  seen  from  southward. 

Cape  Suckling  is  low  and  wooded.  Lying  2  miles  northwestward 
of  the  cape  and  1  mile  inland  is  the  end  of  a  prominent  mountain 
ridge  which  extends  about  8  miles  in  a  northeasterly  direction,  with 
elevations  of  1,500  to  2,500  feet. 

Three  bluffs  about  100  feet  high  lie  1J^  to  2%  miles  westward  of 
Cape  Suckling.  From  the  eastern  bluff  a  sunken  reef  extends  y% 
mile  southwestward  to  three  rocks,  close  together  and  bare  at  low 
water. 

Southwest  Breaker  is  on  a  rock  bare  at  low  water,  and  lies  2  miles 
212°  true  (S  J4  W  mag.)  from  the  western  bluff  mentioned  in  the 
preceding  paragraph,  and  3%  miles  260°  true  (SW  }^  W  mag.)  from 
Cape  Suckling. 

Okalee  Spit,  forming  the  south  side  of  Controller  Bay,  is  low,  bare 
sand  dunes,  7  miles  long  in  an  east  and  west  (true)  direction. 

The  entrance  to  Controller  Bay  between  the  north  end  of  Kayak 
Island  and  Okalee  Spit  is  of  little  use  except  for  small  craft  or  very 
small  vessels  that  can  cross  the  flats  eastward  of  Wingham  Island. 


YAKUTAT  BAY  TO  CAPE  ST.  ELIAS.  29 

Two  prominent  rocks  about  75  feet  high  lie  outside  the  entrance, 
miles  northeastward  of  Lemesurier  Point  and  1J4  miles  south- 
ward of  Okalee  Spit.  They  are  connected  by  ledges  bare  at  low  water, 
which  also  extend  about  300  yards  eastward  and  westward  from 
them.  The  group  is  prolonged  by  shoals,  which  shelve  off  to  18  feet 
in  a  distance  of  %  mile  299°  true  (W  mag.)  from  the  western  rock 
and  to  16  feet  a  little  over  H  mile  82°  true  (NE  %  E  mag.)  from  the 
eastern  rock. 

From  the  shoal  surrounding  the  rocks  a  rocky  bar  with  17  to  19 
feet  over  it  extends  1)4  miles  eastward  on  the  range  of  the  two  rocks, 
and  then  with  19  to  21  feet  over  it  curves  northeastward  and  joins 
the  shoal  with  16  to  18  feet  over  it  that  extends  about  1 J4  miles  from 
Okalee  Spit.  This  bar  is  open  to  the  sea  from  eastward  and  south- 
ward. The  channel  to  this  entrance  of  Controller  Bay  is  over  this 
bar  with  a  least  depth  of  17  to  19  feet  and  then  passes  between 
Okalee  Spit  and  the  two  rocks. 

From  Lemesurier  Point  (northeast  end  of  Kayak  Island)  foul  ground 
with  13  feet  over  its  outer  half  extends  nearly  to  the  shoal  surround- 
ing the  two  high  rocks.  There  is  little  depth  near  Lemesurier  Point, 
and  it  shelves  off  to  10  feet  in  a  distance  of  y%  mile  toward  the  two 
rocks. 

From  northward  of  the  two  high  rocks  the  channel  has  depths  of 
5  to  7  fathoms  until  about  1  mile  inside  the  north  end  of  Kayak 
Island.  It  then  leads  between  flats  to  Kayak  Entrance  with  a  least 
width  of  y±  mile  and  depth  of  18  feet.  The  best  depth  that  can  be 
carried  across  the  flats  in  Controller  Bay  eastward  of  Wingham  Island 
is  6  feet  at  low  water. 

Kayak  Island  is  17  J^  miles  long,  has  peaks  1,200  to  1,400  feet  high, 
and  slopes  gradually  to  its  northern  part,  which  is  low  and  wooded. 
Cape  St.  Elias,  the  south  end  of  Kayak  Island,  is  an  important  and 
unmistakable  landmark.  It  is  a  precipitous,  sharp,  rocky  ridge, 
about  1  mile  long  and  1,665  feet  high,  with  a  low,  wooded  neck 
between  it  and  the  high  parts  of  the  island  farther  north.  About  % 
mile  off  the  cape  is  the  remarkable  Pinnacle  Rock,  494  feet  high.  A 
light  is  maintained  on  Pinnacle  Rock  pending  the  completion  of  a 
lighthouse  on  the  cape. 

Boats  can  generally  land  on  the  south  side  of  Cape  St.  Elias  just 
eastward  of  a  small  point  which  extends  toward  Pinnacle  Rock.  The 
better  approach  is  from  westward,  keeping  close  to  the  island  to  clear 
a  ledge  which  extends  J4  mile  northwestward  from  Pinnacle  Rock. 

The  eastern  coast  of  Kayak  Island  is  strewn  with  bowlders  and  land- 
ing is  impracticable.  Rocky  shoals  with  11  feet  over  them  lie  1% 
miles  172°  true  (SE  %  S  mag.)  from  Lemesurier  Point.  Lying  3J4 
miles  southward  of  the  point  and  1  mile  offshore  is  a  reef  ^  mile 
long.  Its  northern  end  is  a  rock  10  feet  high,  and  its  south  end  is 
bare  at  half  tide.  For  a  distance  of  6  miles  northward  of  Cape  St. 
Elias  bowlders  bare  at  low  water  and  breakers  extend  %  mile  °ff 
the  eastern  coast  of  the  island. 

Breakers  extend  2  miles  southeastward  of  Cape  St.  Elias  to  South- 
east Rock,  which  is  awash,  the  breakers  extending  %  mile  southwest- 
ward  of  the  line  joining  them.  There  is  a  depth  of  20  fathoms  about 
^8  mile  outside  these  breakers.  A  ridge  with  10  to  15  fathoms  over 
it,  which  has  not  been  closely  developed,  extends  1  y^  miles  southwest- 
ward  from  Southeast  Rock.  The  50-fathom  curve  lies  about  7  miles 


30  YAKUTAT  BAY  TO  CAPE  ST.  ELIAS. 

southwestward  and  westward  of  Southeast  Rock,  but  is  only  y^  mile 
southeastward  of  it.  The  tidal  currents  have  considerable  velocity 
across  the  reef. 

Eastward  of  this  reef  another  reef  on  which  the  sea  breaks  extends 
l}/2  miles  from  Kayak  Island,  the  end  of  the  reef  lying  about  1% 
miles  northward  from  Southeast  Rock. 

The  following  are  computed  bearings  and  distances  from  Southeast 
Rock: 

Entrance  to  Monti  Bay,  Yakutat,  94]^°  true   (NE  by  E  % 

E  mag.),  145  miles. 

Cape  Spencer,  111°  true  (E  %  N  mag.),  263  miles. 
Klokachef   Point,    Salisbury   Sound,    117J£°   true    (E    J^   N 

Northerly  mag.),  307  miles. 

Cape  Edgecumbe,  121°  true  (E  ^  S  mag.),  321  miles. 
Cape  Ommaney,  124°  true  (E  %  S  mag.),  383  miles. 
Summit  of  Forrester  Island,  130°  true  (E  by  S  easterly  mag.), 

467  miles. 
Cape  Hinchinbrook,  295°  true  (W  %  S  southerly  mag.),  67 

miles. 

Sea  Ranger  Reef  is  two  shoals  lying  off  a  point  on  the  western  coast 
of  Kayak  Island  3M  miles  northward  of  Cape  St.  Elias.  The  inner 
one  lies  J^  to  1  ^  miles  from  shore,  has  11  feet  over  it,  is  %  mile  long, 
and  the  sea  often  breaks  on  it.  The  outer  shoal  is  small,  lies  1^ 
miles  from  shore,  has  a  least  depth  of  24  feet,  and  there  is  seldom  a 
break  on  it.  Tide  rips  occur  around  it  at  times. 

The  tidal  currents  on  the  western  side  of  Kayak  Island  set  north- 
ward on  the  flood  and  southward  on  the  ebb,  with  an  estimated 
velocity  at  strength  of  y^  to  %  mile. 

From  the  high  bluff  point  on  Kayak  Island  3^  miles  south  of 
Wingham  Island  a  shoal  with  13  feet  near  its  end  extends  %  mile 
northward;  and  rocky  patches  on  which  the  least  depths  found  are 
12  to  15  feet  extend  to  Wingham  Island.  Anchorage  can  be  made  by 
small  craft  in  the  bight  northward  of  the  point,  %  to  1 }/%  miles  from 
the  point  and  ^  to  1  mile  from  shore,  in  4  to  5  fathoms,  bottom  soft 
in  places,  with  shelter  from  easterly  and  southeasterly  winds.  Vessels 
should  anchor  farther  out  in  not  less  than  10  fathoms,  with  the  south- 
oast  end  of  Wingham  Island  bearing  about  48°  true  (N  by  E  %  E 
mag.). 

CONTROLLER  BAY 

is  formed  by  Okalee  Spit  and  Kayak  Island  on  the  south  and  Wing- 
ham  and  Kanak  Islands  on  the  west.  For  some  distance  back  from 
the  eastern  shore  the  land  is  but  slightly  above  high  water,  and  is 
broken  by  many  streams.  Quicksand  has  been  found  in  the  channel 
at  the  mouth  of  Edwardes  River.  The  bay  is  filled  by  flats  between 
which  are  two  principal  channels,  one  from  Kayak  Entrance  to  the 
northern  end  of  Kayak  Island,  and  Okalee  Channel. 

Kayak  Entrance,  between  Kayak  and  Wingham  Islands,  is  rocky 
and  foul,  there  being  numerous  lumps  on  which  the  least  depth  found 
is  about  12  feet.  The  channel  with  a  depth  of  about  12  feet  is  J^ 
mile  wide  between  a  sand  spit,  largely  bare  at  low  water,  extending  1 
mile  off  the  southwest  side  of  the  low  wooded  spit  on  the  northwest 
side  of  Kayak  Island,  and  a  reef,  partly  bare  at  low  water,  extending 
350  yards  southeastward  from  the  southeast  end  of  Wingham  Island. 
The  approach  is  lumpy,  with  numerous  rocky  spots  of  2  to  3  fathoms 


CONTROLLER   BAY.  31 

inside  the  5-fathom  curve.  The  latter  is  about  on  a  line  from  the 
southwest  point  of  Wingham  Island  to  the  high  bluff  point  on  Kayak 
Island  3^2  miles  201°  true  (S  %  E  mag.)  from  it.  A  reef,  partly  bare 
at  low  water,  extends  600  yards  southward  from  the  southeast  point 
of  Wingham  Island. 

The  following  directions  lead  in  the  best  water  through  Kavak 
Entrance,  but  trie  entrance  should  be  used  with  caution  and  at  high 
water  only. 

Steer  for  the  end  of  the  low  wooded  spit  on  the  northwest  side  of 
Kayak  Island  on  a  60°  true  (NNE  %  E  mag.)  course  until  the  south- 
east tangent  of  Wingham  Island  bears  6°  true  (NNWmag.).  Then 
steer  18°  true  (N  by  W  mag.)  and  give  Wingham  Island  a  berth  of  350 
yards. 

Anchorage  can  be  made  about  250  yards  northeastward  of  the 
point  of  Wingham  Island  just  southeastward  of  Kavak,  in  3  fathoms, 
or  a  short  distance  southeastward  of  this  position,  in  depths  up  to  4 
fathoms,  bottom  soft  in  places.  Good  anchorage  may  also  be  selected 
anywhere  in  the  channel  from  tKe  southeast  end  of  Wingham  Island 
to  the  northern  end  of  Kayak  Island,  for  which  chart  8513  and  the 
lead  are  the  guides.  There  is  some  local  chop  with  strong  winds,  but 
no  outside  swell  enters  the  bay  either  through  Kayak  Entrance  or 
around  the  northern  end  of  Kayak  Island. 

Kayak,  on  the  east  side  of  Wingham  Island,  %  ndle  horn  its 
southeast  end,  is  abandoned. 

Wingham  Island  is  4  miles  long  and  wooded,  and  has  three  hills, 
the  highest,  near  its  northern  end,  haying  an  elevation  of  832  feet. 
The  western  shore  of  the  island  is  precipitous. 

With  heavy  easterly  winds  anchorage  and  shelter  can  be  found  in 
16  to  18  fathoms  %  to  J/£  m^e  from  the  western  side  of  Wingham 
Island,  abreast  its  middle  and  lowest  part. 

Small  vessels  can  anchor  in  the  narrow  channel  close  to  the  eastern 
side  of  Wingham  Island.  This  channel  is  about  300  yards  wide  and 
extends  nearly  2  miles  southward  from  the  northern  end  of  the 
island,  with  depths  of  7  to  12  fathoms  for  1  mile  and  then  shoals 
gradually  southward.  The  flats  on  the  eastern  edge  of  the  channel 
have  depths  of  7  to  11  feet  and  are  generally  steep-to.  The  mid- 
channel  leads  about  200  yards  from  the  island.  A  depth  of  6  feet 
at  low  water  can  be  carried  through  close  to  the  island  to  Kayak 
Entrance.  At  times  the  tidal  currents  have  a  velocity  of  3  knots  or 
more  in  places  in  the  narrow  channel  eastward  of  Wingham  Island. 
A  shoal  extends  about  200  yards  off  the  middle  of  the  northern  end 
of  the  island. 

Okalee  Channel,  between  the  north  end  of  Wingham  Island  and 
Kanak  Island,  is  %  mile  wide,  with  depths  of  6  fathoms  at  the 
entrance,  and  these  depths  or  more  can  be  taken  through  the  greater 
part  of  the  channel.  The  channel  is  a  secure  harbor,  but  is  little  used 
in  the  absence  of  aids.  The  entrance  is  marked  by  buoys. 

The  shoal  on  the  southeast  side  of  the  channel  1^  miles  north- 
eastward from  the  northern  end  of  Wingham  Island  is  bare  shortly 
after  high  water,  and  this  shoal  and  the  one  on  the  opposite  side  of 
the  channel  arc  generally  partly  indicated  by  breakers,  especially  at 
low  water.  The  shoal  extending  southward  from  Kanak  Island  is 
mostly  well  out  at  low  water.  Above  these  shoals  the  flats  border- 
ing Okalee  Channel  are  partly  bare  at  low  water  only,  and  there  is 


32  CONTROLLER   BAY. 

nothing  to  indicate  the  channel  when  the  flats  are  covered.  On  the 
edges  of  the  channel  the  shoaling  is  abrupt  except  at  the  entrance 
and  on  the  southeast  side  where  it  changes  direction  southeastward 
of  Kanak  Island. 

Vessels  sometimes  anchor  in  Okalee  Channel  about  2  miles  above 
the  northern  end  of  Wingham  Island.  This  part  of  the  channel  is 
generally  easy  of  access  in  clear  weather.  Above  this  point  Okalee 
Channel  should  be  navigated  at  low  water  only,  in  the  absence  of 
aids  or  local  knowledge,  and  extra  care  is  required  to  keep  in  the 
channel.  Chart  8513  and  the  lead  are  the  guides. 

Kanak  Island  is  3^  miles  long,  very  low  and  flat,  and  wooded  in 
the  middle.  There  is  a  large  low  tank  at  the  south  end  of  the  island- 
An  extensive  shoal  makes  out  southwcstward  from  the  island, 
about  3  miles  from  its  southeast  end  and  2  miles  from  its  northwest 
end.  The  southern  edge  of  the  shoal  passes  about  1  mile  northwest- 
ward from  the  northern  end  "of  Wingham  Island.  When  off  the 
southwest  side  of  Kanak  Island,  vessels  should  keep  in  over  5  fathoms 
(low  water).  The  range  of  the  north  ends  of  Wingham  and  Kayak 
Islands,  bearing  119°  true  (E  mag.),  leads  clear  southward  of  the 
shoal. 

The  passage  between  Kanak  Island  and  Strawberry  Point  is  used 
only  by  boats  and  launches  at  high  water. 

Point  Hey  is  a  projecting  and  prominent  high,  narrow  point  on  the 
northwest  side  of  Controller  Bay  1  mile  northward  of  Kanak  Island. 

Weather. — During  the  summer  the  prevailing  winds  are  easterly 
with  rain,  and  this  is  the  direction  from  which  the  heaviest  weather 
comes.  Westerly  winds  are  infrequent  during  the  summer,  and 
generally  light.  Fog  was  rare  and  cleared  off  before  noon. 

Tides. — High  and  low  water  occur  27  minutes  later  than  at  Sitka, 
and  the  rise  and  fall  of  tides  is  the  same. 

The  tidal  currents  set  into  Controller  Bay  through  all  the  entrances 
on  the  flood  and  out  on  the  ebb.  In  Kayak  Entrance  the  ebb  has 
greater  velocity  than  the  flood,  and  it  is  estimated  that  the  greatest 
velocity  at  strength  does  not  exceed  3  knots.  Tide  rips  occur  at 
times  in  the  channel  abreast  the  southern  end  of  Wingham  Island. 
The  velocity  of  the  current  in  the  channel  north  of  Kayak  Island 
does  not  exceed  2  knots. 

In  Okalee  Channel,  from  observations  taken,  the  flood  current 
was  found  to  attain  an  ordinary  maximum  velocity  of  1.65  knots 
1  hour  and  45  minutes  before  the  time  of  high  water  at  Sitka,  and 
the  ebb  a  velocity  of  1.95  knots  1  hour  and  45  minutes  before  the 
time  of  low  water  at  Sitka.  Small  tide  rips  occur  when  the  wind  is 
against  the  current.  The  tidal  currents  have  some  velocity  around 
the  north  end  of  Wingham  Island. 

KATALLA  BAY, 

twenty- three  miles  northward  from  Cape  St.  Elias,  is  included 
between  Strawberry  Point  on  the  east  and  Martin  Islands  on  the 
west,  a  distance  of  5  miles,  and  indents  the  coast  about  2  miles  to 
the  mouth  of  Katalla  River.  The  bay  is  a  roadstead  anchorage 
sheltered  from  offshore  winds,  but  exposed  to  winds  from  southeast, 
south,  and  southwest. 

Strawberry  Point  is  low  and  bare  at  the  end  and  wooded  toward  the 
foot  of  the  hill.  There  is  a  prominent  hill  on  the  point  with  a  low 


KATALLA  BAY.  33 

break  between  it  and  the  higher  land  northward.  A  shoal  with  little 
water  over  it,  and  on  which  the  sea  generally  breaks  at  low  water, 
extends  nearly  1 Yi  miles  southward  from  the  point. 

The  northeastern  shore  of  the  bay  from  Strawberry  Point  to  the 
mouth  of  the  Katalla  River  is  a  steep  sand  beach.  The  north- 
western shore  from  Katalla  to  Martin  Islands  is  foul  and  should  be 
given  a  berth  of  about  %  mile. 

Palm  Point  is  \Yi  miles  southwestward  of  Katalla.  There  are  a 
number  of  buildings  of  a  railroad  camp  just  northward  of  the  point. 
A  bowlder  reef,  bare  at  low  water,  extends  %  mile  southward  from  it. 

Martin  Islands  are  two  in  number,  about  60  feet  high,  have  steep 
rocky  sides,  and  lie  ^  to  1  mile  from  shore.  The  northern  island  is 
joined  to  the  shore  by  a  flat,  bare  at  extreme  low  water.  There  is  an 
abandoned  radio  station  on  the  northern  island. 

Katalla  is  a  post  office  on  the  northern  side  of  the  bay  and  on  the 
western  side  of  the  mouth  of  Katalla  River.  There  is  a  landing  for 
lighters,  which  were  towed  over  the  bar  except  at  low  water.  The 
bar  at  the  mouth  of  the  river  has^a  depth  of  about  3  feet  at  low  water, 
and  the  sea  generally  breaks  on  it.  The  entrance,  which  is  narrow 
and  rocky,  requires  local  knowledge.  With  a  smooth  sea,  lighters 
formerly  landed  also  in  the  bight  on  the  northeast  side  of  Palm 
Point.  There  is  always  some  surf  on  the  beach,  and  with  south- 
easterly or  southwesterly  winds  landing  is  impracticable.  Goods 
are  discharged  by  means  of  a  lighter.  The  necessary  towing  is  done 
by  launches. 

On  the  east  branch  of  Katalla  River  about  3  miles  from  Katalla 
there  are  oil  works  which  supply  local  boats  with  oil,  gasolene,  and 
distillate.  The  depth  in  the  river  is  ample  for  boats  that  can  cross 
the  bar. 

The  boiler  of  the  wreck  of  the  Portland  can  be  seen  at  a  good  low 
water.  It  has  not  been  accurately  located,  but  it  is  reported  to  lie  in 
the  vicinity  of  the  5-fathorn  curve  as  shown  on  the  chart,  about  1  mile 
northeastward  of  Palm  Point.  Shoals  make  out  on  both  sides  of  the 
river  mouth  to  the  wreck. 

The  anchorage  in  the  bay  is  from  1 Yi  to  2  miles  southward  of  Katalla 
in  6  to  7 Yi  fathoms,  with  the  eastern  end  of  the  town  bearing  be- 
tween 17°  true  (N.  by  W.  mag.)  and  355°  true  (NW.  by  N.  mag.). 
The  bottom  is  hard  sand  but  the  holding  ground  is  generally  good. 
There  are  no  dangers  if  the  shore  be  given  a  berth  of  over  J4  mile, 
but  the  wreck  of  the  Portland  and  the  shoal  extending  \Yi  miles 
southward  from  Strawberry  Point  should  be  kept  in  mind. 

Approaching  from  southeastward,  vessels  pass  2  miles  or  more  south- 
ward of  Southeast  Rock  and  the  breakers  between  it  and  Cape  St. 
Elias.  From  a  position  2J^  miles  west-south  westward  of  Pinnacle 
Rock,  a  12°  true  (N  by  W  Yi  Wmag.)  course  made  good  for  about 
23  miles,  will  lead  to  the  anchorage  in  Katalla  Bay.  Strangers  enter- 
ing Katalla  Bay  should  do  so  in  the  daytime  and  with  clear  weather. 

From  Katalla  bound  westward,  vessels  can  pass  1  to  1 Y2  miles  south- 
ward of  Martin  Islands  and  make  good  a  273°  true  (SW  by  W  %  W 
mag.)  course  for  61  miles  to  a  position  \Yi  to  2  miles  southward  of 
Cape  Hinchinbrook.  This  course  if  made  good  should  lead  in  a  depth 
of  over  15  fathoms  3%  to  4  miles  southward  of  the  sand  islets  lying 
9  to  19  miles  westward  of  Martin  Islands. 
31056°— 16 3 


34  GENERAL   DESCRIPTION. 

COPPER  RIVER 

breaks  through  the  mountains  between  Miles  and  Childs  glaciers, 
above  which  are  rapids.  Below  the  rapids  the  river  flows  through 
flats  about  5  miles  wide  in  many  changeable  channels,  varying  in 
depth  from  5  to  20  feet  at  high  stages  of  the  river,  and  not  navigable. 
The  current  is  swift  and  the  effect  of  the  tide  on  the  current  is  only 
felt  near  the  mouth. 

The  entire  delta  is  low  marshy  flats  except  for  sand  dunes,  50  to 
150  feet  high,  on  the  islands  and.  banks  of  the  main  channel.  From 
seaward  the  vicinity  of  Copper  River  shows  as  a  vast,  rugged  moun- 
tain range,  with  numerous  glaciers  filling  its  gorges. 

From  Point  Martin  to  the  northeast  end  of  Hinchinbropk  Island 
the  coast  is  fringed  by  sand  islets  from  5  to  30  feet  high,  lying  4  to  5 
miles  from  shore.  Shoals  extend  seaward  from  these  islets,  but  they 
have  not  been  developed.  Danger  will  be  avoided  by  giving  the 
islets  a  berth  of  about  3  miles;  the  depth  should  not  be  shoaled  to 
less  than  10  fathoms  (low  water).  The  space  between  these  sand 
islets  and  the  flats  is  largely  bare  at  low  water,  and  is  navigable  only 
for  small  craft  of  3  or  4  feet  draft,  in  places  at  high  water  only. 

Alaganik  Slough,  the  westernmost  branch  of  Copper  River,  is  j/2 
to  1  mile  wide,  with  depths  from  5  to  15  feet,  depending  on  the  stage 
of  the  tide  and  the  river.  The  mean  rise  and  fall  of  the  tide  at  the 
mouth  is  about  10  feet  and  at  Alaganik  2  to  3  feet,  and  the  flood 
current  is  felt  to  the  village. 

Eyak  Eiver,  6  miles  northeastward  of  Point  Whitshed,  is  connected 
with  Eyak  Lake  and  has  a  swift  current.  At  favorable  stages  of  the 
tide  it  is  navigable  for  small,  light-draft  craft  to  the  lake. 

MIDDLETON  ISLAND 

is  about  7  miles  long  and  has  a  greatest  width  of  about  2  miles  near 
its  southern  end.  It  is  flat,  about  120  feet  high,  with  clay  bluffs  and 
occasional  shingle  or  bowlder  beaches,  and  slopes  gradually  to  it's 
north  end,  which  is  a  low  spit.  The  island  is  moist,  almost  boggy, 
numerous  ponds  are  formed  by  rains,  and  it  is  covered  with  grass, 
flowers,  and  berries,  but  there  are  no  trees.  It  is  frequented  by  wild 
fowl,  and  there  is  driftwood  on  the  shores.  There  are  large  bowlders 
on  the  beaches  and  reefs  around  the  island. 

Reefs  and  breakers  extend  possibly  2  miles  eastward  and  4  miles 
southward  from  the  island  and  are  reported  to  extend  2  or  3  miles 
off  its  north  end.  On  the  west  side  kelp  extends  Y^  to  1  ^  miles  from 
shore.  The  island  is  not  surveyed  and  should  be  approached  with 
caution. 

The  usual  anchorage  is  about  1%  miles  off,  about  320°  true  (WNW 
mag.)  from  a  shallow  bight  near  the  middle  of  the  west  side  of  the 
island,  in  12  to  13  fathoms,  gravelly  bottom.  This  anchorage  is  out- 
side the  kelp,  with  the  north  end  of  the  island  bearing  52°  true  (NNE 
Y%  E  mag.)  and  the  extreme  southwest  end  206°  true  (S  y%  E  mag.). 
The  landing  is  bad  except  with  a  smooth  sea. 

The  tidal  currents  have  a  velocity  of  2  to  3  knots  at  the  anchorage, 
setting  northward  on  the  flood  and  southward  on  the  ebb. 

Wessels  Reef,  awash  at  low  water  and  2  miles  long  northeast  and 
southwest,  lies  in  latitude  59°  47'  N.,  longitude  146°  12'  W.,  or  about 


MIDDLETON   ISLAND.  35 

16  miles  11°  true  (N  by  W  J/2  W  mag.)  from  the  north  end  of  Middleton 
Island.  There  is  a  depth  of  30  fathoms  or  more  close  to  the  reef,  and 
with  a  smooth  sea  no  indication  of  it  can  be  detected. 

PRINCE  WILLIAM  SOUND. 

Hinchinbrook  Entrance,  between  Montague  and  Hichinbrook  Islands, 
is  used  by  vessels  entering  Prince  William  Sound  from  eastward  and 
southeastward,  while  Elrington  Passage  is  used  by  vessels  approach- 
ing from  south  westward.  Hinchinbrook  Entrance  is  about  6  miles 
wide,  and  clear  with  the  exception  of  Seal  Kpcks. 

The  tidal  currents  in  the  entrance  set  directly  in  or  out  of  the 
sound.  In  Hinchinbrook  Entrance,  Montague  Strait,  Latouche 
Passage,  and  other  passages  to  the  westward  slack  water  occurs 
about  the  time  of  high  water  or  low  water  within  Prince  William 
Sound,  or  50  minutes  before  the  time  of  tide  at  Kodiak;  the  mean 
velocity  of  the  current  at  strength  is  1  knot.  The  ebb  current  run- 
ning out  against  a  large  swell  causes  overfalls,  especially  in  the  deep 
water  2  or  3  miles  eastward  of  Zaikof  Point,  which  have  been  mis- 
taken for  breakers.  There  are  also  tide  rips  on  the  broken  ground 
around  Cape  Hinchinbrook.  The  flood  entering  westward  of  Mon- 
tague Island  sets  northeastward  past  Montague  Point  and  causes 
rips  between  it  and  Johnstone  Point.  Outside  the  entrance  along 
the  southeast  coast  of  Hinchinbrook  Island  the  current  sets  south- 
westward  almost  constantly. 

Seal  Rocks  lie  off  the  entrance  6  to  7  miles  south-southwestward 
from  Cape  Hinchinbrook  and  over  6  miles  from  Montague  Island. 
They  are  two  bare  rocks,  30  to  37  feet  high,  surrounded  by  low  rocks. 
Sunken  rocks  extend  1  mile  northeastward  and  a  short  distance 
southwesbward  from  them.  The  entire  reef  within  the  10-fathom 
curve  forms  an  obstruction  nearly  2J/2  miles  long. 

Hinchinbrook  Island  has  two  mountain  ridges  with  elevations  up  to 
2,900  feefc,  and  a  low  valley  between  them  running  through  from  the 
head  of  Port  Etches.  The  tree  line  is  about  1,000  feet  above  the 
sea,  and  the  summits  of  the  island  are  bare.  There  are  a  lew  rocky 
islets  close  to  the  southeast  side  of  Cape  Hinchinbrook,  and  sunken 
reefs  on  which  the  sea  breaks  in  a  moderate  swell  lie  y%  mile  south- 
eastward and  southward  from  the  cape.  It  should  be  given  a  berth 
of  over  %  mile.  Cape  Hinchinbrook  is  marked  by  a  lighthouse  and 
fog  signal. 

Northeastward  of  Cape  Hinchinbrook  the  seaward  face  of  Hinch- 
inbrook Island  is  steep,  with  rocky  bluffs  at  the  water,  for  12  miles 
to  an  open  bight  with  a  broad  sand  beach  on  the  northwest  side  of 
Hook  Point.  From  Hook  Point  to  Point  Steele,  a  distance  of  2 
miles,  the  coast  is  a  bluff  about  200  feet  high,  with  low,  swampy 
land  between  it  and  the  mountains,  which  lie  nearly  2  miles  back. 
The  coast  is  clear  except  from  Hook  Point  to  Point  Steele,  where 
reels  make  out  ^  mile.  A  boat  can  land  in  good  weather  on  the 
northwest  side  of  Hook  Point  and  Y^  mile  northward  of  Point  Steele. 
A  depth  of  2J/2  fathoms  was  found  3  miles  southeastward  of  Point 
Bentinck,  the  northeast  end  of  Hinchinbrook  Island,  and  breakers 
extend  out  nearly  this  distance  in  ordinary  weather. 


36  PRINCE   WILLIAM   SOUND. 

Montague  Island  is  high  and  mountainous,  and  wooded  to  an  ele- 
vation of  about  1,000  feet.  At  its  north  end  are  three  prominent 
points  forming  Zaikof  and  Rocky  Bays,  and  low  depressions  run 
through  from  the  heads  of  the  bays  to  the  northwest  side  of  the 
island.  Schooner  Rock,  61  feet  high,  lies  nearly  ^  mile  off  Zaikof 
Point,  the  northeast  end  of  Montague  Island,  and  is  marked  by  a 
small  white  house. 

For  a  distance  of  20  miles  southward  of  Zaikof  Point  the  coast  of 
Montague  Island  is  unbroken  and  free  from  outlying  dangers,  except- 
ing Seal  Rocks.  Thence  southward  the  coast  is  more  irregular  and 
should  be  given  a  good  berth  in  the  absence  of  a  complete  survey. 
A  vessel  is  reported  to  have  struck  a  sunken  rock  lying  about  9 
miles  northeasoward  of  Cape  Cleare  and  possibly  as  much  as  2  miles 
offshore.  The  position  is  doubtful. 

Wooded  Islands  lie  13  to  17  miles  northeastward  of  Cape  Cleare 
and  extend  offshore  about  3  miles.  The  largest  are  five  in  number, 
60  to  130  feet  high,  flat-topped  and  wooded,  with  bluff  sides.  Rips 
or  breakers  are  reported  to  extend  1  %  miles  northeastward  from  the 
northernmost  island. 

A  bank  with  18  and  20  fathoms  is  reported  to  extend  10  or  12 
miles  south-south  westward  from  Cape  Cleare  in  the  prolongation  of 
Montague  Island.  No  rocks  or  breakers  were  seen  except  within  a 
mile  of  the  shore. 

Tides. — In  Prince  William  Sound  high  and  low  water  occur  about 
50  minutes  earlier  than  at  Kodiak,  and  the  mean  rise  and  fall  of  the 
tides  is  about  9J/£  feet.  To  find  the  approximate  height  of  the  tide 
multiply  the  height  of  the  corresponding  tide  at  Kodiak  by  the  ratio 
of  ranges  1.37. 

Glacial  ice  is  rarely  found  in  the  open  waters  of  Prince  William 
Sound.  Ice  is  discharged  by  Columbia  Glacier,  northward  of  Glacier 
Island,  and  is  driven  into  the  sound  by  northerly  winds;  it  may  be 
expected,  depending  on  the  winds,  from  Bligh  Island  to  Bald  Head 
Chris  Island  and  as  far  south  as  Storey  Island. 

There  are  numerous  discharging  glaciers  in  Port  Wells,  the  north- 
west arm  of  the  sound,  but  the  ice  rarely  reaches  the  entrance  of  the 
Eort.  There  is  a  discharging  glacier  at  the  head  of  Blackstone  Bay, 
ut  the  ice  is  confined  to  the  bay. 

Ice  is  discharged  by  Chenega  Glacier  on  the  southwest  side  of  the 
sound,  and  occasionally  drifts  eastward  as  far  as  Point  Helen  and 
the  north  entrance  of  Latouche  Passage  through  the  passage  south 
of  Chenega  Island. 

During  very  cold  weather  ice  sometimes  forms  in  the  arms  of  the 
sound  which  reach  well  into  the  mountains,  and  is  at  times  sufficiently 
heavy  to  impede  navigation  for  wooden  vessels. 

PORT  ETCHES 

is  an  inlet  in  the  southwest  end  of  Hinchinbrook  Island,  about  4  miles 
northwestward  of  Cape  Hinchinbrook.  The  port  is  about  7  miles  long 
in  a  56°  true  (NNE  ^  E  mag.)  direction  and  about  1J4  miles  wide. 
It  is  a  secure  anchorage,  the  best  in  Hinchinbrook  Entrance,  and  is 
easy  of  access.  The  strongest  gales  are  northeast  and  are  not  steady, 
but  descend  from  the  surrounding  mountains  in  heavy  williwaws  of 


PORT  ETCHES.  37 

varied  direction,  and  they  sometimes  blow  hard  in  Port  Etches  when 
comparatively  light  winds  prevail  outside.  Fresh  water  can  con- 
veniently be  obtained  from  streams  in  Garden  Cove  and  on  the  north- 
west side  of  Constantino  Harbor. 

The  best  anchorage  for  large  vessels  is  in  the  middle  abreast  Garden 
Cove,  2  miles  from  the  head  of  the  port,  in  12  to  15  fathoms,  muddy 
bottom.  A  flat  extends  1J^  miles  from  the  head,  but  the  lead  is  a 
good  guide  to  avoid  it.  The  swell  is  quite  perceptible  in  heavy 
southerly  weather. 

Garden  Cove  (Mosquito  Bight),  on  the  southeast  side,  2  to  2J/£ 
miles  from  the  head  of  the  port,  is  the  best  anchorage  for  small  vessels. 
Garden  Island,  wooded  and  having  a  break  through  it,  lies  in  the 
middle  of  the  entrance;  the  bight  eastward  of  this  island  is  shoal, 
and  there  is  no  safe  passage  northeastward  of  it.  Point  Horn,  the 
southwest  point  of  the  cove,  is  the  most  prominent  of  the  projecting 
points  on  the  southeast  shore  of  Port  Etches. 

To  enter  Garden  Cove  pass  400  j}o  500  yards  northward  of  this  point 
and  steer  93°  true  (NE  by  E  %  E  mag.).  Anchor  with  Point  Horn 
in  line  with  the  southernmost  of  the  Porpoise  Rocks,  and  about  250 
yards  southeastward  of  Garden  Island,  with  the  break  through  it 
open,  in  4  to  5  fathoms,  sticky  bottom.  No  ocean  swell  reaches  the 
anchorage,  but,  as  elsewhere  in  Port  Etches,  the  williwaws  are  bad  in 
easterly  gales,  coming  both  from  the  head  of  the  port  and  the  head  of 
the  cove. 

English  Bay,  on  the  southeast  side  at  the  entrance  of  the  port,  is  a 
bight  about  %  mile  wide.  It  may  bo  used  as  a  temporary  anchorage 
by  smaU  vessels,  but  it  is  exposed  to  the  ocean  swell  in  heavy  weather 
and  open  to  northerly  and  westerly  winds.  Easterly  gales  blow  in 
williwaws  from  all  directions,  but  do  not  raise  much  sea  if  anchored 
well  in  the  cove.  The  holding  ground  is  good.  When  entering  give 
the  southwest  point  of  the  cove  a  berth  of  J£  mile,  and  anchor  in  the 
middle  just  inside  the  entrance,  in  about  5  fathoms. 

The  two  bights  on  the  southeast  shore  of  Port  Etches,  1%  and  3^ 
miles  northeastward  of  English  Bay,  are  rocky  and  should  be  avoided. 

Porpoise  Rocks,  on  the  northwest  side  at  the  entrance  of  Port 
Etches,  are  three  principal  rocks  about  48  feet  high,  with  numerous 
small  rocks  between  and  northeastward  of  them.  The  westernmost 
and  largest  is  flat  on  top  and  grass-covered,  and  a  rock  covered  at 
high  water  lies  200  yards  westward  from  it.  There  is  deep  water 
close  to  the  rocks,  except  on  their  northeast  side  where  there  is  foul 
ground  extending  to  Point  Barber  at  Nuchek,  a  distance  of  1  mile, 
with  no  safe  channel  between.  There  is  kelp  around  Porpoise  Rocks 
and  for  a  distance  of  %  mile  southwestward  of  Point  Barber. 

In  good  weather  steamers  sometimes  anchor  off  the  shingle  spit 
northwestward  of  Nuchek  to  land  or  receive  passengers  and  freight. 
It  is  an  uneasy  anchorage  on  account  of  the  swell.  The  best  anchor- 
age is  abreast  the  spit  midway  between  the  village  and  the  rocky, 
wooded  knob  on  the  middle  of  the  spit,  with  the  village  bearing  95° 
true  (ENE  mag.),  and  the  southeast  one  of  the  three  largest  Porpoise 
Rocks  in  line  with  the  end  of  Hinchinbrook  Island,  bearing  191° 
true  (S  by  E  ^  E  mag.),  in  about  10  fathoms,  sandy  bottom. 

Nuchek  is  an  Indian  village  on  the  southeast  end  of  the  shingle  spit 
at  the  southwest  end  of  Constantine  Harbor. 


38  PORT  ETCHES. 

CONSTANTINE  HARBOR 

is  the  lagoon  on  the  northwest  side  of  Port  Etches,  its  entrance  lying 
3  miles  northeastward  of  Porpoise  Kocks.  It  is  suitable  only  for 
small  craft  on  account  of  the  very  narrow  entrance  channel,  which  is 
50  to  100  yards  wide  with  depths  of  18  to  19  feet.  The  tidal  currents 
have  considerable  velocity  in  the  entrance.  The  best  time  to  enter 
is  at  high  water,  preferably  near  slack  water.  The  harbor  is  generally 
shallow,  but  has  an  area  %  mile  long  and  %  mile  wide  with  depths  of 
3  to  4}4  fathoms,  sticky  bottom,  but  exposed  to  williwaws. 

On  the  northeast  side  of  the  entrance  are  three  small,  rocky, 
wooded  islets  with  overhanging  sides.  Between  them  are  three  rocks 
bare  at  low  water,  and  60  yards  south-southeastward  from  the 
western  islet  is  a  sunken  rock,  all  marked  by  kelp  at  slack  water. 
The  channel  is  close  to  the  islets,  between  them  and  a  shoal  with  9  to 
10  feet  over  it  extending  600  yards  northeastward  from  Phipps 
Point. 

To  enter  Constantino  Harbor  pass  100  yards  south  westward  of  the 
western  islet  on  a  west-northwesterly  course,  follow  the  northwest 
shore  at  a  distance  of  125  yards,  and  pass  through  the  narrow  entrance 
in  mid-channel  heading  for  Bear  Cape.  Keep  this  course  for  %to% 
mile  from  the  entrance  and  anchor  about  200  yards  from  the  southeast 
shore,  which  affords  some  protection  in  northeast  gales  from  the 
strongest  williwaws  that  come  apparently  from  the  head  of  Port 
Etches. 

A  temporary  anchorage  can  be  made  about  J^  mile  southeastward 
of  the  rocky  islets  in  the  entrance  of  Constantine  Harbor,  with  the 
southeast  Porpoise  Kock  open  from  the  northwest  shore  of  the  port, 
bearing  242°  true  (SW  by  S  mag.),  in  10  to  12  fathoms,  sticky  bottom, 
but  there  is  considerable  swell  in  heavy  weather. 

Tides. — High  and  low  water  occur  about  45  minutes  before  high 
and  low  water  at  Kodiak.  The  mean  rise  and  fall  of  the  tides  is  9 
feet.  To  find  the  height  of  the  tide  for  any  day  at  Port  Etches 
multiply  the  height  of  the  corresponding  predicted  tide  at  Kodiak  by 
the  ratio  of  ranges  1.29. 

ZAIKOF  BAY, 

the  easternmost  of  the  two  bays  in  the  north  end  of  Montague  Island, 
is  clear  and  affords  anchorage,  but  is  exposed  to  northeast  winds. 
Anchorage  can  be  selected  with  the  aid  of  the  chart  along  the  south- 
east shore,  from  2  miles  inside  Schooner  Rock  to  the  head,  also  on  a 
bar  with  10  to  15  fathoms  which  extends  across  the  bay  2^  miles 
from  the  head.  A  good  berth  is  in  7  to  12  fathoms,  depending  on  the 
swinging  room  required,  in  the  cove  on  the  southeast  side  2^  miles 
inside  Schooner  Kock,  with  Middle  Point  bearing  352°  true  (NW 
J4  N  mag.).  This  anchorage  is  exposed  to  winds  from  north  to  east, 
and  a  swell  makes  in  during  southeast  gales.  The  only  dangers  are  a 
short  reef  marked  by  kelp  off  the  point  westward,  and  two  rocks,  bare 
at  half  tide  and  marked  by  kelp,  close  to  the  shore  eastward. 

A  small  vessel  can  anchor  in  the  cove  on  the  southeast  side  Ij^j 
miles  from  the  head,  with  shelter  from  northeast  winds.  Anchor 
close  to  the  southern  side  of  the  point,  about  200  yards  from  the 
short  spit  making  out  from  it,  in  8  to  10  fathoms.  There  is  no  swell, 


ZAIKOF   BAY.  39 

but  the  williwaws  blow  with  great  force  over  the  lower  land  inside 
the  point.  When  the  wind  hauls  southeastward  or  southward  the 
williwaws  come  from  all  directions,  and  it  is  well  to  shift  anchorage 
farther  from  the  spit.  There  is  a  small  shallow  lagoon  at  the  head 
of  the  cove;  an  I  the  bank  is  steep-to. 

ROCKY  BAY 

has  deep  water  and  is  exposed  to  northerly  and  easterly  winds.  A 
small  vessel  can  anchor  in  good  weather  about  ^  mile  from  the  head 
and  400  yards  from  the  northwest  side,  in  8  to  10  fathoms.  Small 
craft  can^anchor  in  the  lagoon,  on  the  southern  side  1  mile  from  the 
head,  where  there  is  a  small  area  with  a  depth  of  10  feet.  When 
entering  the  lagoon,  care  should  be  taken  to  avoid  a  reef,  partly  bare 
at  low  water,  extending  westward  and  northwestward  from  the 
north  point  at  its  entrance. 

Two  ledges,  bare  at  low  water  and  marked  by  kelp,  lie  nearly  J^ 
mile  off  the  southern  side  of  Rocky  Bay,  y%  to  %  mile  inside  Middle 
Point.  Kelp  extends  northeastward  from  them  to  a  3%-fathom 
patch  lying  %  mile  355°  true  (NW  by  N  mag.)  from  Middle  Point. 
Foul  ground  marked  by  kelp  extends  ^  mile  °ff  Middle  Point. 

A  reef,  the  higher  part  bare  at  half  tide,  extends  nearly  J|  mile 
northeastward  from  Montague  Point. 

NORTHWEST  SHORE  OF  HINCHINBROOK   ISLAND. 

Bear  Cape  is  steep  and  high,  and  is  the  southwest  end  of  the 
northwest,  mountain  ridge  of  Hinchinbrook  Island. 

A  small  cove  in  Hinchinbrook  Island,  3  miles  northward  of  Bear 
Cape,  has  anchorage  a  little  southward  of  the  middle  of  the  entra  ce 
in  8  to  10  fathoms,  with  shelter  from  easterly  and  southeasterly 
winds. 

Shelter  Bay  has  a  shallow  entrance  with  strong  currents,  and  can 
not  be  used  even  by  small  craft.  Temporary  anchorage,  with 
shelter  from  offshore  winds,  may  be  had  about  ^  mile  from  shore, 
off  the  middle  of  the  bight  at  the  entrance  of  Shelter  Bay,  in  5  to  10 
fathoms,  sandy  and  muddy  bottom.  A  shoal,  with  rocks  in  places, 
extends  about  %  mile  from  the  shore  in  the  bight. 

A  vessel  has  anchored  in  10  fathoms,  about  ^  mile  northwest- 
ward of  the  Seven  Sisters,  and  found  the  williwaws  less  strong  with 
southeast  winds  than  at  the  anchorage  3  miles  northward  of  Bear 
Cape. 

Temporary  anchorage,  with  shelter  from  offshore  winds,  may  be 
had  southward  of  the  sharp  point,  with  two  rocks  about  30  feet 
high  close-to,  lying  %  mile  southward  of  Johnstone  Point.  The 
anchorage  is  about  J^  mile  off  the  sand  beach  and  southwestward  of 
the  sharp  point,  in  about  10-fathoms,  sandy  bottom. 

Johnstone  Point,  the  northwest  end  of  Hinchinbrook  Island,  is  low 
and  wooded,  with  a  small  bluff  at  the  water,  and  is  marked  by  a  light. 

Eastward  of  Johnstone  Point  the  shore  is  low,  and  there  are  two 
shallow  bays  or  lagoons.  The  easterly  bay  has  secure  anchorage  for 
small  craft.  The  entrance,  lying  4  miles  eastward  of  Johnstone 
Point,  is  westward  of  the  island  in  its  mouth,  and  then  leads  between 


40  HINOHINBROOK  ISLAND. 

two  rocks.  The  one  on  the  west  side  is  bare  at  half  tide  and  is  at  the 
end  of  a  sand  spit  making  out  from  the  shore;  it  should  be  given  a 
berth  of  about  40  yards.  The.rock  on  the  east  side  is  bare  at  extreme 
low  water.  When  inside  the  rocks,  head  for  the  cove  in  the  southwest 
side  of  the  bay,  and  anchor  in  about  3  fathoms,  sticky  bottom,  about 
250  to  300  yards  from  shore,  and  about  half  way  between  the  sand 
spit  mentioned  above  and  the  south  shore  of  the  bay. 

Anchorage  can  be  selected  off  the  shore,  westward  of  Middle  Ground 
Shoal,  in  12  to  20  fathoms,  soft  bottom,  with  shelter  from  southerly 
and  easterly  winds. 

Middle  Ground  Shoal  fills  the  opening  between  Hinchinbrook  and 
Hawkins  Islands  and  extends  into,Orca  Bay  3  miles.  The  general 
depths  on  the  shoal  are  2  to  6  feet,  and  it  is  a  danger  for  vessels 
entering  Orca  Bay  from  southward.  It  is  marked  at  its  northwest 
end  by  a  red  bell  buoy. 

Hawkins  Island  Cut-off,  between  Hinchinbrook  and  Hawkins  Is- 
lands, is  navigable  only  for  small  craft  with  local  knowledge.  It  is 
filled  with  shoals,  and  in  its  eastern  end  are  extensive  flals  bare  at  low 
water  and  largely  covered  at  high  water.  There  are  strong  tidal 
currents  in  its  narrower  parts. 

ORCA  BAY 

is  an  extensive  arm  on  the  eastern  shore  of  Prince  William  Sound 
between  Johnstone  Point  and  Knowles  Head,  having  a  length  of 
about  30  miles  in  an  85°  true  (NE  by  E  mag.)  direction.  Its  prin- 
cipal importance  is  derived  from  the  railroad  terminal  of  Cordova 
on  Orca  Inlet  at  its  head.  Its  southern  side  is  formed  by  Hinchin- 
brook and  Hawkins  Islands  and  is  clear  with  the  exception  of  Middle 
Ground  Shoal.  Its  north  side  is  indented  by  large  bays,  which  are  of 
no  present  commercial  importance. 

Knowles  Head,  the  southwest  end  of  the  mountainous  peninsula 
between  Port  Grayina  and  Fidalgo  Bay,  is  a  steep  massive  headland, 
1,502  feet  high,  with  a  prominent  yellowish  landslide  down  its  south- 
ern face.  There  is  a  low  depression  between  it  and  Porcupine  Point, 
and  others  northeastward  of  it  running  through  from  Snug  Corner 
Cove  and  the  arms  of  Two  Moon  Bay.  There  are  numerous  rocks 
close  to  shore,  but  there  are  no  known  dangers  if  it  be  given  a  berth 
of  over  J^  mile. 

Red  Head,  4  miles  east-northeastward  of  Knowles  Head,  is  a  high 
hill  with  a  long,  low,  wooded  neck  behind  it. 

Port  Gravina  has  its  entrance  between  Red  Head  and  Gravina 
Point.  It  is  not  surveyed. 

Gravina  Point,  12  miles  eastward  of  Knowles  Head,  is  low  and 
wooded,  and  at  its  southern  end  is  a  bare  spit  with  a  large  and  a  small 
clump  of  trees  on  it. 

Gravina  Island,  low  and  wooded,  lies  \y%  miles  west-northwest- 
ward of  the  point  and  %  mile  from  shore.  Anchorage  with  shelter 
from  northeast  winds  can  be  had  about  ]/2  mile  from  shore  between 
the  island  and  Gravina  Point,  in  about  10  fathoms. 

Sheep  Bay  has  its  entrance  between  Gravina  and  Sheep  Points, 
and  extends  northward  about  7  miles.  The  bay  has  not  been  closely 
surveyed,  the  bottom  is  exceedingly  broken,  and  vessels  should  pro- 
ceed with  caution.  Foul  ground  extends  %  to  ^  mile  from  the 


ORCA  BAY.  41 

eastern  shore  for  a  distance  of  2  miles  northward  of  Sheep  Point. 
Indifferent  anchorage  in  18  to  20  fathoms  can  be  selected  in  the 
middle  about  3  miles  above  Sheep  Point  and  %  mile  below  the  point 
where  the  bay  contracts.  Proceeding  with  care  and  preferably  at 
low  water,  small  vessels  can  follow  the  deep  channel  among  the  islands 
in  the  upper  part  of  the  bay  and  select  anchorage  in  11  to  15  fathoms. 
The  chart  is  the  guide. 

Sheep  Point  is  moderately  low  and  wooded  at  the  end,  with  high 
land  back  of  it.  A  wooded  islet  lies  M  mile  westward  of  the  point, 
with  bare  rocks  between,  and  foul  ground  extends  J£  mile  southward 
and  westward  from  the  islet. 

Hanks  Island,  small  and  wooded,  lies  ^  mile  eastward  of  Sheep 
Point  and  j/2  mile  from  shore.  Gatherer  Rock,  %  mile  124°  true 
(E  y%  S  mag.)  from  Hanks  Island,  is  a  pinnacle  with  13  feet  over  it 
and  deep  water  close-to.  Broken  ground  on  which  the  least  depth 
found  is  8  feet  extends  J£  mile  southward  from  Hanks  Island,  and 
is  marked  at  its  south  end  by  a  black  buoy. 

Simpson  Bay  has  depths  of  25  to  30  fathoms,  muddy  bottom, 
through  the  middle  of  its  outer  part.  There  are  two  islets  abreast 
each  other,  about  J^  mue  from  the  east  and  west  shores,  and  nearly 
1  mile  inside  the  entrance,  which  are  good  marks  for  navigating  this 
part  of  the  bay.  A  rock,  bare  at  extreme  low  water,  lies  400  yards 
southward  of  the  east  point  at  the  entrance  to  the  inner  part  of  the 
bay.  Passing  westward  of  this  rock,  the  mid-channel  is  clear  to 
the  head  of  the  bay,  where  there  is  anchorage,  favoring  the  western 
shore,  between  the  edge  of  the  flat  and  the  islets  southward,  in  about 
15  fathoms.  The  chart  is  a  sufficient  guide. 

The  east  arm  of  Simpson  Bay  is  clear  except  near  the  shores. 
Good  anchorage  can  be  selected  on  either  side  of  the  islands  in  the 
upper  part  of  the  arm  hi  12  to  15  fathoms. 

Hawkins  Island  is  about  20  miles  long  and  mountainous,  with 
elevations  up  to  2,025  feet.  Canoe  Passage,  dividing  the  island 
about  8  miles  from  its  southwest  end,  is  navigable  only  for  boats  at 
high  water.  The  northwest  shore  southwestward  of  Canoe  Passage 
is  low  tundra  meadows  with  patches  of  trees.  Northeastward  of 
Canoe  Passage  the  high  land  is  nearer  the  northwest  shore  of  the 
island;  there  are  bluffs  in  places,  and  it  is  more  densely  wooded. 

With  the  aid  of  the  chart,  anchorage  can  be  selected  in  places  along 
the  northwest  shore  of  Hawkins  Island  with  shelter  from  easterly 
and  southerly  winds.  The  best  anchorage  is  J^  to  ^g  mue  on?  ^ne 
spit  at  the  south  end  of  Cedar  Bay  in  9  to  12  fathoms,  soft  bottom. 
There  is  a  round,  wooded  islet  at  the  north  end  of  this  spit,  and  a 
larger  wooded  one  J^  mile  northward.  Small  craft,  entering  at 
high  water  and  passing  northward  of  the  rocks  awash  and  sunken 
inside  the  entrance,  can  anchor  in  the  north  angle  of  the  lagoon 
inside  the  spit,  where  there  is  a  limited  area  with  a  depth  of  7  feet. 

Channel  Islands  are  wooded  and  nearly  1  mile  long,  and  lie  on  the 
northwest  side  of  the  bay  6  miles  above  Sheep  Point.  The  channel 
at  the  islands  is  J^  mile  wide  and  is  called  The  Narrows.  A  rock  with 
12  feet  over  it  lies  %  mile  south-southwestward  of  the  southwest 
end  of  Channel  Islands,  and  is  marked  by  a  black  buoy.  The  rock 
is  at  the  north  end  of  a  ridge  about  %  mile  long  in  a  south-south- 
westerly direction,  with  depths  of  13  to  14  fathoms,  except  near  the 
rock. 


42  PRINCE   WILLIAM   SOUND. 

ORCA  INLET 

extends  in  a  southerly  direction  from  the  head  of  Ore  a  Bay.  From 
North  Island  to  Spike  Island  the  western  side  of  the  inlet  is  shoal, 
and  southward  of  opike  Island  the  inlet  is  filled  by  flats.  Northward 
of  North  Island  it  has  depths  of  25  to  30  fathoms,  and  a  flat  extends 
1  mile  from  the  head  at  its  north  end. 

Salmo  Point,  the  northern  extremity  of  Hawkins  Island,  is  just 
ahove  Channel  Islands.  Knot  Point,  the  northeast  end  of  Hawkins 
Island,  lies  1 J^  miles  south-southeastward  from  Salmo  Point  with  a 
bay  1J^  miles  long  and  %  mile  wide  between.  This  bay  has  depths 
of  3  to  6  fathoms,  but  a  shoal  with  9  to  12  feet  over  it  extends  across 
its  entrance;  it  may  be  used  as  an  anchorage  by  small  vessels  that  can 
cross  the  shoal. 

Observation  Island,  %  mile  long,  high  and  wooded,  lies  3/£  mile 
northeastward  of  Knot  Point.  There  is  good  anchorage  300  to  500 
yards  westward  of  Observation  Island,  in  8  to  10  fathoms,  but  care 
must  be  observed  not  to  foul  the  cable  which  lies  about  250  yards  from 
the  west  side  of  the  island. 

North  Island,  y%  mile  long,  low  and  wooded,  lies  1  mile  northward 
of  Salmo  Point. 

From  Salmo  Point  there  are  three  channels  to  Orca  cannery  and 
Cordova. 

The  deepest  channel  is  north  of  North  Island,  and  then  follows  the 
eastern  shore  with  a  least  width  of  350  yards  and  a  least  depth  of 
about  5  fathoms,  and  is  marked  by  buoys.  A  rock  bare  at  three- 
quarters  ebb  lies  650  yards  northeastward  from  the  north  end  of 
North  Island,  and  is  marked  by  a  light.  The  shoal  on  the  west  side 
of  the  channel  between  North  and  Observation  Islands  has  depths 
of  10  to  18  feet,  and  with  care  can  be  avoided  by  the  use  of  the  lead. 

The  bight  in  the  eastern  shore  eastward  of  North  Island  is  filled  by-  a 
flat,  largely  bare  at  low  water  and  steep-to,  which  extends  J^  mile 
off  the  sawmill  at  the  mouth  of  the  stream  in  the  bight;  the  sawmill 
wharf  extends  across  the  flat  to  the  edge  of  the  channel.  The  bight 
extending  J^  mile  northward  from  Cordova  wharf  is  filled  by  a  flat, 
and  depths  of  19  to  24  feet  are  found  on  and  a  little  westward  of  the 
line  from  the  wharf  to  the  north  point  of  the  bight.  With  these 
exceptions  the  eastern  shore  is  clear. 

Orca  Channel,  between  North  and  Observation  Islands,  has  a  depth 
of  about  18  feet  and  a  width  of  about  300  yards  between  shoals  with 
10  to  12  feet  over  them.  It  is  used  by  small  vessels  with  local 
knowledge,  but  should  be  avoided  by  strangers.  South  Rock,  bare 
at  half  tide,  lies  250  yards  northward  from  Observation  Island. 
North  Rock,  covered  only  at  high  water,  lies  midway  between  Observa- 
tion and  North  Islands. 

Odiak  Channel  passes  westward  of  Observation  Island,  and  across 
the  shoal  1^  miles  southward  of  the  island  where  the  depth  is  18  to 
20  feet.  The  following  directions  lead  through  the  channel  in  a  least 
depth  of  18  feet: 

Round  Salmo  Point  at  a  distance  of  about  400  yards,  steer  185° 
true  (SSE  j/§  E  mag.)  and  pass  about  200  yards  eastward  of  Knot 
Point.  Then  steer  169°  true  (SE  3/^  S  mag.)  with  Knot  Point  astern 
and  the  red  buoy  lying  J/£  m^e  northward  of  Cordova  wharf  a  little 


OKCA  INLET.  43 

on  the  starboard  bow.  Pass  eastward  of  the  buoy  and  steer  about 
211°  true  (S  Y8  W  mag.)  for  Spike  Island. 

Orca  cannery  is  on  the  eastern  shore  southeastward  from  Observa- 
tion Island.  There  is  a  depth  of  25  feet  at  the  end  of  the  wharf,  and 
water  can  be  obtained  through  pipe  and  hose.  There  is  good  anchor- 
age about  y±  mile  from  the  eastern  shore  abreast  or  southward  of  the 
cannery,  in  7  to  9  fathoms. 

Cordova,  the  terminus  of  the  Copper  River  &  Northwestern  Rail- 
road, is  on  the  east  shore  of  Orca  Inlet  eastward  of  Spike  Island. 
There  are  stores  and  hotels,  and  provisions  and  supplies  of  all  kinds 
can  be  obtained.  There  is  communication  by  telephone  to  stations 
along  the  railroad,  Katalla,  and  the  radio  station  at  Point  Whitshed, 
and  by  cable  to  other  Alaska  ports  and  Seattle.  Water  and  fuel  oil 
can  be  obtained  at  the  wharf.  Coal  may  be  purchased  in  limited 
quantities,  and  in  larger  quantities  if  sufficient  notice  be  given. 

Cordova  wharf  is  on  the  eastern  shore  %  mile  northward  of  Spike 
Island  and  2  miles  southward  of  JDrca.  It  is  740  feet  long  and  has  a 
least  depth  of  29  feet  along  its  face;  a  depth  of  26  feet  is  found  for  a 
distance  of  150  yards  westward  from  its  northern  end. 

There  is  good  anchorage  in  the  channel  westward  of  the  wharf  and 
Spike  Island,  in  8  to  10  fathoms.  The  edge  of  the  flat  on  the  western 
side  of  the  inlet  lies  Y%  mile  westward  of  the  wharf  and  y%  mile  south- 
westward  of  Spike  Island.  Spike  Island  is  about  300  yards  long  and 
wooded.  The  inlet  eastward  and  southward  of  it  is  shoal. 

CUR-RENTS,  ORCA  INLET. 

The  tidal  currents  in  Orca  Inlet  set  southward  on  the  flood  and 
northward  on  the  ebb. 

At  Orca  the  strength  of  the  flood  occurs  2  hours  before  the  time 
of  high  water  and  the  strength  of  the  ebb  2  hours  30  minutes  before 
the  time  of  low  water  at  Kodiak.  The  mean  velocity  of  the  current 
at  strength  of  flood  is  about  1.5  knots  and  at  strength  of  ebb  is  0.8 
knot.  Slack  water  before  the  flood  occurs  15  minutes  before  time  of 
low  water  at  Kodiak,  and  slack  water  before  the  ebb  occurs  1  hour 
and  10  minutes  after  time  of  high  water  at  Kodiak. 

The  current  sets  directly  off  the  face  of  the  Cordova  wharf  on  both 
flood  and  ebb,  due  to  the  fact  that  the  wharf  is  built  off  a  small  point 
with  a  decided  bight  in  the  shore  on  either  side. 

At  Cordova  the  strength  of  the  flood  occurs  three  hours  before  the 
time  of  high  water,  and  the  strength  of  the  ebb  three  hours  before 
the  time  of  low  water  at  Kodiak.  The  mean  velocity  of  the  current 
at  strength  of  flood  is  about  2  knots  and  at  strength  of  ebb  is  about 
1.4  knots,  although  at  times  the  current  may  exceed  3  knots.  Slack 
water  before  the  flood  occurs  10  minutes  after  the  time  of  low  water 
at  Kodiak,  and  slack  water  before  the  ebb  occurs  30  minutes  after 
the  time  of  high  water  at  Kodiak. 

DIRECTIONS,  ORCA  BAY. 

From  Hinchinbrook  Entrance. — Round  Cape  Hinchinbrook  at  a  dis- 
tance of  about  \y^  miles  and  follow  the  western  shore  of  Hinchin- 
brook Island  at  a  distance  of  about  1  mile,  course  350°  true  (NW  % 
N  mag.).  When  the  point  3  miles  above  Bear  Cape  is  abeam, 


44  ORCA  BAY — BISECTIONS. 

steer  31°  true  (N  ^  E  mag.)  for  7%  miles  to  a  position  1  mile  west- 
northwestward  of  Johnstone  Point  light.  Then  steer  66°  true  (NE  % 
N  mag.)  for  8]4  miles  to  a  position  %  mile  northwestward  of  Middle 
Ground  Shoal  bell  buoy.  Then  steer  79°  true  (NE  ys  E  mag.)  for  17 
miles,  passing  V^  mile  off  Windy  Bay  light  and  to  a  position  300  to 
500  yards  southeastward  of  the  black  buoy  south-south  westward  of 
Channel  Islands. 

Then  steer  58°  true  (NNE  y%  E  mag.)  for  3  miles  and  pass  in 
mid-channel  eastward  of  Channel  Islands  and  in  mid-channel  north- 
westward of  North  Island.  Then  haul  eastward,  pass  J4  mile  north- 
ward of  North  Island  Rock  light  and  buoy  No.  2.  Then  steer  197° 
true  (S  by  E  mag.)  for  Orca  cannery,  follow  a  mid-channel  course 
as  defined  by  the  red  buoys  and  the  end  of  the  sawmill  wharf,  and 
pass  the  point  on  the  eastern  shore  J^  mile  southward  of  the  saw- 
mill at  a  distance  of  250  to  300  yards.  Continue  the  course  until 
the  north  end  of  Observation  Island  is  abeam.  Then  steer  216°  true 
(S  Y%  W  mag.)  and  pass  the  point  on  the  eastern  shore  1  mile  south- 
ward of  the  cannery  at  a  distance  of  300  yards.  Then  steer  211°  true 
(S  J/s  W  mag.)  for  Spike  Island  until  about  J4  mile  from  the  wharf  at 
Cordova,  and  then  haul  in  for  the  wharf. 

Approaching  Cordova  wharf  with  the  flood  (sou th-flo whig)  current, 
vessels  generally  drop  an  anchor,  swing  to  it,  and  then  make  the 
wharf. 

From  Northwestward. — Pass  about  1  mile  southward  of  Knowles 
Head  and  steer  107°  true  (E  by  N  mag.)  for  about  12 J^  miles  to  a 
position  1  mile  southward  of  Gravina  Point.  Then  steer  96°  true 
(ENE  mag.)  for  9J^  miles,  passing  Y%  mile  southward  of  the  black 
buoy  southward  of  Hanks  Island,  and  to  a  position  ^  mile  north- 
westward of  Windy  Bay  light.  Then  steer  79°  true  (NE  %  E  mag.) 
for  4  miles  to  a  position  300  to  500  yards  southeastward  of  the  black 
buoy  south-southwestward  of  Channel  Islands. 

Or,  from  a  position  1  mile  northward  of  Point  Eleanor  a  90°  true 
(NE  by  E  ]/2  E  mag.)  course  made  good  for  47 ]/%  miles  should  lead 
1^  miles  southward  of  Gravina  Point,  \y%  miles  southward  of  Sheep 
Point,  and  to  a  position  y%  to  y±  mile  from  the  southeastern  shore 
above  Windy  Bay.  Then  follow  the  directions  in  the  third  para- 
graph preceding.  * 

From  South  west  ward. — Directions  from  Latouche  Passage  to  Seal 
Island  are  given  on  page  50.  Pass  about  1  mile  southeastward  of 
Seal  Island  and  steer  74°  true  (NE  mag.)  for  31  miles,  passing  2 
miles  northwestward  of  Johnstone  Point  light  and  to  a  position  y^ 
mile  northwestward  of  Middle  Ground  Shoal  bell  buoy. 

FIDALGO  BAY 

has  its  entrance  on  the  eastern  shore  of  Prince  William  Sound  between 
Goose  and  Bligh  Islands,  where  it  is  5  miles  wide,  and  extends  north- 
eastward 22  miles  or  more.  There  are  mines  in  Boulder  and  Land- 
locked Bays  and  on  the  south  shore  of  Fidalgo  Bay,  between  Irish 
Cove  and  Whalen  Bay. 

The  waters  of  the  main  arm  of  Fidalgo  Bay  are  deep  and  free  from 
outlying  dangers.  Toward  the  head  there  are  a  number  of  small 
islets  with  good  water  close-to  on  the  channel  sides.  Vessels  may 


FIDALGO  BAY.  45 

navigate  with  safety  as  far  as  the  entrance  to  the  southeasterly  arm 
at  the  head  of  the  bay  by  keeping  over  J4  m^e  offshore. 

Goose  Island  is  1H  miles  long,  320  feet  high,  and  wooded,  and  has 
two  prominent  knolls.  Gull  Island,  small  and  rocky,  is  midway 
between  it  and  the  shore.  The  passage  between  the  islands  should 
be  avoided  by  strangers,  and  that  between  Gull  Island  and  Porcu- 
pine Point  is  foul. 

Porcupine  Point  is  a  round,  wooded  bluff,  894  feet  high,  with  a 
low  depression  between  it  and  Knowles  Head.  A  rock,  bare  at  low 
water  and  marked  by  kelp,  lies  350  yards  northward  of  the  point. 

Snug  Corner  Cove,  on  the  northeast  side  of  Porcupine  Point,  has 
good  anchorage  except  from  northwest  winds,  but  the  bottom  is 
irregular  and  it  should  be  avoided  by  large  vessels.  Foul  ground 
extends  %  mile  from  the  northeast  shore  of  the  cove,  and  a  rocky 
patch  with  4^  fathoms,  possibly  less,  lies  in  the  entrance  ^  mile  off 
the  northeast  side  of  Porcupine  Point.  There  is  a  low  divide  at  the 
head  of  the  cove  and  another  across  Porcupine  Point. 

To  enter  Snug  Corner  Cove,  avoid  the  rock  off  Porcupine  Point  and 
follow  the  southwest  shore  at  a  distance  of  about  J^  mile.  Anchor 
about  ^  mile  off  the  bight  in  the  southwest  shore,  before  reaching 
the  narrowest  part  of  the  cove,  in  10  to  11  fathoms,  soft  bottom. 
Small  vessels  can  find  better  shelter  from  northerly  winds  in  the  basin 
at  the  head  of  the  cove,  in  a  depth  of  5  fathoms.  Favor  the  south- 
west shore  slightly  when  entering  and  anchoring.  The  shores  of  the 
basin  should  be  given  a  berth  of  over  J^  mile. 

Two  Moon  Bay,  on  the  southeast  shore  of  Fidalgo  Bay,  4  miles 
above  Porcupine  Point,  is  1  mile  wide  at  the  entrance,  and  about  2 
miles  long  to  the  head  of  either  of  its  two  arms.  Low  divides  extend 
through  to  Orca  Bay  from  the  head  of  the  arms.  There  is  good 
anchorage  in  the  bay  at  the  entrance  to  either  arm,  and  vessels  of 
moderate  size  can  anchor  in  the  arms,  depths  moderate,  and  bottom 
generally  sticky.  A  mid-channel  course  should  be  followed  in  the 
arms.  At  the  head  of  the  southeast  arm  is  a  basin  trending  south- 
ward where  small  vessels  can  anchor  in  6  to  8  fathoms.  The  chan- 
nel is  between  the  west  point  and  a  reef  bare  at  low  water  near  the 
middle  of  the  entrance. 

Irish  Cove,  on  the  southeast  shore  of  Fidalgo  Bay-,  7%  miles  above 
Porcupine  Point,  is  a  narrow  inlet  about  1  mile  long.  Small  craft 
can  find  secure  anchorage  in  the  widest  part  near  its  head  in  5  fathoms. 
To  enter  favor  the  eastern  side  to  the  narrows  and  then  keep  in  mid- 
channel. 

A  small  wharf  of  the  Fidalgo  Mining  Co.  is  located  on  the  south 
shore,  1%  miles  southwestward  of  the  entrance  to  Whalen  Bay. 

Whalen  Bay  is  2^  miles  long  with  an  average  width  of  0.3  mile. 
Mud  flats  bare  at  low  water,  extend  across  the  bay  for  a  distance  of 
y%  mile  from  the  head. 

Small  vessels  may  enter  the  bay  on  a  mid-channel  course,  and  find 
anchorage  in  7  to  10  fathoms  in  mid-channel  1  mile  inside  the  entrance. 

A  group  of  islands  and  islets  180  to  190  feet  high  lies  near  the  head 
of  Fidalgo  Bay.  They  are  connected  by  mud  flats  to  the  shores  to  the 
eastward.  A  single  islet  lies  about  900  yards  southwestward  of  this 
group,  the  passage  to  the  bight  northward  lying  between  the  two. 
This  bight  has  not  been  recommended  as  an  anchorage.  Its  head  is 


46  FIDALGO   BAY. 

obstructed  by  mud  flats,  and  it  is  reported  that  strong  williwaws  will 
be  encountered. 

The  entrance  to  the  southeast  arm  lies  2  miles  southeastward  of  the 
group  of  islands  described  above.  A  dangerous  rock,  bare  at  half 
tide,  lies  on  a  line  between  the  two  entrance  points,  460  yards  off  the 
easterly  point.  This  rock  is  surrounded  by  deep  water,  and  may  be 
approached  within  200  yards. 

The  head  of  the  arm  terminates  in  a  narrow  passage  about  60  yards 
wide  and  y%  mile  long,  which  opens  put  into  a  circular  lagoon  %  mile 
in  diameter.  It  is  reported  that  this  passage  is  foul  and  should  not 
be  attempted.  Opposite  the  outer  entrance  to  this  passage,  the  head 
of  the  bay  is  obstructed  by  mud  flats,  which,  at  low  tide,  are  bare,  or 
covered  with  1  to  2  fathoms  of  water.  For  this  reason  the  head  of  the 
bay  should  not  be  approached  closer  than  1  mile. 

Anchorage  for  vessels  of  any  size,  well  sheltered  from  wind  and  sea, 
may  be  found  in  mid-channel  %  mile  northwestward  from  the  rock 
awash  at  half  tide,  described  above.  The  anchorage  is  in  about  15 
fathoms,  mud  bottom. 

Small  vessels  may  find  anchorage  near  the  head  of  the  southeast 
arm,  in  mid-channel,  %  mile  beyond  the  rock.  There  is  about  7 
fathoms,  mud  bottom,  in  this  position. 

Fish  Bay  is  on  the  northwest  shore  of  Fidalgo  Bay,  9  miles  above 
Porcupine  Point.  It  is  an  indifferent  anchorage  and  should  be  avoided 
by  large  vessels.  The  williwaws  are  heavy  with  northeast  winds, 
drawing  through  the  bay  from  the  high  mountains  above  its  head.  A 
small,  wooded  island  lies  just  inside  the  entrance  J4  rnile  from  the 
west  side.  The  channel  is  eastward  of  the  island  and  is  obstructed 
near  the  middle  by  a  rock  with  3^  fathoms,  possibly  less.  Rocks, 
bare  at  low  water,  lie  200  yards  off  the  eastern  point  at  the  entrance. 
Anchorage  can  be  had  in  the  middle,  %  to  1  mile  above  the  island,  in 
8  to  13  fathoms,  bottom  soft  in  places.  A  flat  extends  %  mile  from 
the  head  to  the  prominent  point  on  the  southeast  side  1 J^  miles  above 
the  island. 

Landlocked  Bay  is  on  the  northwest  shore  of  Fidalgo  Bay  east  of 
Bidarka  Point.  It  has  a  clear  width  of  about  1  mile  at  the  entrance, 
contracts  to  400  yards  at  2  miles  from  the  entrance,  and  then  widens 
again  to  %  mile.  There  is  secure  anchorage  in  the  widest  part  above 
he  narrows  in  14  to  15  fathoms,  sticky  bottom.  The  bay  is  easily 
entered  during  daylight,  but  the  shadows  cast  by  the  hills  at  night 
obscure  the  narrow  entrance,  rendering  it  difficult  for  vessels  not 
equipped  with  a  searchlight. 

The  islands  on  the  eastern  side  below  the  narrows  have  covering 
rocks  near  them.  On  the  northwest  side  at  the  entrance  of  the 
narrows  is  an  abandoned  wharf.  Near  the  middle  of  the  narrows 
is  a  rock  with  6  feet  over  it  and  marked  by  a  buoy.  The  deepest 
water  is  northwest  of  the  buoy,  but  the  northwest  shore  abreast  it 
should  be  given  a  berth  of  about  100  yards.  There  is  a  flat  at  the 
head  of  the  bay  with  an  islet  at  its  lower  edge.  On  the  north  side 
just  below  the  edge  of  the  flat  is  a  wharf  of  the  Three  Man  Mine. 
Water  can  be  conveniently  obtained  from  a  fall  on  the  south  side  of 
the  bay  southeastward  of  the  wharf. 

To  enter  Landlocked  Bay  follow  the  western  shore  at  a  distance  of 
about  %  rnile,  pass  in  mid-channel  westward  of  the  islets  below  the 


FIDALGO   BAY.  47 

narrows,  and  pass  about  50  yards  northwestward  of  the  buoy  in  the 
narrows,  above  which  the  mid-channel  is  clear. 

Bidarka  Point  is  a  wooded  hill  912  feet  high  with  a  lower  strip  at 
its  south  end  having  considerable  grassy  areas.  A  shoal  extends  % 
mile  southward  from  the  point. 

Boulder  Bay,  between  Bligh  Island  and  Bidarka  Point,  is  about  4 
miles  long  and  2  miles  wide  at  the  entrance.  There  are  several 
dangers  in  the  bay,  the  depths  are  very  irregular,  and  there  is  no 
desirable  anchorage.  On  the  east  side  at  the  head  of  the  bay  is  a 
wharf,  for  vessels,  of  a  copper  mine. 

A  reef,  bare  at  lowest  tides,  lies  ^  mile  from  the  western  shore  of 
the  bay;  its  eastern  end,  with  15  feet  over  it,  lies  %  mn<e  from  the 
western  shore  and  %  mile  197°  true  (S  by  E  mag.)  from  the  south- 
east end  of  the  islands  at  the  entrance  to  Tatitlek  Narrows. 

A  sunken  rock,  nearly  awash  at  low  water,  lies  %  mile  from  a 
point  on  the  eastern  shore,  and  1  s/g  miles  northwestward  from  Bidarka 
Point.  It  is  marked  on  its  southwest  side  by  a  red  buoy. 

A  reef,  partly  bare  at  low  water,  lies  400  to  800  yards  southeast- 
ward from  the  small  wooded  island  in  the  middle  near  the  head  of 
Boulder  Bay. 

To  enter  Boulder  Bay,  bring  the  houses  on  the  east  side  at  the  head 
to  show  just  oj>en  westward  of  the  wooded  island  in  the  middle  near 
the  head,  bearing  17°  true  (N  by  W  mag.),  and  stand  in  on  this 
line,  passing  about  200  yards  westward  of  the  red  buoy.  On 
approaching  the  island,  edge  a  little  westward  and  pass  midway 
between  it  and  the  grassy,  partly  wooded  islet  near  the  western 
shore.  Then  steer  for  the  wharf. 

Bligh  Island,  on  the  eastern  shore  of  Prince  William  Sound,  is  4J/£ 
miles  long,  3  miles  wide,  and  mountainous.  The  southwest  end  of 
the  island  is  a  steep  wooded  head  1,630  feet  high  with  some  yellow 
landslides  near  the  water.  On  its  northwest  side  are  a  number  of 
islands  with  foul  ground  between. 

Reef  Island,  off  the  west  side  of  Bligh  Island,  is  1  mile  long,  level 
and  wooded,  and  has  a  single  knoll,  338  feet  high,  in  the  middle, 
which  distinguishes  it  from  Goose  Island.  A  rock,  bare  at  low  water, 
lies  %  mile  208°  true  (S  mag.)  from  the  southwest  end  of  the  island. 
The  rock  is  marked  by  a  buoy. 

Bligh  Island  Reef  is  %  mile  long  with  depths  from  7  to  28  feet. 
It  is  marked  at  its  south  end  by  a  buoy.  The  wreck  of  the  Olympia 
stands  on  the  reef  and  has  the  appearance  of  a  vessel  underway. 
The  passage  between  the  reef  and  Reef  Island  has  deep  water  and  is 
used  at  times  by  vessels  rounding  Bligh  Island;  the  line  of  the  west 
end  of  Busby  Island  and  Rocky  Point,  bearing  23°  true  (N  %  W 
mag.),  leads  through  the  middle  of  the  channel. 

Busby  Island,  off  the  northwest  end  of  Bligh  Island,  is  1J^  miles 
long,  275  feet  high,  and  partly  wooded.  Its  western  point  is  long, 
level,  and  wooded,  and  is  surrounded  by  a  reef  to  a  distance  of  nearly 
J4  mile.  The  point  is  marked  by  a  light,  and  a  part  of  the  wreck 
of  the  Saratoga  shows  near  the  end  of  the  reef. 

Currents, — At  the  entrance  to  Fidalgo  Bay,  north  of  Goose  Island 
the  mean  strength  of  current  is  about  0.6  knot;  slack  water  before 
flood  and  ebb  occurring  about  two  hours  before  the  time  of  low  water 
and  high  water,  respectively,  at  Kodiak. 


48  PEINCE    WILLIAM   SOUND. 

TATITLEK  NARROWS  AND  VIRGIN  BAY. 

Tatitlek  Narrows  separates  Busby  and  Bligh  Islands  from  trie 
main  shore,  and  offers  a  more  direct  route  for  small  craft  between 
Port  Valdez  or  Ellamar  and  points  on  Port  Fidalgo.  The  channel 
has  a  depth  of  about  4  fathoms,  but  it  is  narrow  with  foul  ground 
on  both  sides  and  should  not  be  used  by  vessels  in  the  absence  of 
aids. 

Tatitlek  is  a  small  Indian  village  on  the  northeast  shore  at  the 
southeast  end  of  the  narrows. 

Virgin  Bay  is  a  shallow  bight  J/£  to  %  mn<e  l°ng  °n  ^ne  northeast 
shore  of  Tatitlek  Narrows.  There  is  little  water  in  the  northern 
and  southern  ends  of  the  bay,  and  on  the  north  side  in  the  entrance 
is  a  long  reef  bare  at  low  water.  The  approach  is  marked  by  two 
buoys.  There  is  a  depth  of  10  to  12  feet  in  the  approach  to  the  wharf, 
which  is  on  the  northeast  side  and  has  a  depth  of  12  feet  at  its  end. 
Fresh  water  can  be  had  at  the  wharf.  Vessels  now  use  the  ore  dock 
which  has  been  built  on  the  end  of  the  reef  J4  mile  westward  (true) 
from  the  wharf,  with  which  it  is  connected  with  an  aerial  cable. 

Ellamar,  on  the  northeast  side  of  Virgin  Bay,  has  a  post  office,  store, 
hotel,  and  other  buildings.  Ore  from  the  copper  mine  is  shipped  to 
Tacoma. 

Anchorage  can  be  had  J^  to  j^s  mile  from  the  northeast  shore  of 
Tatitlek  Narrows,  and  J^  to  %  mu<e  westward  of  the  ore  dock  at 
Ellamar,  in  12  to  16  fathoms,  sticky  bottom.  TWTO  buoyed  shoals 
lie  in  the  narrows  in  the  approach  from  northwestward  to  Virgin 
Bay — one  with  15  feet  over  it  y%  mile  298°  true  (W  mag.),  and  the 
other  with  about  17  feet  over  it  about  %  mile  287°  true  (W  by  S 
mag.) ,  from  the  southeast  point  of  Virgin  Bay. 

VALDEZ  ARM, 

*he  northern  arm  of  Prince  William  Sound,  extends  about  13  miles 
in  a  32°  true  (N  J^  E  mag.)  direction  from  Busby  Island  and  Point 
Freemantle  to  the  northern  end  of  Valdez  Narrows,  and  then  turns 
to  about  85°  true  (NE  by  E  mag.)  for  11  miles  to  the  town  of  Valdez 
at  its  head.  The  water  is  very  deep  and  there  are  no  outlying  dangers 
except  Middle  Rock.  There  are  few  anchorages  on  account  of  the 
great  depths.  Rocks  bare  at  low  water  lie  J^  mile  from  shore  and 
2^8  miles  northward  of  Point  Freemantle,  and  with  this  exception 
the  western  shore  is  bold  to  Valdez  Narrows. 

Sawmill  Bay,  on  the  western  shore  9  miles  northward  of  Point 
Freemantle,  is  y%  mile  wide  at  the  entrance  and  1  }^  miles  long  in  a 
349°  true  (NW  J^  N  mag.)  direction.  Entering  in  mid-channel, 
there  is  a  secure  anchorage  with  a  clear  width  of  over  %  m^e  m  ^ne 
expansion  ^  mile  inside  the  entrance,  in  9  fathoms,  sticky  bottom. 
The  south  and  west  ends  of  the  basin  forming  the  anchorage  are 
shoal,  and  a  flat  fills  the  head  of  the  bay  down  to  the  narrows  at  the 
north  end  of  the  basin. 

Rocky  Point,  off  the  western  end  of  the  peninsula  between  Tatitlek 
Narrows  and  Galena  Bay,  is  a  chain  of  low,  rocky  islands,  the  outer 
and  highest  one  about  30  feet  high  and  having  some  scattered  trees. 
The  south  point  of  Galena  Bay  is  a  wooded  islet  joined  to  the  shore 
by  a  low  spit.  A  rocky,  grass-covered  islet  lies  M  mu<e  northward 
from  the  south  point  at  the  entrance. 


VALDEZ   ABM.  49 

Galena  Bay  is  about  5  miles  long  in  a  general  easterly  direction,  with 
a  width  of  ^  to  1)^  miles,  but  mrrowed  at  3  miles  from  the  entrance 
to  %  mile.  The  depths  are  great  throughout  except  for  flats  off  the 
mouths  of  streams.  There  is  an  islet  on  the  north  side  below  the 
narrows,  and  a  rock  with  12  feet  over  it  lies  300  yards  62°  true  (NE 
by  N  mag.)  from  the  islet.  Care  should  be  observed  in  the  vicinity 
of  the  13  and  17  fathom  soun  lings  in  the  narrows,  as  that  area  is 
not  thoroughly  developed.  The  only  anchorage  is  about  J£  mile 
southward  of  the  islets  on  the  north  side  at  the  head  of  the  bay,  in 
about  15  fathoms,  bottom  soft  in  places.  A  flat  exte  ds  Y§  mile 
from  the  southeast  end  of  the  head  of  the  bay. 

A  group  of  rocky,  grass-covered  islets  extends  %  mile  off  the  north 
point  at  the  entrance  of  Galena  Bay.  There  is  anchorage  in  the 
middle  of  the  cove  northeast  of  the  islets,  in  10  to  12  fathoms,  sticky 
bottom. 

Jack  Bay,  on  the  eastern  shore  southward  of  Valdez  Narrows,  is 
5}/2  miles  long  in  a  118°  true  (EL  mag.)  direction,  with  a  width  of  % 
mile  at  the  entrance  and  ^  to  %  mile  in  the  upper  3  miles.  Anchor- 
age can  be  had  in  mid-channel  or  closer  to  the  southern  shore  1J^ 
miles  inside  the  entrance  in  10  to  12  fathoms,  bottom  sticky  in 
places;  also  for  small  vessels  in  the  entrance  of  the  short  arm,  north- 
eastward of  the  islands  in  the  bay,  in  the  same  depths.  The  passage 
northward  of  the  islands  and  that  between  the  islands  and  the  point 
eastward  are  not  thoroughly  developed  and  should  be  used  with 
caution.  The  first  cove  on  the  south  side  is  foul.  Shoals  make  out 
about  400  yards  from  the  southeast  end  of  the  second  cove.  A  flat 
extends  about  y%  mile  from  the  head  of  the  bay  to  an  islet.  A  small 
vessel  can  anchor  about  300  yards  westward  of  the  islet  and  the 
same  distance  from  the  south  shore  in  about  15  fathoms. 

Valdez  Narrows  is  about  2  miles  long  and  %  mile  wide,  with  deep 
water  and  bold  shores,  especially  the  eastern  one.  A  wooded  islet 
lies  300  yards  from  the  western  shore  at  the  north  end  of  the  narrows. 
Middle  Rock,  a  pinnacle  barely  covered  at  extreme  high  tides,  lies  in 
the  middle  of  the  north  end  of  the  narrows  850  yards  85°  true  (NE 
by  E  mag.)  from  the  islet  and  y%  mile  from  the  eastern  shore,  and  is 
marked  by  a  light. 

The  bay  (locally  known  as  Shoup  Bay)  at  the  mouth  of  Shoup  Glacier 
is  closed  by  a  sand  spit  nearly  all  dry  at  low  water  and  over  which  the 
best  depth  is  about  7  feet.  This  bay  is  often  filled  with  floating  ice, 
some  of  which  escapes  into  the  port  when  the  wind  and  tide  are 
favorable.  A  wharf  of  the  Cliff  mine  extends  into  Port  Valdez  from 
the  easterly  point  at  the  entrance  to  Shoup  Bay.  Vessels  generally 
go  to  the  wharf  port  side  to,  and  the  depth  is  said  to  be  ample. 

Swanport  is  a  small  anchorage  under  Jackson  Point,  the  western 
end  of  the  eastern  one  of  the  two  islands  on  the  south  side  of  Port 
Valdez,  3^'  miles  from  Valdez.  The  bottom  drops  off  abruptly, 
but  a  small  vessel  will  have  swinging  room  if  anchored  in  10  fathoms 
350  yards  242°  true  (SW  by  S  mag.)  from  Jackson  Point  and  the 
same  distance  from  the  south  shore.  This  is  the  best  anchorage 
between  Valdez  Narrows  and  Valdez.  The  cove  inside  the  island  is 
nearly  filled  by  a  flat,  and  vessels  have  been  beached  on  it. 

A  temporary  anchorage  for  large  vessels  can  be  had  about  }/£  mile 
from  the  north  shore  and  %  mile  eastward  of  Gold  Creek,  in  about 
30  fathoms. 

31056°—: 


50  VALDEZ   ARM. 

Fort  Liscum  is  an  Army  post  and  wharf  on  the  south  shore  1  mile 
eastward  of  Jackson  Point.  Water  can  be  had  at  the  wharf. 

Valdez  is  an  important  town  at  the  head  of  Port  Valdez.  There 
are  stores,  hotels,  assay  office,  and  ore-testing  plant,  and  provisions 
and  supplies  of  all  kinds  can  be  obtained.  Most  of  the  vessels  trad- 
ing to  Prince  William  Sound  call  at  Valdez,  and  there  is  communica- 
tion by  small  local  craft  with  other  places  on  the  sound.  From 
Valdez  a  Government  trail  and  telegraph  line  lead  into  the  interior 
of  Alaska,  and  there  is  an  overland  mail  service.  There  is  cable 
communication  with  other  points  in  Alaska  and  Seattle. 
^  Two  wharves  extend  out  from  the  town  to  the  edge  of  the  flat. 
The  northwest  one  is  the  regular  steamer  wharf,  and  vessels  go  to 
its  end,  which  is  about  200  feet  long  on  the  face.  Approaching  the 
wharf  vessels  should  not  go  inside  the  line  of  its  face.  The  other 
wharf  is  owned  by  the  town  of  Valdez. 

A  wharf  of  the  Midas  mine  is  located  on  the  south  side  of  Port 
Valdez,  about  \}/^  miles  eastward  of  Fort  Liscum.  The  depth  is 
said  to  be  ample.  Approaching  the  wharf  from  westward  care 
should  be  taken  to  give  sufficient  berth  to  the  edge  of  the  flat  making 
off  from  Solomon  Gulch. 

Currents. — At  the  entrance  to  Valdez  Arm,  west  of  Rocky  Point, 
the  mean  strength  of  current  is  about  0.6  knot,  slack  water  before 
the  flood  occurring  30  minutes  before  the  time  of  low  water  and 
slack  water  before  the  ebb  occurring  about  30  minutes  before  the 
time  of  high  water  at  Kodiak. 

DIRECTIONS,  PORT  VALDEZ. 

From  Hinchinbrook  Entrance. — Give  Cape  Hinchinbrook  a  berth  of 

%  miles,  and  when  the  lighthouse  bears  70°  true  (NE  y%  N  mag.), 
distant  2J^  miles,  steer  349°  true  (NW  ^  N  mag.),  keeping  1  mile  off 
the  southwesf  shore  of  Hinchinbrook  Island.  This  course  made  good 
for  37  miles  from  Cape  Hinchinbrook,  or  30  miles  from  Bear  Cape, 
should  lead  to  a  position  4  miles  from  Bligh  Island  with  the  highest 
peak  at  the  southwest  end  of  the  island  bearing  101°  true  (ENE  y^  E 
mag.),  and  Bligh  Island  Reef  buoy  should  then  be  on  the  starboard 
beam,  distant  2  miles. 

Then  steer  30°  true  (N  J^  E  mag.)  for  17  miles,  passing  IJ^J  miles 
westward  of  Busby  Island  light,  1  mile  westward  of  Rocky  Point, 
and  to  a  position  J^  mile  off  the  eastern  shore  about  halfway  through 
Valdez  Narrows;  Middle  Rock  light  should  be  ahead  or  a  very  little 
on  the  port  bow.  Then  steer  48°  true  (N  by  E  %  E  mag.)  for  1% 
miles,  following  the  eastern  shore  of  Valdez  Narrows  in  mid-channel 
eastward  of  Middle  Rock  light.  WTien  Entrance  Island  (close  to 
southeast  shore)  is  abeam,  distant  about  Y%  mile,  an  82°  true  (NE  % 
E  mag.)  course  made  good  for  10  miles  will  lead  to  the  wharves  at 
Valdez. 

From  Latouche  Passage. — From  a  position  in  the  northern  entrance 
of  Latouche  Passage,  about  %  mile  westward  of  Point  Grace,  steer  50° 
true  (NNE  mag.)  for  5%  miles  to  a  position  1  mile  eastward  of  Point 
Helen  light.  Then  steer  26°  true  (N  Y%  W  mag.)  for  20  miles  and  pass 
1  mile  westward  of  Seal  Island.  When  Seal  Island  light  bears  141° 
true  (ESE  mag.),  distant  a  little  over  1  mile,  steer  51°  true  (NNE 
mag.)  for  8  miles,  passing  1%  miles  southeastward  of  Smith  Island 


PRINCE   WILLIAM   SOUND.  51 

light  and  to  a  position  with  the  light  bearing  276°  true  (WSW  mag.), 
distant  2^  miles.  Then  steer  24°  true  (N  %  W  mag.)  for  20  miles 
to  a  position  4  miles  from  Bligh  Island,  with  the  highest  peak  at  the 
southwest  end  of  the  island  bearing  101°  true  (ENE  3^  E  mag.). 
Bligh  Island  Reef  buoy  should  then  bear  about  79°  true  (NE  ^  E 
mag.),  distant  2  miles.  Then  steer  30°  true  (N  J/s  E  mag.)  and  follow 
the  directions  in  the  preceding  paragraph. 

ISLANDS  IN   PRINCE  WILLIAM  SOUND. 

Glacier  Island  is  on  the  north  side  of  Prince  William  Sound,  west- 
ward of  the  entrance  of  Valdez  Arm.  It  is  mountainous  and  indented 
by  a  number  of  bays,  of  which  Chamberlain  Bay  and  Jackson  Cove 
are  the  only  ones  that  have  been  sounded. 

Chamberlain  Bay,  on  the  south  side  of  Glacier  Island,  is  exposed 
southward,  but  affords  anchorage  for  small  vessels  about  y%  mile  from 
the  head,  in  about  15  fathoms,  muddy  bottom.  Rocks,  partly  bare 
at  low  water,  extend  400  yards  from  the  western  side  of  the  bay  about 
5/8  mile  from  the  head. 

Jackson  Cove,  on  the  west  side  of  Chamberlain  Bay,  is  a  secure 
harbor  for  small  craft.  The  entrance  has  a  least  width  of  about  50 
yards  and  a  depth  of  about  12  feet;  at  the  narrowest  part  of  the  en- 
trance favor  the  north  side.  The  upper  half  of  the  cove  has  rocks 
on  both  sides,  and  a  careful  mid-channel  course  should  be  followed. 
Anchorage  can  be  selected  in  the  lower  part  of  the  cove,  in  10  to  15 
fathoms,  also  about  350  yards  from  the  head,  in  about  5  fathoms.  A 
divide  about  75  feet  high  extends  through  to  Jackson  Hole. 

Naked,  Peak,  and  Storey  Islands  form  a  group  about  8  miles  long 
north  and  south,  with  a  greatest  width  of  6  miles,  are  700  to  1,317  feet 
high,  and  are  wooded  to  the  summits.  A  small  wooded  island  lies 
%  mile  off  the  south  side  of  Naked  Island. 

The  bottom  in  the  vicinity  of  the  islands,  including  the  passages 
among  them,  is  rocky  and  exceedingly  broken.  As  a  measure  of 
safety  it  is  considered  advisable  for  vessels,  especially  large  ones,  to 
avoid  areas  with  depths  less  than  about  20  fathoms  in  the  vicinity  of 
the  islands  and  to  avoid  the  passages  between  the  islands. 

A  sunken  rock  with  about  6  feet  over  it  at  low  water  was  reported 
between  Naked  Island  and  Smith  Island,  the  position,  however,  being 
very  doubtful.  It  is  possible  that  the  rock  may  exist  in  the  vicinity 
of  the  broken  ground  shown  on  the  chart  near  Naked  Island  and 
Smith  Island.  It  is  safer,  therefore,  for  vessels  to  keep  in  the  deeper 
part  of  the  passage,  preferably  outside  the  50-fathom  curve.  See 
the  directions  for  Passage  Canal  from  Hinchinbrook  Entrance. 

The  anchorages  about  Naked  Island  are  indifferent.  Large  vessels 
can  anchor  in  the  southerly  part  of  the  large  bay  on  the  north  side  of 
Naked  Island,  in  20  to  30  fathoms;  and  small  vessels  can  anchor  in 
the  easterly  bight  of  this  bay  in  15  to  20  fathoms. 

Small  vessels  can  anchor  in  the  cove  on  the  east  side  of  the  bay  on 
the  south  side  of  Naked  Island,  also  at  the  north  end  of  the  bay,  in 
about  16  fathoms. 

The  southerly  bay  on  the  west  side  of  Naked  Island  has  anchorage 
for  large  vessels  in  the  outer  bight  on  its  southeast  side,  in  about  25 
fathoms,  avoiding,  however,  the  14-fathom  sounding  shown  on  the 
chart  just  southwestward  of  the  anchorage.  Small  vessels  can  anchor 
at  the  southeast  end  of  the  inner  bight,  in  18  to  20  fathoms. 


52  PKINCE   WILLIAM   SOUND. 

Small  craft  can  anchor  in  the  small  bight  on  the  southwest  side  of 
Peak  Island,  also  between  Storey  Island  and  the  small  island  close  to 
its  southeast  side.  The  entrance  to  the  latter  anchorage  is  from 
south  westward,  between  the  small  island  and  the  islet  between  it 
and  Storey  Island;  and  the  islet  must  be  kept  close  aboard  to  avoid  a 
reef  extending  from  the  small  island.  A  reef  bare  at  low  water 
extends,  also,  southward  and  southeastward  from  the  small  island, 
as  shown  on  the  chart. 

Smith  Island  is  3  miles  long,  wooded,  about  500  feet  high,  and 
lowest  at  its  southwest  end.  The  northeast  point  of  the  island  is 
marked  by  a  light.  A  bank  with  depths  of  34  fathoms  or  less  extends 
3  miles  northeastward  from  Smith  Island;  depths  of  11  and  12 
fathoms,  rocky  bottom,  were  found  on  the  bank  for  a  distance  of  1 
mile  from  the  island,  but  it  has  not  been  thoroughly  developed  and 
at  least  this  part  of  the  bank  should  be  avoided. 

Little  Smith  Island,  bluff,  wooded,  and  about  350  feet  high,  lies  y% 
mile  off  the  southwest  end  of  Smith  Island.  Rocky  patches,  on  which 
the  least  depth  found  is  8  fathoms,  lie  1)4  miles  northwestward  and 
north-northwestward  of  Little  Smith  Island. 

Seal  Island  is  about  %  mile  in  diameter,  wooded,  about  350  feet 
high,  and  rounded  in  outline.  There  are  two  bare,  rocky  islets  close 
to  its  eastern  end,  and  a  small  bare  rock  about  200  yards  off  its  west 
end.  The  northwest  point  of  the  island  is  marked  by  a  light.  Rocky, 
broken  areas  extend  1  mile  northeastward  and  northward  from  Seal 
Island.  The  least  depth  is  2  fathoms  on  the  northwest  end  of  the 
broken  areas,  lying  1  mile  northward  of  the  light,  and  is  marked  by 
a  buoy. 

The  reef  between  Seal  Island  and  Green  Island  is  described  with 
the  latter. 

PRINCE  WILLIAM  SOUND,  NORTHWEST  PART. 

The  principal  approaches  to  Passage  Canal  and  the  canal  itself 
have  been  surveyed,  and  offer  little  difficulty  for  navigation  with  the 
aid  of  the  chart.  These  waters,  including  the  Knight  Island  group 
and  both  shores  of  Knight  Island  Passage,  are  characterized  bv  rocky 
and  exceedingly  broken  bottom.  Differences  in  depth  of  50  fathoms 
between  adjacent  soundings  are  not  uncommon,  and  it  is  probable 
that  on  the  broken  areas  there  may  be  less  water,  and  possibly  dangers, 
not  obtained  by  the  survey.  As  a  measure  of  safety,  vessels  should 
avoid  broken  areas  in  these  waters  where  abrupt  changes  in  depth 
are  indicated  by  the  chart  to  depths  less  than  50  fathoms. 

lone  Island  is  2%  miles  long,  wooded,  comparatively  level,  and 
553  feet  high.  Foul  ground  extends  nearly  J^  mile  northward,  and 
a  bank  on  which  21  fathoms  was  found,  extends  1  mile  northward 
from  the  island.  Broken  ground,  on  which  the  least  depths  found 
are  11  to  16  fathoms,  extends  IJ^j  miles  southward  from  the  island. 

Dutch  Group  are  several  wooded  islands  and  bare  rocks,  the  largest 
having  elevations  up  to  150  feet.  Foul  ground  extends  1J^  miles 
southward  of  the  group  to  two  prominent  rocks  about  5  to  10  feet 

high- 
Fool  Island  is  wooded  and  about  50  feet  high.     A  rock  bare  at  low 

water  lies  600  yards  south-southeastward  of  Fool  Island. 

Egg  Rocks  are  prominent,  bare  rocks,  except  for  some  grass,  and 

lie  1      miles  westward  of  Fool  Island. 


PEINCE  WILLIAM   SOUND.  53 

Perry  Island  is  wooded  to  a  height  of  about  1,000  feet,  and  is 

Erominently  marked  on  its  northeast  side  by  a  round  peak  1,618  feet 
igh,  the  summit  of  which  is  small,  bare,  and  dome  shaped.  The 
bays  indenting  the  island  are  anchorages  for  small  craft  only,  on 
account  of  the  foul,  rocky,  and  broken  bottom. 

Foul  ground  extends  ^  mile  eastward  from  the  easterly  end  of 
Perry  Island,  and  nearly  1  mile  southeastward  and  southward  from 
the  southeast  point  of  the  island. 

The  bay  indenting  the  southeast  side  of  Perry  Island  has  an  indif- 
ferent anchorage  at  the  head  for  small  craft.  On  account  of  the 
broken  bottom  care  should  be  exercised,  especially  in  the  vicinity  of 
the  13  and  17  fathom  soundings  shown  on  chart  8517  (1915  edition). 

East  Twin  Bay,  indenting  the  north  side  of  Perry  Island,  has 
anchorage  for  small  craft  on  the  southwest  side  of  the  head,  in  about 
11  fathoms,  the  area  of  soft  bottom  being  small.  A  mid-channel 
course  should  be  followed  until  up  with  a  prominent  rock  about  20 
feet  high,  which  lies  near  the  middle  %  mile  from  the  head.  Pass 
northeastward  of  that  rock  and  follow  the  northeast  shore  at  a  dis- 
tance of  about  150  yards.  A  rock  with  6  feet  over  it  lies  450  yards 
135°  true  (ESE  ^  E  mag.)  from  the  prominent  rock  and  275  yards 
from  the  northeast  shore. 

West  Twin  Bay,  indenting  the  northwest  side  of  Perry  Island,  is 
not  an  anchorage  on  account  of  the  rocky,  broken  bottom.  Small 
craft  entering  should  favor  the  northeast  side  to  the  narrow  part 
134  miles  from  the  head,  and  then  favor  the  southwest  side,  passing 
westward  of  a  rock,  about  25  feet  high,  which  lies  near  the  middle 
y%  mile  from  the  head. 

From  the  point  on  the  southwest  side  at  the  entrance  of  West 
Twin  Bay  a  chain  of  islets  and  foul  ground  extends  over  1  mile  north- 
westward, its  end  on  which  the  least  depth  found  is  6  fathoms,  lying 
Y%  mile  northwestward  of  the  outer  islet. 

Esther  Island  is  mountainous,  wooded  to  a  height  of  about  1,000 
feet,  and  the  summits  are  bare  rock.  The  peak,  2,019  feet  high,  on 
the  southeast  point  of  Esther  Island,  and  the  sharp,  twin  peaks 
1,821  and  1,822  feet  high,  on  the  southwest  point,  are  prominent. 

Esther  Rock,  lying  1  mile  westward  of  Esther  Point,  Esther  Island, 
is  about  15  feet  high  and  bare  except  for  some  grass.  A  rocky  area 
with  depths  less  than  50  fathoms  extends  %  mile  northward  and 
eastward  and  y%  mile  southeastward  and  southward  from  Esther 
Rock. 

A  rock,  bare  at  lowest  tides,  is  reported  to  lie  about  %  mile  off 
the  south  point  of  the  bay  (locally  called  Granite  Bay)  on  the  west 
side  of  Esther  Island. 

Culross  Island  is  mountainous  and  wooded  to  a  height  of  about 
1,000  feet. 

Culross  Bay,  indenting  the  north  side  of  Culross  Island,  is  clear, 
but  is  a  poor  anchorage.  The  prevailing  northeast  winds  send  con- 
siderable swell  up  the  bay.  A  small  area  of  mud  bottom  is  found 
near  the  head;  it  appears  to  be  a  soft,  thin  layer  over  rock,  and 
anchors  do  not  hold  well  in  it. 

Port  Wells,  Cochrane  Bay,  and  Blackstone  Bay  are  not  surveyed, 
some  sounding  having  been  done  by  exploring  parties  as  shown  on 
the  chart.  Some  mining  development  has  been  done  on  Port  Wells. 


54  POUT  WELLS. 

Hobo  Bay  is  on  the  west  side  of  Port  Wells  just  northward  of 
Bettles  Bay.  A  mining  company  has  a  wharf  on  the  north  side  of 
the  bay,  with  a  depth  of  about  19  feet  at  its  end.  A  bar  with  a  depth 
of  about  5  fathoms  extends  across  the  entrance  of  the  bay.  Vessels 
entering  follow  the  north  side  of  the  bay  at  a  reported  distance  of 
100  yards.  It  is  reported  also  that  there  is  good  anchorage  in  the 
bay,  in  6  to  7  fathoms. 

Golden  is  a  mining  camp  on  the  eastern  shore  of  Port  Wells,  about 
1  mile  northward  of  the  junction  with  Esther  Passage.  Steamers 
anchor  200  to  300  yards  southward  of  the  little  island  off  Golden,  in 
about  20  fathoms,  rocky  bottom.  It  is  regarded  as  a  poor  anchorage, 
and  it  is  probable  that  the  anchor  will  not  hold  with  strong  winds 
drawing  down  the  canal.  The  area  between  the  island  and  the 
shore  is  bare  at  low  water. 

PASSAGE    CANAL 

has  its  entrance  at  the  southwest  end  of  Port  Wells  between  Point 
Pigot  and  the  peninsula  separating  Cochrane  and  Blackstone  Bays. 
The  canal  trends  west-northwestward  for  4  miles,  and  then  south- 
westward  for  8  miles. 

The  canal  is  1  to  l]4  miles  wide,  has  great  depth  and  is  clear 
except  a  very  few  places  near  the  shores.  The  shores  rise  abruptly 
to  elevations  of  2,000  to  4,000  feet,  and  are  wooded  to  an  elevation 
of  about  1,000  feet.  The  higher  peaks  are  bare  or  snow-covered  rock. 

Point  Pigot  is  a  peninsula  lying  between  Pigot  Bay  and  Passage 
Canal,  and  across  it  low  divides  extend  from  Entry  Cove  and  Logging 
Camp  Bay.  A  high-water  islet  about  50  feet  high  marks  the  south 
end  of  the  point. 

A  rock,  bare  at  lowest  tides,  lies  M  mu<e  on?  ^ne  east  end  of  Point 
Pigot  and  %  mile  73°  true  (NE  mag.)  of  the  high-water  islet  at  the 
south  end  of  the  point. 

Entry  Cove  lies  westward  of  the  south  end  of  Point  Pigot.  Good 
anchorage  with  a  clear  width  of  300  yards  can  be  had  in  the  entrance, 
in  14  fathoms,  soft  bottom.  The  only  danger  is  a  rock  bare  at  low 
water  which  lies  150  yards  westward  of  the  high-water  islet  and  the 
same  distance  from  shore. 

Passage  Bay,  on  the  south  side  of  the  canal  6  miles  above  Point 
Pigot,  has  depths  of  30  to  35  fathoms,  muddy  bottom,  through  the 
middle.  Foul  ground  fills  the  narrow  parts  at  the  head  of  the  bay; 
approaching  slowly,  u  small  vessel  can  select  anchorage  just  below 
this  foul  ground,  in  15  to  20  fathoms. 

The  bight  on  the  southeast  side  of  Passage  Bay  is  obstructed  near 
the  middle,  about  on  the  line  joining  the  points  of  the  bight,  by  a 
rock  with  4  feet  over  it.  Anchorage  with  a  clear  width  of  J4  mile 
can  be  had  in  the  northeasterly  part  of  this  bight,  with  the  westerly 
point  of  the  bay  in  range  with  the  point  beyond,  bearing  322°  true 
(NW  by  W  %  W  mag.),  in  15  to  20  fathoms,  muddy  bottom. 

Anchorage  in  15  to  20  fathoms,  sticky  bottom,  can  be  had  on  the 
shoal  which  is  about  %  mile  long  and  extends  M  mile  from  the  south 
side  of  the  canal  at  a  point  1  mile  above  Emerald  Isle  and  3^  miles 
from  the  head.  The  least  depth  found  by  a  careful  examination  is 
29  feet  at  the  southwest  end  of  the  shoal. 


PASSAGE   CANAL.  55 

Small  craft  can  anchor  in  the  cove  at  the  northwest  end  of  the  head 
of  the  canal,  in  6  to  12  fathoms. 

The  currents  in  Passage  Canal  have  little  velocity. 

DIRECTIONS,    PASSAGE    CANAL. 

From  Northeastward. — Passing  southward  of  Glacier  Island  and 
northward  of  Storey  Island,  a  course  can  be  shaped  for  the  highest 
peak  of  Perry  Island,  which  will  lead  southward  of  the  two  bare  rocks 
southward  of  the  Dutch  Group.  Or,  a  250°  true  (SW  %  S  mag.)  course 
for  the  peak  of  Perry  Island  will  lead  %  mile  southeastward  of  the 
two  bare  rocks  southward  of  the  Dutch  Group,  and  a  270°  true  (SW  by 
W  y%  W  mag.)  course  for  the  peak  of  Perry  Island  will  lead  outside 
the  50-fathom  curve  on  the  shoal  northward  of  Lone  Island. 

Pass  J/2  to  %  mile  southward  of  the  two  bare  rocks  southward  of 
the  Dutch  Group,  and  steer  about  293°  true  (W  i^g  S  mag.)  for  about 

4  miles,  heading  for  the  southwest  point  of  Esther  Island,  to  a  posi- 
tion J4  mile  northward  of  Point  Perry,  the  north  end  of  Perry  Island. 
A  280°  true  (WSW  %  W  mag.)  course  for  12  miles  will  then  lead  to 
the  middle  of  the  entrance  of  Passage  Canal,  passing  %  mile  north- 
ward of  Point  Culross. 

From  Hinchinbrook  Entrance. — Passing  2  miles  southwestward  of 
Cape  Hinchinbrook  lighthouse  steer.  323°  true  (NW  by  W  %  W 
mag.)  for  25  miles,  heading  for  the  1,235-foot  peak  on  the  east  side  of 
Naked  Island  until  Smith  Island  light  is  abeam,  distant  3^  miles. 
Then  steer  275°  true  (WSW  mag.)  for  7  miles  heading  for  Point 
Eleanor  until  the  wrest  end  of  Naked  Island  opens  from  its  south  point. 

Then  steer  319°  true  (WNW  ys  W  mag.)  for  11  miles  heading  for 
the  north  island  of  the  Dutch  Group  until  the  northwest  point  of 
Lone  Island  is  abeam  distant  \y2  miles.  Then  steer  286°  true  (W  by 

5  mag.)  for  3J^  miles  heading  for  Point  Perry  to  a  position  }/%  mile 
southward  of  two  bare  rocks  southward  of  the  Dutch  Group. 

From  Knight  Island  Passage. — From  a  mid-channel  position  in 
Knight  Island  Passage  between  Herring  Point  and  Crafton  Island, 
steer  336°  true  (NW  %  W  mag.),  passing  %  mile  off  the  southwest 
point  of  Perry  Island.  This  point  is  composed  of  light  cobble  stones 
and  is  prominent  on  account  of  this  light  color.  Continue  the  course 
for  nearly  18  miles,  give  the  northeasterly  end  of  Culross  Island  and 
Point  Culross  a  berth  of  %  mile  in  rounding  the  island,  and  steer  280° 
true  (WSW  j^s  W  mag.)  to  the  middle  of  the  entrance  of  Passage 
Canal. 

KNIGHT   ISLAND  AND  ASSOCIATED   ISLANDS. 

Knight  Island  is  22  miles  long  and  very  rugged,  the  peaks  having 
elevations  up  to  3,280  feet.  It  is  wooded  to  an  elevation  of  about 
1,000  feet,  and  above  this  is  grass  covered.  Three  mountainous, 
sparsely  wooded  islands,  called  Disk,  Ingot,  and  Eleanor,  extend  6 
miles  northward  from  Knight  Island  to  Point  Eleanor,  the  north 
end  of  the  group. 

Eleanor  Island  is  about  4  miles  long,  has  elevations  up  to  834  feet, 
and  bluff,  rugged  shores.  Broken  ground  extends  J£  mile  north- 
ward and  northwestward  from  Point  Eleanor.  The  bay  on  the  north- 
wost  side  of  Eleanor  Island  is  deep  and  clear.  There  is  anchorage 


56  KNIGHT  ISLAND  GROUP. 

for  small  vessels  in  the  south  arm,  about  y%  mile  from  the  head,  in 
about  20  fathoms. 

Near  the  eastern  point  of  Eleanor  Island,  2  miles  southeastward 
of  Point  Eleanor,  there  is  a  rocky  islet  with  a  few  trees  and  foul 
ground  inside  of  it.  A  bare  rock  lying  J4  mu*e  southeastward  of  the 
islet  should  be  given  a  berth  of  34  mile. 

A  group  of  prominent  bare  rocks,  close  together  and  about  12  feet 
high,  lie  over  34  mile  off  the  southeastern  point  of  Eleanor  Island 
and  3  miles  southeastward  of  Point  Eleanor.  There  is  broken  ground, 
with  depths  of  6  to  7  fathoms,  between  them  and  Eleanor  Island.  A 
bare  rock  about  5  feet  high  lies  34  mile  southward  of  the  group  of 
bare  rocks;  it  should  be  given  a  berth  of  over  34  mile  when  southeast- 
ward of  it. 

Upper  Passage,  separating  Eleanor  and  Ingot  Islands,  is  generally 
deep  and  suitable  for  small  craft.  An  island,  1  mile  long  and  its 
northern  end  joined  at  low  water  to  Eleanor  Island,  lies  in  the  pas- 
sage. In  the  narrowest  part  of  the  passage  between  this  island  and 
Ingot  Island,  favor,  if  anything,  the  northeast  side  of  the  channel.  A 
ledge,  with  5  fathoms  over  it,  possibly  less,  lies  in  the  middle  of  the 
southeastern  entrance  of  Upper  Passage  600  yards  southeastward 
from  the  southern  end  of  the  island  in  the  passage. 

Entrance  Island,  a  prominent  wooded  island,  269  feet  high  and 
with  deep  water  all  around  it,  kes  600  yards  southward  from  Eleanor 
Island  and  on  the  northern  side  at  the  southeastern  entrance  of  Upper 
Passage. 

Sphinx  Island,  a  larger  and  higher  wooded  island,  lies  ^  mile  south- 
ward of  Entrance  Island  and  %  mile  eastward  of  Ingot  Island ;  there 
is  deep  water  all  around  it. 

Ingot  Island,  lying  between  Upper  and  Lower  Passages,  is  4  miles 
long,  over  1  mile  wide,  and  1,114  feet  high.  A  prominent  wooded 
island  246  feet  high  lies  34  mile  °ff  ^ne  northwest  end  of  Ingot  Island. 

Disk  Island,  on  the  northeastern  side  of  Lower  Passage,  is  about  1 
mile  in  diameter  and  677  feet  high.  The  narrow  channel  between  it 
and  Ingot  Island  is  blocked  by  reefs.  A  bay  with  two  narrow  entrances 
makes  into  the  southwest  side  of  the  island.  The  main  entrance  is 
50  yards  wide  with  a  depth  of  3  fathoms,  and  there  is  a  depth  of  13 
fathoms  in  the  bay. 

Two  small  bare  rocks,  close  together  and  nearly  awash  at  high 
water,  lie  34  mile  115°  true  (E  34  N  mag.)  from  the  southeast  point 
of  Ingot  Island,  with  deep  water  between.  The  rocks  should  be 
given  a  berth  of  34  mn*e  when  northeastward  of  them.  A  rock,  with 
334  fathoms  on  it  and  which  should  be  avoided,  lies  34  m^e  109°  true 
(Ei  %  N  mag.)  from  the  bare  rocks,  with  broken  ground  between. 

Lower  Passage  is  a  deep  navigable  channel,  suitable  for  small  ves- 
sels, at  the  northern  end  of  Knight  Island,  between  it  and  Disk  and 
Ingot  Islands.  A  ledge,  on  which  the  least  depth  obtained  is  4  fath- 
oms, extends  300  yards  northward  from  the  turning  point  on  the 
south  side  of  Lower  Passage  southeastward  from  Disk  Island.  Broken 
ground,  on  which  the  least  depth  obtained  is  634  fathoms,  extends 
into  the  passage  400  yards  from  the  southwest  shore  just  northwest- 
ward of  the  entrance  of  Louis  Bay.  A  rock,  bare  at  half  tide,  lies  350 
yards  from  the  western  shore,  %  mile  inside  the  northwest  end  of 
the  passage.  There  is  foul  ground  from  this  rock  to  the  head  of  the 
cove  34  mile  southward. 


KNIGHT  ISLAND.  57 

A  rock  with  4J^  fathoms,  possibly  less,  lies  nearly  %  mile  northwest- 
ward from  the  northern  end  of  Disk  Island.  Another  rock  with  5 
fathoms  over  it  lies  nearly  ^  mile  from  Ingot  Island  and  over  %  mile 
42°  true  (N  by  E  %  E  mag.)  from  the  southern  point  at  the  north- 
western entrance  of  Lower  Passage.  These  rocks  are  weh1  out  of  the 
usual  track  of  vessels  going  through  Lower  Passage. 

Entering  Lower  Passage  from  eastward,  vessels  should  pass  south- 
ward of  the  two  small  outlying  bare  rocks  (see  the  description  pre- 
ceding). Give  the  prominent  turning  point  on  the  south  side  of  the 
passage  southeastward  of  Disk  Island  a  berth  of  300  yards  when 
northward  of  it,  and  follow  the  southern  side  of  Disk  Island  at  about 
that  distance  until  up  with  its  southwestern  end.  Then  steer  349° 
true  (NW  ^  N  mag.)  and  pass  about  %  mile  northeastward  from 
the  southern  point  at  the  northwestern  end  of  the  passage. 

louis  Bay,  at  the  southern  end  about  halfway  through  Lower 
Passage,  is  ^  mile  wide  at  the  entrance,  and  affords  anchorage  for 
small  vessels  250  to  300  yards  from  the  head  of  either  of  its  two  arms 
in  about  15  fathoms.  The  western  arm  is  clear  so  far  as  known. 

The  eastern  arm  of  Louis  Bay  has  a  very  broken  bottom,  and  small 
vessels  entering  should  proceed  with  caution.  A  rock  with  a  depth 
of  5  feet  lies  175  yards  from  the  eastern  shore  and  350  yards  northward 
from  the  entrance  of  the  eastern  arm.  The  eastern  arm  is  J/g  to  M 
mile  wide;  a  ledge  makes  out  about  30  yards  from  the  western  point 
(a  wooded  islet)  at  the  entrance.  When  inside  the  entranc$uof  the 
eastern  arm,  favor  the  western  side  to  avoid  three  rocks  which  are 
bare  at  lowest  tides;  one  lies  100  yards  off  a  point  on  the  east  side 
300  yards  northward  of  the  houses  at  the  head;  the  other  two  lie  225 
yards  northward  of  the  same  point  and  the  same  distance  from  the 
east  side. 

Bay  of  Isles  is  on  the  eastern  side  of  Knight  Island,  260°  true 
(SW  y%  W  mag.)  from  Seal  Island.  It  has  numerous  islets  and  pin- 
nacle rocks,  sunken  and  awash,  and  is  suitable  only  for  small  vessels, 
proceeding  with  caution  and  preferably  at  low  water.  There  is 
secure  anchorage  in  the  South  and  North  Arms,  the  latter  being  easier 
of  access.  The  depths  in  the  bay  are  great,  and  the  deep  water  ex- 
tends close  to  the  rocks,  which  are  not  marked  by  kelp. 

To  enter  Bay  of  Isles,  steer  260°  true  (SW  %  W  mag.)  with  Seal 
Island  astern,  and  pass  in  mid-channel  northward  of  the  islets  lying 
in  the  middle  of  the  bay.  Continue  the  course  J^  mile  past  the  islets, 
and  then  steer  221°  true  (S  by  W  M  W"  mag.),  and  pass  in  mid- 
channel  westward  of  the  islands  near  the  southern  shore.  Then  steer 
about  269°  true  (SW  by  W  }^  W  mag.),  and  keep  the  northern  shore 
aboard  distant  about  150  yards  in  entering  North  Arm.  Anchor  in 
the  middle  of  the  broad  part  of  the  arm  in  9  to  11  fathoms. 

Foul  ground  extends  y%  mile  southeastward  from  the  northern  point 
in  the  approach  to  Bav  of  Isles.  At  the  end  of  the  foul  ground  is  a 
rock  with  10  feet  over  it,  lying  %  mile  73°  true  (NE  mag.)  from  an 
island  near  the  northern  shore.  The  tangent  to  the  shore  southward 
of  Bay  of  Isles  in  line  with  the  eastern  shore  of  Knight  Island  south- 
ward of  Snug  Harbor,  bearing  197°  true  (S  by  E  mag.),  leads  east- 
ward of  the  foul  ground. 

Manning  Rocks  lie  about  2  miles  off  the  entrance  of  Bay  of  Isles. 
They  are  three  pinnacles,  with  depths  of  5,  9,  and  23  feet  on  the  south, 
middle,  and  north  one,  respectively,  the  distance  between  the  end 


58  KNIGHT  ISLAND. 

ones  being  Y%  mile.  They  are  surrounded  by  deep  water,  and  are 
the  worst  danger  on  the  east  side  of  Knight  Island.  Between  Man- 
ning Rocks  and  the  foul  ground  in  the  entrance  of  Bay  of  Isles  the 
bottom  is  very  irregular,  although  the  least  depth  found  is  8 J^  fathoms ; 
this  area  should  be  avoided  by  vessels. 

Marsha  Bay,  4%  miles  southward  of  Bay  of  Isles,  has  a  crooked 
narrow  entrance,  and  is  suitable  only  for  small  craft.  The  depths  are 
great  except  at  its  north  end,  where  anchorage  can  be  selected  in 
15  fathoms  or  less.  The  entrance  is  between  two  sunken  rocks,  and 
the  channel  then  leads  southward  of  the  islands  which  choke  the 
mouth  of  the  bay.  Enter  in  mid-channel  between  the  outer  island 
and  the  south  point  of  the  bay  on  a  252°  true  (SW  mag.)  course, 
and  then  favor  the  south  point  of  the  islands  when  passing  through 
the  narrowest  Dart  of  the  channel. 

Snug  Harbor  is  on  the  east  side  of  Knight  Island  6  to  7  miles  north- 
ward of  Point  Helen.  Its  western  arm  is  %  mile  wide  and  clear 
near  mid-channel,  and  is  a  secure  anchorage  at  its  head  in  12  to  17 
fathoms.  Anchorage,  exposed  to  northerly  and  northeasterly  winds, 
can  be  had  in  the  broad  cove  on  the  south  side  in  the  entrance  of  the 
harbor  in  12  to  15  fathoms,  rocky  bottom. 

Hogan  Bay,  on  the  east  side  of  Knight  Island  2J^  miles  northward 
of  Point  Helen,  has  anchorage  in  the  middle,  j^J  mile  inside  the 
entrance,  in  16  to  20  fathoms.  The  bottom  is  rocky  and  uneven, 
and  the  anchorage  is  exposed  eastward.  Small  craft  can  pass 
through  the  narrow  channel  at  the  head  of  the  bay  and  find  secure 
anchorage  in  the  inner  cove  in  12  fathoms  or  less.  The  spit  on  the 
southwest  side  of  the  channel  is  bold,  and  should  be  favored  when 
entering  the  inner  cove. 

KNIGHT  ISLAND  PASSAGE, 

on  the  west  and  south  sides  of  Knight  Island,  is  used  by  vessels 
calling  at  Drier  and  other  bays  on  the  west  side  of  Knight  Island. 
With  easterly  winds  it  offers  a  smoother  channel  from  Latouche 
Passage  to  the  northern  end  of  the  Naked  Island  group  than  the 
generally  used  route  eastward  of  Knight  Island. 

From  its  no  them  entrance  between  Herring  Point  and  Graf  ton 
Island,  where  it  is  5  miles  wide,  it  extends  16  miles  in  a  196°  true  (S 
by  E  mag.)  direction  to  Pleiades  Islands,  with  a  least  width  of  2 
miles  at  the  southeast  end  of  Chenega  Island.  The  channel  leads 
eastward  of  the  Pleiades,  where  it  is  1M  miles  wide  between  them 
and  Point  of  Rocks.  From  these  islands  the  passage  has  a  135°  true 
(ESE  y%  E  mag.)  direction  for  10  miles,  with  widths  of  3  to  4  miles, 
to  Montague  Strait  between  Point  Helen  and  the  north  end  of 
Latouche  Island. 

The  depths  in  the  passage  range  from  150  to  400  fathoms.  The 
west  side  is  generally  bold,  with  the  exception  of  the  bight  between 
Crafton  Island  and  Point  Nowell,  which  is  foul.  From  Pleiades 
Islands  to  5  miles  southward  of  Herring  Point  the  eastern  shore  is 
foul  for  %  mile  off,  many  islands,  rocks,  and  reefs  being  found  in  it. 

There  are  no  good  anchorages  in  the  bays  on  the  west  side  of 
Knight  Island.  Small  craft  can  anchor  in  nearly  all  the  arms  of  the 
bays,  but  the  bottom  is  generally  rocky. 


KNIGHT   ISLAND  PASSAGE.  59 

Main  Bay,  on  the  west  shore  southeastward  of  Port  Nellie  Juan, 
is  deep  and  generally  clear  away  from  the  shores,  but  affords  no 
anchorage.  Foul  ground  makes  off  the  entrance  points,  especially 
from  the  northwest  side,  as  shown  on  chart  8517. 

Falls  Bay  affords  no  anchorage  and  is  open  to  the  prevailing 
northeasterly  weather.  The  main  body  of  the  bay  is  clear  and  deep. 
Rocks  make  out  from  the  points  at  the  entrance,  contracting  it  to  a 
width  of  34  mile  m  which  the  least  depth  found  is  about  12  fathoms. 

Crafton  Island  is  1  mile  long  and  wooded.  At  its  north  end  are 
rocky  bluffs  about  100  feet  high,  while  its  southern  part  is  lower  and 
has  sandy  beaches  in  places.  Two  low  islets  with  sandy  beaches 
lie  off  its  south  end. 

Crafton  Island  is  surrounded  by  foul  ground  to  a  distance  of  about 
y%  mile  on  its  east  and  south  sides,  where  no  sounding  has  been  done. 
An  exceedingly  broken  area  extends  over  2  miles  southeastward  from 
the  island ;  and  a  rock,  bare  at  about  half  tide,  lies  1  mile  east-south- 
eastward from  the  south  end  of  the  islands.  Vessels  should  avoid 
all  broken  areas  in  this  vicinityon  which  depths  less  than  about  50 
fathoms  have  been  found. 

The  passage  westward  of  Crafton  Island  is  foul  along  the  shore  of 
the  islands  and  at  its  south  entrance.  Three  rocks  bare  at  low 
water  lie  in  the  middle  of  the  south  entrance.  This  passage  should 
be  used  only  by  small  craft,  proceeding  with  care  and  preferably 
at  low  water;  the  channel  favors  the  west  shore  from  the  south 
entrance  until  abreast  the  middle  of  Crafton  Island. 

The  clearer  channel  to  Eshamy  Bay  follows  the  shore  northward 
from  Point  Nowell  and  has  a  width  of  about  %  mile.  Differences 
in  depth  of  50  fathoms  between  adjacent  soundings  are  not  uncom- 
mon in  this  locality.  Foul  ground  extends  350  yards  northwest- 
ward, and  rocky  broken  ground,  on  which  the  least  depth  found  is 
14  fathoms,  extends  %  mile  northward  from  the  south  point  at  the 
entrance  of  Eshamy  Bay. 

Eshamy  Bay,  at  the  head  of  the  bight  between  Point  Nowell  and 
Crafton  Island,  affords  no  anchorage  for  vessels.  Small  craft  can 
find  secure  anchorage,  in  8  to  11  fathoms,  in  the  small  cove  back  of 
the  islands  and  rocks  in  the  southeast  corner  of  the  bay.  The  better 
entrance  is  through  the  middle  of  the  deep,  narrow  channel  between 
the  small  islands  and  the  eastern  shore.  Eshamy  Lagoon,  with  a 
saltery  at  its  head,  extends  westward  from  Eshamy  Bay,  but  its  foul 
entrance  with  strong  currents  renders  it  not  available  for  strangers. 

Point  Nowell,  4)^  miles  from  Crafton  Island,  is  a  small  wooded 
hook,  about  50  feet  high,  back  of  which  the  land  rises  abruptly  to 
about  1,600  feet.  The  cove  on  the  south  side  of  Point  Nowell  is  about 
300  yards  in  diameter  and  apparently  clear,  and  affords  anchorage 
for  small  craft  in  about  5  fathoms. 

Dangerous  Passage,  on  the  west  side  of  Chenega  Island,  has  rocks 
bare  at  low  water  near  mid-channel  in  its  northern  entrance,  and 
appears  foul. 

Chenega  Island,  on  the  west  side  of  Knight  Island  Passage,  is  7 
miles  long  and  1,800  to  2,000  feet  high.  Close  to  the  north  end  of 
the  island  is  a  low,  wooded  island,  with  several  islets  on  its  northwest 
side.  There  is  a  prominent  landslide  at  the  south  end  of  Chenega 
Island  over  the  small  Indian  village  of  Chenega,  and  two  low,  wooded 
islets  close  to  the  shore  off  the  village. 


60  KNIGHT  ISLAND  PASSAGE. 

Herring  Bay,  at  the  northwest  end  of  Knight  Island,  is  4  miles  long 
from  Herring  Point  to  the  head  of  its  southeast  and  south  arms,  and 
1  to  2  miles  wide  except  in  the  arms.  The  bay  has  no  desirable  an- 
chorage, and  is  characterized  by  much  foul  ground  and  very  broken 
bottom,  with  deep  water  extending  close  to  the  shores  and  dangers. 
Vessels  navigating  the  bay  should  proceed  with  caution,  especially  in 
the  vicinity  of  broken  areas  with  depths  less  than  about  20  fathoms, 
and  preferably  at  low  water.  The  entrance  is  clear  except  along  the 
eastern  shore,  which  is  foul.  A  prominent  rock  about  4  feet  high  lies 
near  the  middle  1J^  miles  southeastward  of  Herring  Point;  the  best 
channel  to  the  upper  part  of  the  bay  is  eastward  of  the  rock.  Water 
can  be  obtained  from  a  fall  in  the  southeast  arm. 

Herring  Point  is  the  north  end  of  a  narrow  ridge,  about  1,000  feet 
high,  forming  the  west  side  of  Herring  Bay. 

Channel  Rock,  a  prominent  bare,  black  rock  about  6  feet  high,  lies 
nearly  1  mile  off  the  entrance  of  Lower  Herring  Bay,  and  is  a  good 
mark  for  Knight  Island  Passage.  A  rock  bare  at  low  water  lies  1 % 
miles  25°  true  (N  M  W  mag.)  from  Channel  Rock  and  %  mile  from 
the  shore  of  Knight  Island;  from  this  rock  southward  the  eastern 
side  of  Knight  Island  is  very  broken  and  foul,  with  deep  water  extend- 
ing close  to  the  dangers,  as  shown  on  the  chart. 

Lower  Herring  Bay  is  not  an  anchorage  for  vessels,  and  is  suitable 
only  for  small  craft.  The  best  entrance  is  eastward  of  Channel  Rock, 
avoiding  the  rocky  patch  with  depths  of  17  to  22  fathoms  lying 
between  Channel  Rock  and  the  south  point  of  the  bay.  The 
principal  danger  in  the  bay  is  a  rock  bare  at  three-quarters  ebb 
which  lies  in  the  middle  600  yards  from  the  eastern  end  of  the  bay. 
The  passage  between  this  rock  and  the  point  northward  (lying 
between  the  two  arms)  should  be  used  with  caution.  A  midchannel 
course  should  be  followed  in  the  arms.  Small  craft  can  anchor  in 
the  cove  on  the  south  side  1%  miles  inside  the  entrance  of  the  bay, 
in  not  less  than  about  10  fathoms;  water  can  be  conveniently  ob- 
tained in  this  cove  from  a  fall. 

A  narrow  deep  passage,  suitable  for  small  craft,  follows  the  shore 
inside  the  islands  between  Lower  Herring  and  Johnson  Bays.  Strangers 
should  take  it  at  low  water  and  exercise  care. 

Johnson  Bay  is  suitable  only  for  small  craft;  strangers  should  enter 
at  low  water  only,  and  proceed  with  caution  in  the  vicinity  of  all 
broken  ground.  There  is  a  wooded  island  in  the  mouth  of  the  bay. 
The  entrance  is  northward  of  the  island,  is  about  125  yards  wide 
between  reefs  bare  at  low  water,  and  the  axis  of  the  channel  is  about 
125  yards  from  the  north  shore  on  a  125°  true  (E  ^g  S  mag.)  course. 
From  Knight  Island  Passage  a  98°  true  (ENE  M  E  mag.)  course  for 
the  north  point  at  the  entrance  in  range  with  a  pyramidal  peak  of 
black  rock  (2,090  feet  high)  above  the  head  of  the  bay  will  lead 
between  the  outlying  dangers  to  the  entrance.  Water  can  be  obtained 
from  a  fall  near  the  head. 

Squirrel  Island,  9^  miles  southward  of  Herring  Point  and  %  mile 
from  the  eastern  shore,  is  the  northernmost  of  the  islands  extending 
1^2  miles  northward  of  the  entrance  to  Drier  Bay.  It  is  Y%  mile  long, 
180  feet  high,  and  wooded. 

Drier  Bay  is  described  under  a  separate  heading  following. 

Southward  of  Drier  Bay  there  are  two  large  islands  on  the  east  side 
of  Knight  Island  Passage,  separated  from  Knight  Island  by  Long 


KNIGHT   ISLAND   PASSAGE.  61 

Channel.  Mummy  Island  is  described  under  Drier  Bay.  Squire 
Island,  the  southern  one,  is  3  miles  long  and  about  1,000  feet  high. 
A  ledge,  bare  at  low  water,  lies  34  mile  southward  from  the  south  end 
of  Squire  Island.  Two  islands  lie  J4  mile  off  the  west  side  of  Squire 
Island,  and  from  these  islands  a  large  reef  extends  %  mile  westward 
to  Point  of  Rocks,  the  latter  awash  at  high  water.  The  channel 
between  Mummy  and  Squire  Islands  leading  into  Long  Channel  has 
rocky,  broken  bottom,  and  should  be  used  with  caution. 

Long  Channel  is  a  deep  inside  passage  for  small  craft  from  Drier  Bay 
to  the  southern  part  of  Knight  Island  Passage.  It  is  4J/2  miles  long 
and  the  mid-channel  is  clear  so  far  as  known.  The  channel  is  gen- 
erally H  to  %  mile  wide,  but  narrows  to  175  yards  abreast  Mummy 
Island  and  to  250  yards  %  mile  from  the  north  end  of  Squire  Island.. 
A  rock,  covered  at  high  water,  lies  in  the  northern  entrance  J^  mile 
88°  true  (NE  by  E  y%  E  mag.)  from  the  north  end  of  Mummy 
Island.  The  tidal  currents  have  little  velocity. 

From  southward,  the  mid-channel  courses  are  22°  true  (N  J^  W 
mag.)  for  1  mile,  then  358°  true  (NNW  5/8  Wmag.)  for  M  mile  to  the 
southern  end  of  the  narrowest  part  of  the  channel  abreast  Squire 
Island,  then  10°  true  (N  by  W  ^  W  mag.)  for  2  miles  to  the  northern 
end  of  the  narrowest  part  of  the  channel  abreast  Mummy  Island,  and 
then  30°  true  (N  M  E  mag.)  into  Drier  Bay. 

There  is  a  large  bay  on  the  east  side  of  Long  Channel  abreast  the 
north  end  of  Squire  Island.  Its  entrance  is  very  narrow  and  foul, 
and  suitable  only  for  small  craft  with  local  knowledge.  The  tidal 
currents  have  considerable  velocity  in  the  entrance. 

Pleiades  Islands,  in  the  middle  of  Knight  Island  Passage,  are  a 
group  of  7  wooded  islands  1  mile  long.  The  southernmost  and  largest 
is  about  80  feet  high. 

Mummy  Bay,  in  the  south  end  of  Knight  Island  4  miles  westward  of 
Point  Helen,  is  about  1  mile  wide  and  3>2  miles  long.  It  is  deep  and 
clear,  but  rocks  extend  J£  mile  from  the  .head.  Small  vessels  can 
anchor  }4  mile  from  the  head  in  15  to  20  fathoms.  The  southern  arm 
on  the  eastern  side  of  the  bay  is  clear  and  affords  anchorage  for  small 
vessels  in  12  to  15  fathoms.  The  northern  arm  on  the  eastern  side 
is  an  anchorage  for  small  craft. 

Little  Bay,  on  the  south  side  of  Knight  Island,  1%  miles  westward 
of  Point  Helen,  is  1  mile  long,  J^  mile  wide,  and  clear  so  far  as  known. 
The  depths  are  13  to  18  fathoms  rocky  bottom,  and  it  is  a  fair  anchor- 
age except  with  southerly  winds. 

Ice. — Considerable  glacial  ice  was  seen  in  the  passage  south  of 
Pleiades  Islands.  It  comes  from  westward  between  Point  Countess 
and  Chenega  Island,  and  drifts  eastward  as  far  as  Latouche  Passage 
with  the  ebb. 

The  tidal  currents  in  Knight  Island  Passage  have  a  velocity  of  1  to 
2  knots  at  the  strength  of  the  large  tides. 

DIRECTIONS.  KNIGHT  ISLAND   PASSAGE. 

From  a  position  \y^  miles  west  of  Storey  Island  make  good  a  211° 
true  (S  J4  W  mag.)  course  for  21  miles,  passing  1*4  miles  off  the 
west  side  of  Herring  Point  and  to  a  position  1  to  1 M  miles  eastward 
of  Point  Nowell. 

Then  steer  196°  true  (S  by  E  mag.)  for  Pleiades  Islands  with  Lone 
Island  astern;  having  stood  7  miles  on  this  course,  New  Year  Islands, 


62  KNIGHT  ISLAND   PASSAGE. 

on  the  north  side  at  the  entrance  to  Drier  Bay,  should  bear  about  I  y% 
miles  on  the  port  beam.  Continue  the  196°  true  (S  by  E  mag.) 
course  for  10^  miles  from  Point  Nowell  until  1)4  miles  from  Pleiades 
Islands  and  the  south  tangent  of  Chenega  Island  is  abeam. 

Then  steer  169°  true  (SE  y%  S  mag.)  for  2  J^  miles,  passing  midway 
between  Point  of  Rocks  and  the  Pleiades.  When  the  southeast  end 
of  Squire  Island  is  1  mile  on  the  port  beam,  steer  146°  true  (SE  by 
E  i  E  mag.)  with  the  north  end  of  Pleiades  Islands  astern.  This 
course  made  good  for  7  miles  will  lead  1J£  miles  off  the  southern 
shore  of  the  passage  and  to  the  north  entrance  to  Latouche  Passage, 
and  the  course  made  good  for  10  miles  will  lead  into  Montague  Strait. 

DRIER  BAY 

has  its  main  entrance  between  Mummy  Island  and  New  Year  Islands 
on  the  west  side  of  Knight  Island  11^  miles  southward  of  Herring 
Point  and  4^  miles  northward  of  Pleiades  Islands.  The  bay  is  5 
miles  long  in  a  northeasterly  direction  and  nearly  1  mile  wide.  The 
southeast  shore  is  indented  by  a  number  of  bays  and  coves  and  by 
Long  Channel. 

The  principal  known  dangers  in  the  bay  are  mentioned  in  the  fol- 
lowing description.  In  addition,  the  entire  bay  and  approach  are 
characterized  by  exceedingly  broken  bottom,  and  vessels  should 
proceed  with  caution  in  the  vicinity  of  such  areas  where  abrupt 
changes  in  depth  are  shown  by  the  chart  to  depths  less  than  50 
fathoms. 

Mummy  Island,  on  the  south  side  at  the  entrance,  is  1^  miles 
long,  543  fee-t  high,  and  wooded;  there  are  patches  of  grass  on  the 
southern  half  of  the  island.  Reefs  extend  %  mile  southwestward 
from  the  northwest  end  of  the  island,  and  wooded  islets  with  reefs 
around  them  extend  %  mile  westward  from  the  southern  half  of  the 
island.  A  rock  covered  at  high  water  lies  M  mile  88°  true  (NE  by  E 
%  E  mag.)  from  the  north  end  of  the  island,  but  is  in  the  way  only 
when  using  Long  Channel.  A  rock  with  4  fathoms  over  it  lies  J£ 
mile  64°  time  (NE  %  N  mag.)  from  the  north  end  of  Mummy  Island. 

New  Year  Islands  are  the  southernmost  of  the  islands  which  extend 
\Y%  miles  northward  from  the  entrance  to  Drier  Bay.  They  are 
about  2/8  mile  long,  wooded,  and  the  southern  and  largest  one  200 
feet  high.  Bare  reefs  extend  250  yards  southward  of  the  south  island. 
A  rock  bare  at  low  water  lies  Ji  mile  19°  true  (N  %  W  mag.)  from 
the  north  island,  and  is  a  serious  danger  in  the  ^channel  between  New 
Year  Islands  and  the  islands  northward. 

Clam  Islands,  two  in  number,  low  and  wooded,  lie  between  New 
Year  Islands  and  the  north  point  of  the  bay.  A  rocky  patch  with 
3%  fathoms  over  it  lies  600  yards  191°  true  (S  by  E  ^  E  mag.)  from 
Clam  Islands,  and  nearly  %  mile  102°  true  (ENE  %  E  mag.)  from 
the  south  end  of  New  Year  Islands. 

Range  Isle,  small  and  wooded,  lies  close  to  the  north  side  of  the 
bay  and  2  miles  inside  New  Year  Islands.  The  line  of  Range  Isle 
just  clear  of  the  north  shore  eastward  of  it,  bearing  75°  true  (NE  ]4= 
E  mag.),  leads  about  through  the  middle  of  the  entrance  between 
Mummy  Island  and  New  Year  Islands,  and  is  sometimes  used  as  a 
range  for  entering  the  bay. 


DRIEK  BAY.  63 

Cathead  Bay,  on  the  south  side  2  miles  from  Mummy  Island,  is 
1  mile  long  and  y±  to  %  mile  wide.  There  are  two  islands  in  the 
upper  part  of  the  bay.  The  soundings  taken  indicate  deep  wTater, 
but  it  is  not  thoroughly  developed.  In  the  entrance  of  the  bay  200 
yards  from  the  west  side  is  a  rock  with  4  feet  over  it.  Also  off  the 
entrance,  %  mile  50°  true  (NNE  mag.)  from  Cat  Head  and  %  mile 
191°  true  (S  by  E  %  E  mag.)  from  Kange  Isle,  is  a  rock  with  3^ 
fathoms  over  it.  When  entering  favor  the  east  side  to  avoid  these 
rocks  and  then  proceed  with  caution  on  either  side  of  the  islands 
to  its  head. 

Mallard  Bay,  on  the  south  side,  2J^  miles  inside  Mummy  Island, 
is  1  mile  long  and  %  to  %  mile  wide.  The  bay  is  foul  for  a  distance 
of  %  mile  from  its  head.  Approaching  with  care,  anchorage  can 
be  made  %  to  Y2  mile  from  the  head  in  17  to  20  fathoms. 

Barnes  Cove,  4  miles  inside  Mummy  Island  and  135°  true  (ESE 
}/%  E  mag.)  from  Chase  Island,  is  obstructed  by  ledges  at  its  entrance, 
and  shoals  make  out  from  the  shores  of  the  cove.  Small  craft  entering 
with  care  can  find  good  anchorage  in  8  fathoms.  Vessels  can  anchor- 
300  to  500  yards  off  the  entrance  in  20  to  22  fathoms. 

The  point  on  the  northeast  side  of  Barnes  Cove  is  prominent  and 
high,  with  bare  rocky  sides.  A  reef  extends  150  yards  off  the  small 
point  ^  mile  northeastward  of  this  point. 

Chase  Island,  small  and  wooded,  lies  700  yards  from  the  north- 
west side  of  the  bay  and  1%  miles  above  Range  Isle.  A  ledge  bare 
at  low  water  extends  300  yards  southward  from  Chase  Island. 

A  rock  awash  at  half  tide  lies  3/s  mile  61°  true  (NE  by  N  mag.)  from 
Chase  Island.  It  is  sometimes  marked  by  a  buoy.  There  is  a  rock 
bare  at  extreme  low  water  between  the  half-tide  rock  and  the 
northern  shore. 

Northeast  Cove,  on  the  southeast  side  at  the  head  of  the  bay,  is 
small  and  has  shoals  at  its  entrance  and  also  inside  for  200  yards 
from  its  head.  Small  craft  entering  with  care  can  find  good  anchor- 
age in  4  to  5  fathoms.  Vessels  can  anchor  300  to  500  yards  off  the 
entrance  in  17  to  20  fathoms. 

Anchorage  can  be  selected  about  J4  mile  from  shore  in  the  north 
end  of  the  bay,  in  about  20  fathoms. 

At  the  north  end  of  the  bay  is  the  narrow  entrance  to  a  lagoon 
which  affords  good  anchorage  for  small  craft  in  6  to  10  fathoms. 
There  is  7  feet  in  the  narrow  entrance;  a  flat  extends  250  yards  from 
the  head.  A  sunken  rock  lies  in  the  approach  50  yards  from  the 
eastern  shore  and  100  yards  southeastward  from  the  narrow  entrance. 

DIRECTIONS,  DRIER  BAY. 

Strangers  may  have  some  difficulty  in  recognizing  the  entrance 
to  Drier  Bay,  as  there  are  several  groups  of  islands  on  the  east  side 
of  Knight  Island  Passage,  both  north  and  south  of  the  entrance. 
Approaching  from  northward  the  island  in  the  mouth  of  Johnson 
Bay  is  a  good  mark. 

From  northward,  follow  the  directions  for  Knight  Island  Passage, 
and  when  7  miles  past  Point  Nowell  the  position  should  be  midway 
between  New  Year  Islands  and  the  south  end  of  a  sand  beach  on 
Chenega  Island.  Then  steer  129°  true  (E  by  S  mag.)  for  the  north 
end  of  Mummy  Island  and  pass  about  %  mile  southward  of  the  bare 


64  DRIER   BAY. 

rocks  off  the  south  end  of  New  Year  Islands.  When  New  Year 
Islands  are  a  little  abaft  the  beam,  steer  84°  true  (NE  by  E  mag.) 
and  pass  about  y%  mile  northward  of  Mummy  Island  into  the  bay. 

From  southward,  steer  16°  true  (N  by  W  mag.)  with  Pleiades 
Islands  astern  until  about  1  mile  past  the  southeast  point  of  Chenega 
Island.  Then  steer  64°  true  (NE  %  N  mag.)  with  the  southeast 
point  of  Chenega  Island  astern,  and  pass  about  ^  mile  northward  of 
Mummy  Island. 

Entering  about  midway  between  Mummy  Island  and  the  bare 
rocks  southward  of  New  Year  Islands,  steer  84°  true  (NE  by  E  mag.) 
for  3)i  miles,  passing  J^  mile  southward  of  Range  Isle.  When  400 
yards  from  the  southeast  shore  above  Mallard  Bay,  steer  50°  true 
(NNE  mag.),  passing  about  600  yards  southeastward  of  Chase  Island 
and  about  400  yards  off  the  southeast  shore  above  the  island.  Then 
keep  near  the  middle  of  the  bay. 

MONTAGUE  STRAIT, 

between  Montague  and  Latouche  Islands,  is  the  broadest  of  the 
passages  westward  of  Montague  Island,  and  passing  westward  of 
Green  Island  offers  a  clear  channel  4)^  miles  wide  from  Prince  William 
Sound  to  the  sea.  It  is,  however,  rarely  used,  vessels  generally  pass- 
ing through  Latouche  and  Elrington  Passages.  The  passage  between 
Green  and  Montague  Islands  has  considerable  foul  ground  and  should 
be  avoided  by  strangers  in  the  absence  of  a  survey. 

From  a  position  1  mile  westward  of  Seal  Island  a  203°  true  (S  ^g  E 
mag.)  course  made  good  for  42  miles  will  lead  1  mile  off  the  eastern 
shore  of  Latouche  Island,  \y%  miles  off  the  western  shore  of  Montague 
Island  near  its  southern  end,  and  to  a  position  about  2^  miles  west- 
ward of  Cape  Cleare. 

Or,  having  made  good  the  203°  true  (S  %  E  mag.)  course  for  30 
miles  to  a  position  1  mile  off  the  eastern  shore  of  Latouche  Island  5J^ 
miles  from  Point  Grace,  steer  230°  true  (SSW  mag.)  for  8  miles  to  a 
position  2  miles  southeastward  from  Danger  Island.  From  this  posi- 
tion a  course  can  be  shaped  as  desired.  (See  bearings  and  distances 
from  Danger  Island,  on  p.  66.) 

Green  Island  is  wooded,  about  6  miles  long,  520  feet  high  near  its 
middle,  and  slopes  gradually  to  its  north  and  south  ends.  The 
vicinity  of  the  island  is  very  foul.  Two  wooded  islets  and  numerous 
small  ones  lie  close  to  the  northwest  side  of  the  northeastern  half  of 
the  island.  Three  prominent  rocks  10  to  15  feet  high  lie  1  to  1J4 
miles  off  the  northwest  and  west  sides,  the  southwesternmost  lying  1 
mile  southwestward  from  the  western  end  of  the  island. 

An  extensive  reef,  marked  by  kelp,  lies  midway  between  Green 
Island  and  Seal  Island.  It  is  apparently  a  ridge  having  a  northerly 
direction  for  2J^  miles,  with  bare  rocks  (about  3  feet  high)  at  its 
north  end,  and  numerous  sunken  rocks  and  others  which  show  at 
extreme  low  water.  The  northern  bare  rock  lies  3%  miles  southeast- 
ward from  Seal  Island,  with  deep  water  between.  Between  the  reef 
and  Green  Island  there  is  broken  ground  on  which  the  least  depth 
found  is  10  fathoms,  but  the  area  has  not  been  completely  surveyed 
and  should  be  avoided  by  vessels. 

Gibbon  Anchorage  is  a  secure  harbor  for  small  craft  in  the  cove 
about  the  middle  of  the  northwest  side  of  Green  Island.  Passing 


MONTAGUE    STRAIT.  65 

600  yards  southward  of  the  outlying  prominent  rock  which  lies  1% 
miles  westward  of  the  cove,  steer  126°  true  (E  %  S  mag.)  for  Putnam 
Point,  the  prominent  wooded  point  with  a  small  bluff  on  the  south- 
west side  of  the  cove.  When  about  ^  mile  from  shore,  steer  more 
eastward  and  pass  nothing  southward  of  midway  between  Putnam 
Point  and  the  rock  awash  at  high  water  which  lies  400  yards  north- 
ward of  the  point.  When  past  the  rock,  anchor  in  the  cove  east- 
southeastward  of  it,  in  6  to  8  fathoms.  A  rock  awash  at  half  tide  lies 
175  yards  north-northeastward  of  the  point  lying  l/±  mile  west-south- 
westward  of  Putnam  Point;  and  the  southerly  one  of  two  rocks,  bare 
at  extreme  low  water,  lies  %  mile  133°  true  (ESE  ^  E  mag.)  of  the 
outlying  bare  rock. 

A^low,  wooded  island  %  mile  long  lies  iy$  miles  southward  from 
the  south  end  of  Green  Island.  A  large  reef,  partly  bare  at  low  water, 
lies  %  to  l^s  miles  south-south  west  ward  from  the  south  end  of  the 
low,  wooded  island. 

The  Needle  is  a  flat-topped,  steep-sided  rock,  about  75  feet  high, 
in  the  strait  3%  miles  from  the  nearest  point  of  Montague  Island  and 
5  y^  miles  eastward  from  Point  Helen. 

Hanning  Bay  is  on  the  east  side  of  the  strait,  13  miles  northward  of 
Cape  Cleare  and  151°  true  (SE  by  E  mag.)  from  the  north  end  of 
Latouche  Island.  It  is  a  good  anchorage  with  easterly  winds,  but  is 
exposed  from  northwest,  through  west,  to  southwest.  It  is  about  2 
miles  in  diameter,  with  depths  from  7  to  22  fathoms.  Shoals  extend 
nearly  %  mile  off  from  the  streams  at  the  northeast  and  southeast 
ends  of  the  bay,  and  a  reef  extends  nearly  J^  mile  from  the  point  on 
the  eastern  side.  The  best  anchorage  with  southerly  winds  is  about 
s/8  mile  from  the  south  side,  with  Danger  Island  open  from  the  south 
point  at  the  entrance  bearing  258°  true  (SW  1A  W  mag.),  and  the 
north  point  at  the  entrance  bearing  between  5°  true  (NNW  mag.) 
and  348°  true  (NW  %  N  mag.),  in  15  to  16  fathoms,  sticky  bottom. 
With  northwest  winds,  a  better  berth  can  be  had  J£  to  %  mile  off  the 
cove  on  the  north  side,  j^  mile  inside  the  entrance,  in  5  to  8  fathoms, 
hard  bottom.  When  entering,  give  the  points  at  the  entrance  a  berth 
of  over  %  mile. 

Macleod  Harbor,  on  the  east  side  of  the  strait,  6J^  miles  northward 
of  Cape  Cleare,  is  not  surveyed.  It  is  1  %  miles  wide  at  the  entrance 
and  possibly  2  miles  long.  The  following  information  is  from  reports : 
Vessels  can  anchor  in  13  to  14  fathoms  about  %  mile  off  the  sand 
beach  on  the  south  side  in  the  lower  part  of  the  bay,  but  it  is  more 
exposed  to  the  ocean  swell  than  Hanning  Bay.  The  depths  at  the 
entrance  are  7  to  8  fathoms,  and  in  the  bay  12  to  21  fathoms.  There 
is  a  dangerous  flat  on  the  eastern  and  southeastern  sides  of  the  bay. 
There  is  good  anchorage  for  small  craft  and  possibly  very  small  ves- 
sels in  a  cove  on  the  north  side  toward  the  head.  The  cove  is  formed 
by  a  point  which  is  bold  and  should  be  kept  aboard.  The  anchorage 
is  with  the  south  point  of  the  harbor  shut  in  by  this  point,  about  200 
yards  from  the  latter,  in  4J/£  fathoms. 

Latouche  Island  is  10  miles  long;  and  has  elevations  up  to  2,255  feet. 
It  is  wooded  to  an  elevation  of  about  500  feet,  and  above  this  is  cov- 
ered with  moss  and  bushes,  except  the  highest  peaks,  which  are  bare 
rocks.  The  eastern  shore  is  precipitous  and  the  100-fathom  curve  less 
than  34  mile  off  in  places. 
31056°— 16 5 


66  MONTAGUE    STRAIT. 


Danger  Island,  1%  miles  southward  of  Latouche  Island,  is 
in  diameter,  low  and  wooded.  The  island  is  surrounded  by  bare 
rocks  and  kelp  to  a  distance  of  ^g  mile  northward  and  southward  of  it, 
and  raile  eastward  and  westward.  Eastward  of  the  island  the  foul 


ground  is  not  developed.  There  is  no  safe  passage  between  it  and 
Latouche  Island.  A  bar  with  depths  of  6  to  11  fathoms  extends 
west-northwestward  from  Danger  Island  to  Elrington  Island.  A 
depth  of  3^2  fathoms  is  found  on  it  %  mile  westward  of  Danger- 
Island,  and  3%  fathoms  700  yards  from  Elrington  Island  and  308° 
true  (W  by  N  mag.)  from  Danger  Island.  The  following  are  bearings 
and  distances  from  Danger  Island  : 

Barwell  Island,  off  Cape  Resurrection,  264°  true  (SW  by  W  Y$ 
Wmag.),  36  J^  miles. 

Lone  Rock,  south  end  of  Chiswell  Islands,  246°  true  (SW  J^  S 
mag.),  51  miles. 

Seal  Rocks,  242°  true  (SW  %  S  mag.),  53  miles. 

LATOUCHE  AND  ELRINGTON   PASSAGES, 

between  Latouche  and  Hoodoo  Islands,  are  generally  used  by  vessels 
between  Prince  William  Sound  and  the  coast  southwestward,  passing 
westward  of  Elrington  Island.  There  is  also  considerable  traffic  to 
the  wharves  of  the  copper  mines  on  the  west  side  of  Latouche  Island. 

From  Point  Grace  to  the  north  end  of  Elrington  Island,  a  distance 
of  5  miles,  Latouche  Passage  is  about  1%  miles  wide,  with  deep  water. 
There  is  a  wooded  islet,  with  a  grass-covered  rock  close  to  its  north 
end,  near  Hoodoo  Island  %  mile  northwestward  of  the  northern 
entrance. 

Latouche  Passage,  east  of  Elrington  Island,  is  7  miles  long  and  % 
to  1  mile  wide,  with  moderate  depths,  under  30  fathoms  in  most 
places.  Anchorage  can  be  selected  nearly  anywhere  in  this  channel 
where  the  depth  is  suitable.  At  the  south  end  the  least  depths 
found  are  6  to  11  fathoms  on  the  bar  between  Danger  and  Elrington 
Islands. 

A  little  southward  of  the  former  Barrack's  Wharf,  nearly  2  miles 
southward  of  Point  Grace,  a  reef  makes  out  over  100  yards  from  shore  ; 
it  is  sometimes  marked  by  a  barrel  buoy. 

Latouche,  a  post  office  on  the  west  side  of  Latouche  Island  2% 
miles  southward  of  Point  Grace,  has  a  store,  and  is  the  site  of  the  mine 
of  the  Beatson  Copper  Co. 

The  new  wharf  at  Latouche  has  a  depth  of  about  20  feet  at  its  end, 
and  is  about  200  feet  long  on  its  face.  There  is  a  rock  about  100  feet 
northward  of  the  wharf  and  on  the  line  of  its  face.  Vessels  generally 
go  to  the  wharf  port  side  to,  heading  southward,  and  to  leave  the 
wharf  swing  the  bow  in  toward  the  shore  and  back  into  the  passage. 
There  is  a  tramroad  to  the  mine  about  y%  mile  southeastward,  and 
considerable  copper  ore  is  shipped.  The  cove  southward  of  the  wharf 
is  shoal,  and  a  reef  makes  out  about  100  yards  from  the  point  400 
yards  southwestward  of  the  wharf.  Anchorage  can  be  had  300  to 
500  yards  west-northwestward  from  the  wharf  in  10  to  15  fathoms. 

Chicken  Island,  3^  miles  southward  from  Point  Grace,  is  the  north- 
ern one  of  two  small  wooded  islands,  2J^  miles  apart,  on  the  east  side 
of  Latouche  Passage.  It  is  separated  from  Latouche  Island  by  a 
pass  350  yards  wide  with  a  depth  of  4  feet.  A  rock  with  15  feet  over 


LATOUCHE   PASSAGE.  67 

it  lies  300  yards  off  the  point  on  the  eastern  shore  %  mile  northward 
from  Chicken  Island. 

Horseshoe  Bay  is  on  the  west  side  of  Latouche  Island,  4J^  miles 
southward  of  Point  Grace.  Its  southern  half  is  shoal;  small  craft 
or  a  very  small  vessel,  entering  close  to  the  north  point  of  the  bay, 
can  anchor  in  its  north  end  in  18  to  20  feet  of  water.  Just  north- 
ward of  the  south  point  of  the  bay  is  a  rock,  covered  at  high  water. 
Vessels  can  anchor  about  %  mn<e  on?  the  entrance,  in  16  to  18  fathoms. 

From  a  little  southward  of  Horseshoe  Bay  to  the  southern  island 
in  Latouche  Passage  the  eastern  side  has  broken  ground  and  kelp 
in  places,  and  should  be  given  a  berth  of  2^  mile.  The  passage  east- 
ward of  the  southern  island  is  %  mile  wide,  with  much  kelp,  and 
should  be  avoided  by  vessels. 

On  the  west  side  of  Latouche  Passage  is  a  long  bay  separated  from 
Elrington  Passage  by  several  high,  wooded  islands.  The  bay  has 
deep  water  but  is  not  thoroughly  developed.  At  the  southwest 
end  of  the  bay  is  a  cascade,  which  shows  from  Latouche  Passage. 

Elrington  Passage,  on  the  west" side  of  Elrington  Island,  is  8  miles 
long,  y<i  to  1  mile  wide,  deep  and  clear.  Anchorage  is  not  easily 
found  on  account  of  the  great  depths. 

A  grass-covered  rock,  about  10  feet  high  and  with  some  brush  on 
its  summit,  lies  close  to  the  west  side  of  Elrington  Island  4  miles 
from  its  north  end. 

In  the  southeast  angle  of  the  passage  1%  miles  southward  of  this 
rock  there  is  anchorage  in  5  to  20  fathoms,  muddy  bottom,  depend- 
ing on  the  swinging  room  required. 

An  island  %  mile  in  diameter  and  500  feet  high  lies  in  the  bend 
at  the  south  end  of  the  passage  close  to  Elrington  Island,  from  which 
its  southeast  point  is  separated  by  a  narrow  pass  dry  at  low  water. 

A  pyramidal,  pinnacle  rock,  about  8  feet  high  and  with  grass  on  top, 
lies  about  250  yards  off  the  north  point  at  the  southwest  entrance 
of  Elrington  Passage. 

Procession  Rocks,  near  the  south  end  of  Bainbridge  Island,  3J4 
miles  westward  of  the  southwest  entrance  of  Elrington  Passage,  are 
a  good  mark.  They  are  a  small  cluster  of  rugged  rocks,  the  three 
largest  about  35  feet  high. 

Elrington  Island,  which  divides  Latouche  Passage  from  Elring- 
ton Passage,  is  10  miles  long,  about  1  mile  wide,  and  has  a  greatest 
elevation  of  1,967  feet.  The  general  tree  line  is  about  500  feet  high, 
and  the  higher  peaks  are  precipitous  and  bare.  The  southwest  end 
of  the  island  is  2J^  miles  across  in  a  northerly  and  southerly  direc- 
tion and  is  formed  by  three  high,  prominent  points  with  two  long 
bays  between.  Both  bays  are  clear  and  afford  anchorage.  The 
southern  one  has  the  best  shelter,  with  depths  from  17  to  20  fathoms, 
but  is  exposed  to  southwesterly  and  westerly  winds. 

Point  Elrington,  the  southwest  end  of  Elrington  Island,  is  a  small 
hill,  515  feet  high  and  wooded,  with  cliffs  at  the  water,  and  is  joined 
to  the  island  by  a  sand  and  gravel  neck  just  above  high  water.  A 
hill,  1 ,050  feet  high,  lying  1  J£  miles  eastward  of  the  point,  has  a  low 
divide  about  100  feet  high  at  its  east  end.  It  is  marked  at  its  westerly 
end  by  Point  Elrington  light. 

The  north  point  at  the  southwest  end  of  Elrington  Island  is  a 
hill  1,116  feet  high  and  1%  miles  long.  At  its  southeast  end  it  is 
connected  with  the  island  by  a  long,  low,  wooded  neck. 


68  PRINCE   WILLIAM    SOUND. 

DIRECTIONS,  LATOUCHE  AND  ELRINGTON    PASSAGES. 

To  go  through  Latouche  Passage. — From  a  position  %  to  1  mile 
eastward  of  Point  Helen  light  steer  230°  true  (SSW  mag.)  for  5  miles 
to  a  position  with  Point  Grace  on  theport  beam  distant  %  to  1  mile. 
Then  steer  221°  true  (S  by  W  ^  W  mag.)  for  6  miles  to  a  mid- 
channel  position  abreast  the  southern  island  in  Latouche  Passage. 
Then  steer  207°  true  (S  mag.)  for  2  miles,  following  the  western  shore 
at  a  distance  of  about  ^  mile.  Then  bring  the  southern  island  in 
Latouche  Passage  open  half  its  width  westward  of  Chicken  Island, 
and  steer  out  of  the  passage  on  this  line,  course  220°  true  (S  by  W 
Y%  W  mag.)  for  about  4  miles,  which  leads  in  the  deepest  water  (about 
11  fathoms)  over  the  bar  between  Danger  and  Elrington  islands. 

To  go  through  Elrington  Passage. — From  a  position  %  to  1  mile 
eastward  of  Point  Helen  light  steer  230°  true  (SSW  mag.)  for  9^ 
miles,  passing  about  %  mile  off  the  western  shore  of  Latouche  Island 
and  to  a  position  y%  mile  eastward  of  Bet  ties  Island.  When  Elring- 
ton Passage  light  opens  southward  of  Bettles  Island,  change  course 
gradually  to  about  263°  true  (SW  by  W  mag.)  and  pass  in  mid-chan- 
nel between  Bettles  Island  and  the  north  end  of  Elrington  Island. 

When  J4  mile  westward  of  Elrington  Island  steer  219°  true  (S  by 
W  mag.)  in  mid-channel  for  4J£  miles,  with  Elrington  Passage  light 
astern.  When  Lone  Tree  Point  light  opens  from  the  south  end  of 
Hoodoo  Island,  haul  gradually  westward,  pass  in  mid-channel  south- 
ward of  Hoodoo  Island,  steer  286°  true  (W  by  S  mag.),  and  pass 
about  y%  mile  northward  of  Lone  Tree  Point  light.  Round  the  south 
point  at  the  entrance  at  a  distance  of  about  J^  mile  and  steer  229°  true 
(S  by  W  %  W  mag.)  about  8  miles  to  a  position  3  miles  168°  true 
(SE  l/2  S  mag.)  from  Cape  Puget.  From  this  position  the  courses 
and  distances  to  Resurrection  Bay  and  Seal  Rocks  are  given  on 
page  26. 

PRINCE  OF  WALES  PASSAGE, 

between  Hoodoo  and  Bainbridge  Islands,  is  between  10  and  11  miles 
long  and  from  y^  to  2  miles  wide.  It  offers  a  direct  route  for  vessels 
from  northward  in  Knight  Island  Passage  bound  south  west  ward 
along  the  coast;  otherwise  Elrington  Passage  is  more  direct  and  is 
generally  used. 

Prince  of  Wales  Passage  has  a  number  of  dangers  and  other  broken 
ground,  but  no  trouble  should  be  had  in  going  through  it  in  daylight 
and  clear  weather,  with  the  aid  of  the  chart.  The  principal  channel  is 
eastward  of  Flemming  Island,  and  then  westward  of  the  group  of  bare 
rocks  lying  1J^  miles  south-southeastward  of  Flemming  Island. 
When  passing  the  broken  ground  lying  4  miles  southward  of  Flem- 
ming Island,  follow  the  western  shore  at  a  distance  of  300  to  500 
yards,  heading  for  the  prominent  low,  sandy  point,  with  a  fringe  of 
trees,  lying  on  the  west  side  3  miles  farther  southward. 

Prince  of  Wales  Passage  has  no  anchorage  for  vessels.  Small  craft 
can  find  shelter  at  the  head  of  Shelter  Bay,  on  the  east  side  at  the 
head  of  the  bay  1 J^  miles  southeastward  of  Flemming  Island,  in  the 
lagoon  on  the  east  side  nearly  3  miles  southward  of  Flemming  Island, 
and  in  the  coves  on  the  east  side  6  and  8  miles  southward  of  Flem- 
ming Island.  Considerable  swell  makes  into  the  last-named  cove 
during  southerly  winds. 


PRINCE    OF    WALES   PASSAGE.  69 

Flemming  Island,  over  2  miles  long  and  845  feet  high,  lies  in  the 
northern  end  of  the  passage.  The  channel  westward  of  Flemming 
Island  has  considerable  foul  ground,  and  should  be  avoided  by 
strangers,  except  possibly  small  craft,  at  low  water,  and  proceeding 
with  caution. 

The  wooded  island,  with  a  group  of  partly  bare  rocks  off  its  south 
side,  which  lies  in  Knight  Island  Passage  y2  mile  northward  of  Flem- 
ming Island,  is  a  good  mark  for  the  north  entrance  of  Prince  of  Wales 
Passage. 

Ship  Islet,  with  a  few  trees,  is  the  southerly  one  of  two  on  the 
easterly  side  of  Flemming  Island.  A  reef  bare  at  low  water  extends 
225  yards  southeastward  from  it. 

A  group  of  bare  rocks  (highest  about  3  feet)  lies  %  to  %  mile 
from  the  eastern  shore  and  1^  miles  south-southeastward  of  Flem- 
ming Island. 

About  1  mile  south-southeastward  of  these  rocks  is  a  lagoon  with 
a  narrow  entrance  almost  closed  with  rocks.  It  is  a  secure  harbor 
for  small,  li^ht-draft  craft,  in  about  8  fathoms,  but  the  entrance 
requires  local  knowledge. 

There  are  several  wooded  islands  on  the  east  side  of  the  passage 
from  3  to  5  miles  southward  of  Flemming  Island.  The  area  between 
them  and  Hoodoo  Island  is  foul,  and  the  tidal  currents  have  a  ve- 
locity of  2  to  3  knots. 

Nearly  in  mid-channel  westward  of  the  middle  of  these  islands  is 
an  area  of  broken  ground  nearly  ^  mile  long  on  which  the  least 
depth  found  is  11  fathoms.  It  should  be  avoided  by  vessels,  the 
better  channel  following  the  western  shore. 

The  broken  area  with  depths  less  than  15  fathoms,  lying  1  mile 
farther  southward,  which  extends  %  mile  from  the  western  shore, 
should  be  avoided  by  vessels. 

Currents. — With  the  large  tides  the  tidal  currents  have  a  velocity 
of  2  to  3  knots  at  strength  among  the  islands  and  in  the  narrower 
parts  of  the  passage.  In  the  passage  between  Flemming  and  Hoodoo 
islands  the  tidal  currents  have  a  velocity  of  1 J^  to  2  knots  at  strength. 
The  flood  current  sets  northward  and  ebb  southward  through  the 
passage. 

KENAI  PENINSULA,  SOUTH  COAST. 

CAPE  PUGET  TO  CAPE  RESURRECTION. 

This  coast  is  high  and  rugged,  with  numerous  glaciers  showing  in 
the  valleys.  The  prominent  headlands  are  fairly  well  located,  but 
the  bays  are  sketched  and  no  information  about  them  is  available. 
There  are  no  outlying  dangers  along  the  coast  so  far  as  known. 

Cape  Puget  is  a  high,  sloping  headland,  and  there  are  several  bare 
rocks  off  it,  the  farthest  about  •%  mile.  Rocks  about  30  feet  high  lie 
off  its  eastern  side  well  northward  of  the  cape.  From  alongshore 
eastward  or  westward  the  cape  shows  a  wooded  peak  at  the  end,  with 
a  large  conical  rock  in  the  water  close  to  its  foot. 

Cape  Junken  is  high  and  has  two  steps  near  the  water  at  its  end  as 
seen  from  alongshore. 

At  the  head  of  Johnstone  Bay,  5  miles  westward  of  Cape  Junken, 
there  is  a  large,  prominent  glacier  which  comes  down  to  high-water 
mark. 


70  CAPE   PUGET   TO   CAPE   RESURRECTION. 

Cape  Fairfield,  on  the  west  side  of  Johnstone  Bay  is  a  Ligli,  sloping 
headland,  with  an  immense  pinnacle  shaped  like  a  shark's  tooth  at 
its  foot.  As  seen  from  southwest  ward  there  are  two  smaller  pinna- 
cles on  either  side  of  it. 

There  is  a  large  glacier  at  the  head  of  the  eastern  arm  of  Day 
Harbor. 

Cape  Resurrection  is  a  precipitous  headland  of  solid  rock,  with 
little  vegetation  except  some  trees  on  the  lower  slopes.  From  east- 
ward two  dome-shaped  peaks,  the  north  one  the  higher,  with  a  slight 
notch  between  them,  show  at  the  end  of  the  cape,  with  a  somewhat 
lower  ridge  back  of  them,  but  rising  to  higher  mountains  farther  north. 
Harwell  Island,  y%  mile  southeastward  of  Cape  Resurrection,  is  small, 
bare,  rounded,  precipitous,  and  475  feet  high. 

RESURRECTION   BAY 

is  about  16  miles  long  from  Cape  Resurrection.  The  depths  are 
great  throughout,  and  there  are  no  dangers  in  the  usual  track  of  ves- 
sels. A  flat  extends  y^  to  y%  mile  from  the  entire  northern  shore  at 
the  head  of  the  bay.  The  shores  and  islands  are  steep  and  high,  with 
precipitous  slopes  in  many  places.  The  valleys  are  wooded  up  to  an 
elevation  of  about  1,000  feet.  The  anchorages  are  few  and  indiffer- 
ent on  account  of  the  great  depths,  and  are  subject  to  heavy  williwaws. 
Seal  Rocks,  the  southernmost  point  in  the  approach  to  the  bay,  are 
a  group  of  four  small,  rocky  islets.  The  northernmost  and  largest  is 
278  feet  high  and  has  an  arch  through  the  middle.  The  following  are 
bearings  and  distances  from  Seal  Rocks: 

Cape  Puget,  55°  true  (NNE  %  E  mag.),  44  miles. 
Point  Elrington,  59°  true  (NNE  %  E  mag.),  49  miles. 
Danger  Island,  63°  true  (NE  %  N  mag.),  53  miles. 
,     Cape  Cleare,  75°  true  (NE  M  E  mag.),  55  miles. 

Marmot  Island  (southeast  point),  220°  true  (S  by  W  M  W 

mag.),  105  miles. 

Pye  Island  Reef,  243°  true  (SW  */%  S  mag.),  27  miles. 
Lone  Rock  stands  well  southwestward  of  Chiswell  Islands  and  is  a 
good  mark.  It  is  a  round  rock,  154  feet  high,  and  there  is  a  rock 
covered  at  high  water  about  %  mile  northward  of  it.  The  passage 
between  Seal  Rocks  and  Lone  Rock  is  clear  and  is  frequently  used  by 
vessels  between  Resurrection  Bay  and  the  coast  southwestward. 

Chiswell  Islands  are  a  group  of  numerous,  high,  precipitous,  rocky 
islands,  the  southeasterly  ones  of  those  lying  in  the  entrance  of  Aialik 
Bay.  The  islands  are  sparsely  wooded,  most  of  them  have  off-lying 
rocks,  and  there  are  strong  tidal  currents  between  them. 

Pilot  Rock,  lying  1^  miles  from  the  nearest  point  on  the  western 
shore  of  Resurrection  Bay,  is  a  bare,  rounded,  rocky  islet  about  100 
feet  high,  and  is  marked  by  a  light. 

Bear  Glacier,  large  and  prominent,  is  on  the  western  shore  west- 
ward of  Cape  Resurrection.  It  is  not  discharging. 

Toward  the  eastern  shore  in  the  entrance  of  Resurrection  Bay  are 
three  large,  high,  rugged  islands,  named  in  order  from  southward 
Rugged,  Hive,  and  Renard.  The  passages  through  the  islands  are 
deep.  Their  shores  are  generally  Ibold,  but  two  rocks  bare  at  low 
water  lie  200  yards  southward  from  the  southeast  end  of  Renard 
Island.  Rugged  Island  is  marked  on  its  northeast  side  by  a  light. 


RESURRECTION    BAY.  71 

Sunny  Cove,  the  southern  bight  on  the  west  side  of  Renard  Island, 
is  the  best  anchorage  in  Resurrection  Bay.  No  ocean  swell  makes 
into  the  cove,  and  it  is  sheltered  from  all  but  westerly  winds.  The 
williwaws  are  bad  with  easterly  winds.  The  cove  is  %  to  %  mile 
wide  and  clear.  The  anchorage  is  in  the  middle,  300  to  800  yards 
from  its  head,  in  15  to  25  fathoms,  muddy  bottom. 

Small  craft  can  anchor  in  the  southeast  arm  of  the  bight  on  the 
eastern  shore  1^  miles  northward  of  Renard  Island. 

Caines  Head  is  the  projecting  and  prominent,  precipitous,  high 
headland  on  the  western  shore  2 %  miles  above  Renard  Island.  It 
is  marked  by  a  light. 

Thumb  Cove,  on  the  eastern  shore  northeastward  from  Caines 
Head,  is  %  mile  wide  and  1 Y^  miles  long.  Anchorage  can  be  selected 
y%  to  y%  mile  from  the  head,  in  25  to  30  fathoms,  soft  bottom.  A 
flat  makes  out  200  to  300  yards  from  the  northern  shore  for  a  distance 
of  ^  mile  from  the  head. 

Seward  is  an  important  town  on  the  western  side  at  the  head  of 
Resurrection  Bay.  There  are  stores  and  hotels,  and  provisions  and 
supplies  of  most  kinds  can  be  obtained.  There  is  cable  communi- 
cation with  other  points  in  Alaska  and  Seattle.  From  Seward  a 
railroad  has  been  constructed  across  Kenai  Peninsula  to  the  head 
of  Turnagain  Arm,  and  its  construction  is  at  present  being  contin- 
ued toward  the  Matanuska  coal  fields  and  Fairbanks.  There  is 
communication  by  telephone  and  telegraph  to  points  in  the  interior 
along  the  line  of  the  road.  The  wharf  is  off  the  southern  front  of 
the  town,  and  has  a  depth  of  30  feet  or  more  along  its  southern  face. 
Fresh  water  can  be  had  at  the  wharf  through  pipe  and  hose.  With 
strong  southeast  winds  vessels  can  not  lie  at  the  wharf.  There  is  a 
blacksmith  and  machine  shop.  Coal  in  small  quantities  is  kept  on 
hand. 

The  only  anchorage  near  the  town  is  300  to  400  yards  off  the  rail- 
road water  tanks,  about  y^  mile  northward  of  the  wharf,  in  20  fath- 
oms, soft  bottom,  with  scant  swinging  room.  This  anchorage  is 
exposed  to  southeast  winds,  and  with  offshore  winds  vessels  are 
liable  to  drag  off  into  deep  water  on  account  of  the  steep  pitch  of 
the  bottom. 

There  are  depths  of  20  to  30  fathoms  in  the  bight  between  Lowell 
Point  and  Tonsina  Creek,  except  near  the  point,  where  the  depths 
are  greater. 

Tides, — At  Seward  high  and  low  water  occur  about  46  minutes 
earlier  than  at  Kodiak,  and  the  mean  rise  and  fall  of  the  tides  is  8.4 
feet.  To  find  the  height  of  the  tide  multiply  the  height  of  the  cor- 
responding tide  at  Kodiak  by  the  ratio  of  ranges,  1.21. 

DIRECTIONS,  RESURRECTION   BAY. 

From  eastward. — From  a  position  1  mile  173°  true  (SE  by  S  mag.) 
from  Barwell  Island  steer  319°  true  (WNW  mag.)  for  5  miles,  pass- 
ing y^  mile  southwestward  of  Barwell  Island  and  midway  between 
Hive  and  Renard  Islands.  When  J/£  mile  off  the  southwest  end  of 
Renard  Island  steer  4°  true  (NNW  mag.)  for  5>^  miles  to  a  position 
y%  mile  off  the  northeast  side  of  Caines  Head.  From  this  position 
a  342°  true  (NW  mag.)  course  for  6%  miles  will  lead  to  Seward. 


72  RESURRECTION    BAY. 

From  southward. — Seal  Rocks  are  high,  have  deep  water  around 
them,  and  are  the  best  mark  for  which  to  shape  the  course.  See  also 
the  remarks  under  Aialik  Bay  relating  to  the  route  occasionally 
used  by  small  vessels  passing  northward  of  the  islands  in  its  entrance. 

Pass  about  2  miles  eastward  of  Seal  Rocks  and  steer  15°  true 
(N  by  W  mag.)  for  14  miles,  passing  about  1^  miles  eastward  of 
Chiswell  Islands  and  to  a  position  1  mile  eastward  of  Pilot  Rock  light. 
Then  steer  2°  true  (NNW  %  W  mag.)  for  6%  miles  to  a  position  % 
mile  off  the  southwest  point  of  Rugged  Island.  Then  steer  13°  true 
(N  by  W  M  W  mag.)  for  8J^  miles  to  a  position  Y^  mile  off  the 
northeast  side  of  Games  Head.  From  this  position  a  342°  true  (NW 
mag.)  course  for  6%  miles  will  lead  to  Seward. 

Or,  for  vessels  going  inside  of  Seal  Rocks,  pass  1  to  1  ^  miles  north- 
westward of  Seal  Rocks  and  steer  56°  true  (NNE  y%  E  mag.)  for  4  J^ 
miles  until  the  easternmost  of  the  Chiswell  Islands  bears  on  the  port 
beam  distant  1  J£  to  2  miles.  Then  steer  15°  true  (N  by  W  mag.) 
for  10  miles  to  a  position  1  mile  eastward  of  Pilot  Rock,  as  in  the 
preceding  paragraph. 

AIALIK  BAY 

is  16  miles  long  from  the  north  end  of  Harbor  Island.  It  is  inclosed 
by  rugged  mountains  and  glaciers  and  is  of  no  importance  except 
occasionally  as  an  anchorage.  The  shores  are  steep  and  high,  with 
precipitous  slopes  in  many  places,  and  are  partly  wooded  in  the 
southern  part  of  the  bay  to  an  elevation  of  about  1,000  feet.  The 
northern  part  of  the  bay  is  covered  with  alders  in  places. 

Aialik  Bay  has  deep  water  with  the  exception  of  rocks  near  the 
shores,  and  a  bar  which  crosses  the  bay  from  the  glacial  flat  fronting 
Pederson  Glacier.  The  least  depth  found  on  this  bar  near  the  middle 
of  the  bay  is  18  feet,  but  it  and  the  broken  ground  near  the  shores  at 
the  entrance  of  Holgate  Arm  are  liable  to  have  bowlders  and  less 
water  than  charted.  As  a  measure  of  caution  vessels  should  avoid 
the  passages  among  the  islands  in  the  mouth  of  the  bay. 

To  take  advantage  of  smoother  water,  small  vessels  in  coasting 
southwestward  from  Resurrection  Bay,  and  the  reverse,  sometimes 
enter  the  bay  at  Aialik  Cape,  pass  south  of  Chat  Island,  round  the 
north  end  of  Harbor  Island,  and  pass  out  at  Granite  Cape.  From  a 
position  1  mile  east-southeastward  of  Granite  Cape  a  226°  true  (S  by 
W  %  W  mag.)  course  for  26  miles  will  lead  to  a  position  3^  miles 
155°  true  (SE  J^  E  mag.)  from  the  peak  of  the  outer  Pye  Island. 

Chat  Island  is  a  steep,  rocky,  wooded  island,  470  feet  high;  two 
conspicuous  pinnacles  he  close  to  its  south  shore.  Between  it  and 
Aialrk  Cape  are  a  smaller  island  and  a  number  of  rocks. 

Harbor  Island  is  the  largest  of  a  group  of  high,  precipitous,  rocky, 
partly  wooded  islands,  lying  in  the  mouth  of  the  bay  and  northwest 
of  Chiswell  Islands.  The  shore  in  many  places  is  a  sheer  cliff,  espe- 
cially the  east  shore  of  the  eastern  and  highest  island.  Lying  midway 
in  the  channel  between  the  northern,  beehive-shaped  Chiswell  Island 
and  the  small  island  at  the  southeast  end  of  the  Harbor  Island  group 
is  a  rock  which  is  bare  at  lowest  tides. 

Granite  Island  is  a  partially  wooded,  steep,  precipitous  island,  1,570 
feet  high.  Granite  Cape,  at  its  southeast  end,  has  a  rock  which  covers 
at  high  water  about  80  yards  off. 


AIALIK   BAY.  73 

Between  Granite  Cape  and  the  main  shore  are  two  small  wooded 
islands  about  200  feet  high  with  a  rock  about  10  feet  high  between 
them. 

Twin  Islands  resemble  each  other  in  contour  and  are  400  and  550 
feet  high.  They  are  wooded,  and  the  arch  off  the  south  end  of  the 
northern  island  is  conspicuous. 

Anchorages. — The  anchorages  are  few  and  indifferent  due  to  the 
great  depth.  With  southerly  weather  a  swell  makes  well  into  the  bay. 

The  best  anchorage  is  near  the  head  of  the  middle  arm  of  the  three 
arm  bay  on  the  east  side  of  Aialik  Bay,  about  3  miles  north  of  Harbor 
Island,  in  30  fathoms,  good  holding  bottom. 

Anchorage  can  be  had  in  the  cove  on  the  west  side  of  the  bay,  west- 
ward (true)  of  the  north  end  of  Harbor  Island.  The  anchorage  is  in 
28  fathoms  near  the  center  of  the  cove.  On  each  side  of  the  entrance 
to  this  cove  is  a  sharp,  conical,  wooded  hill  about  800  feet  high.  Close 
inshore  off  the  point  at  the  north  entrance  is  a  sharp  pinnacle  rock 
about  25  feet  high;  about  600  yards  northeastward  of  this  pinnacle 
is  a  rock  which  covers  at  about  half  tide. 

There  is  fair  anchorage  off  the  small  bight  which  lies  on  the  east 
side  1 y±  miles  southward  of  the  bar  crossing  the  bay.  Anchor  in  22 
to  25  fathoms  off  the  middle  of  the  bight  and  a  little  outside  of  the 
line  joining  the  two  points  forming  the  bight.  The  bight  may  be 
recognized  by  a  hanging  glacier  at  its  head. 

Ice. — There  are  discharging  glaciers  at  the  head  of  Aialik  Bay  and 
Holgate  Arm,  and  ice  is  frequently  driven  to  Harbor  Island  by  north- 
erly winds.  Holgate  Arm  and  the  entire  bay  above  the  bar  are  fre- 
quently filled  with  ice. 

NUKA  BAY 

lies  between  Pye  Islands  and  Nuka  Island;  the  outer  part  is  about  8 
miles  long  and  5  miles  wide,  and  there  are  two  main  arms  at  its  head. 
There  are  several  bays  and  coves  affording  anchorage.  The  bay  is 
not  surveyed,  but  soundings  through  the  middle  indicate  very  deep 
water,  as  shown  on  the  chart. 

Pye  Islands,  on  the  east  side  at  the  entrance  of  Nuka  Bay,  are 
th»ee  rugged,  mountainous  islands  having  a  total  length  of  7J^  miles. 
The  highest  peak  of  the  outer  island  is  near  its  eastern  end,  and  is  a 
good  mark.  Approaching  from  northeastward  the  break  between 
the  outer  and  second  islands  shows  well.  From  southwestward  the 
separate  islands  do  not  show,  but  at  the  eastern  end  is  seen  the  highest 
peak,  from  which  there  is  a  slope  to  a  high  shelf  at  the  water.  There 
are  breakers  in  places  along  the  eastern  side  of  the  islands,  the  south- 
ernmost lying  2/g  or  y%  mile  eastward  from  the  eastern  end  of  the  outer 
island. 

Pye  Island  Reef,  awash  or  barely  covered  at  high  water,  lies  2% 
miles  206°  true  (S  mag.)  from  the  peak  of  the  outer  Pye  Island. 
There  is  always  a  break  on  the  reef,  but  at  high  water  with  an  excep- 
tionally smooth  sea  there  may  be  some  interval  between  them. 
Depths  of  18  to  60  fathoms  were  found  about  midway  between  it  and 
the  island.  The  line  of  the  western  ends  of  the  outer  and  second 
islands  leads  a  little  westward  of  the  reef,  and  the  line  of  the  eastern 
ends  of  the  outer  and  third  islands  leads  well  eastward  of  it. 


74  NUKA   BAY. 

The  channel  between  the  second  and  third  Pye  Islands  has  a  kelp 
patch  in  its  western  entrance  a  little  southward  of  mid-channel,  and 
the  eastern  entrance  is  obstructed  by  breakers. 

McArthur  Pass,  between  the  third  Pye  Island  and  the  mainland,  is 
about  100  yards  wide  in  its  narrowest  part  for  a  distance  of  about 
200  yards.  A  least  depth  of  7  fathoms  was  found  in  mid-channel, 
and  the  tidal  current  had  a  velocity  of  4  to  5  knots  southwestward 
through  the  pass  near  the  time  of  low  water.  It  is  not  recommended 
except  for  small  vessels  at  slack  water. 

The  east  arm  of  Nuka  Bay  lies  at  the  western  entrance  of  McArthur 
Pass.  It  is  about  2  miles  wide  at  the  entrance  and  5  miles  long.  A 
large  glacier  comes  down  to  high-water  mark  at  its  head,  and  fre- 
quently discharges  some  ice.  No  bottom  at  20  fathoms  was  found 
through  the  middle,  and  no  bottom  at  35  fathoms  was  found  about 
100  yards  or  less  from  the  bare  spit  at  the  foot  of  the  glacier.  Indif- 
ferent anchorage  in  25  fathoms  was  found  near  the  northern  shore  of 
the  first  cove  northward  of  McArthur  Pass  on  the  east  side  of  the  arm. 

Nuka  Island,  on  the  western  side  of  Nuka  Bay,  is  mountainous 
and  about  8  miles  long.  At  its  southern  end  are  two  points;  the 
southern  one  has  the  appearance  of  a  large,  high  island,  its  outline 
being  an  arc  of  a  circle,  and  is  distinctive;  the  northwestern  one  is  a 
high  peak  with  a  fairly  regular  slope  to  the  water.  Bare  rocks 
show  in  the  bight  between  these  points  and  off  the  entrance.  No 
information  is  available  for  Nuka  Island  Passage,  westward  of  the 
island,  and  the  eastern  shore  of  the  island  should  be  given  a  good 
berth. 

Palisade  Bay,  on  the  east  side  of  the  west  arm  ol  Nuka  Bay,  9J/2 
miles  above  outer  Pye  Island,  will  be  known  by  a  high,  wooded 
island  on  the  south  side  in  its  entrance.  Anchorage  can  be  had  on 
the  northeast  side  of  the  island,  about  on  a  line  from  its  north  end 
to  the  point  on  the  main  shore,  in  14  to  20  fathoms.  The  cove  on 
the  southwest  side  of  the  island  is  foul. 

Palisade  Bay  is  about  3  miles  long.  Anchorage  can  be  had  about 
J£  mile  from  the  narrow  part  at  its  head,  in  17  fathoms,  with  ample 
swinging  room.  From  the  top  of  an  adjacent  mountain  a  sunken 
rock  was  seen  between  this  anchorage  and  the  northeast  shore,  but 
a  search  for  it  in  a  boat  did  not  find  it. 

Cabin  Bay,  on  the  west  side,  opposite  Palisade  Bay,  is  about  2^ 
miles  long.  No  bottom  at  20  fathoms  was  found  through  the  middle 
of  the  bay.  A  very  small  vessel  anchored  at  its  head  in  13  fathoms. 
From  the  prominent  point  on  the  west  shore  southward  of  Cabin 
Bay  a  reef  makes  out  about  %  mile. 

Rock  Bay,  on  the  east  side  of  the  west  arm,  \\Yi  miles  above  outer 
Pye  Island,  will  be  known  by  a  cluster  of  wooded  islets  and  bare 
rocks  on  the  south  side  at  its  entrance.  From  the  islets  to  the  north 
point  at  the  entrance  is  a  bank,  on  which  there  is  kelp  for  about  150 
yards  from  the  islets,  and  a  reef  extending  one-third  the  distance 
across  from  the  point.  Entering  in  mid-channel  or  slightly  favor- 
ing the  islets,  a  depth  of  9  fathoms  will  be  found  over  the  bank. 
Anchorage  can  be  had  toward  the  eastern  shore  in  14  fathoms.  The 
course  in  is  about  121°  true  (E  J^  S  mag.). 

Shelter  Cove,  on  the  west  side,  13^  miles  above  outer  Pye  Island, 
lies  236°  true  (SSW  %  W  mag.)  from  the  point  dividing  the  north 
and  west  branches  at  the  head  of  the  west  arm.  The  cove  is  small, 


NUKA   BAY.  75 

but  affords  anchorage  in  the  middle  of  its  entrance,  in  13  fathoms, 
with  ample  swinging  room.  At  the  head  of  the  cove  is  a  grassy  flat, 
in  front  of  which  is  a  good  sized  mud  flat  that  covers. 

The  point  dividing  the  north  and  west  branches  at  the  head  of 
the  west  arm  has  a  small  cluster  of  grass-covered  rocks  and  wooded 
islets  close-to. 

The  west  branch  is  1J^  miles  long,  with  deep  water  to  the  large 
mud  flat  at  its  head. 

The  north  branch  is  5  miles  long  in  a  31°  true  (N  Y^  E  mag.) 
direction  and  nearly  2  miles  wide  at  the  entrance,  and  has  a  depth 
of  about  77  fathoms  through  the  middle  until  abreast  Pilot  Harbor. 
There  is  a  depth  of  18  fathoms  less  than  50  yards  from  the  low- 
water  edge  of  the  flat  at  its  head.  Pilot  Harbor,  on  the  eastern  side 
of  the  north  branch,  1  mile  from  its  head,  is  a  short  bay  having  a 
93°  true  (ENE  mag.)  direction.  There  is  a  large  bare  rock,  about 
3  feet  high,  off  each  point  at  the  entrance.  ^  Entering  in  mid-channel, 
a  secure  anchorage  will  be  found  in  the  middle,  or  slightly  favoring 
the  south  side,  in  13  to  15  fathoms.  There  is  a  flat  at  the  head,  on 
the  low-water  edge  of  which  is  a  wooded  islet,  lying  about  ^  mile 
above  the  bare  rock  off  the  north  point  at  the  entrance. 

POINT  GORE 

is  a  prominent  headland  lying  18  miles  247°  true  (SW  J4  S  mag.) 
from  Pye  Island  Reef  and  16  miles  70°  true  (NE  mag.)  from  the 
southeast  end  of  East  Chugach  Island.  From  eastward  and  west- 
ward it  shows  as  an  island  with  a  high  peak  near  the  middle  and  a 
broad,  high  shoulder  at  the  ends,  and  separated  from  the  high  land 
northward  by  a  narrow  gap.  There  is  an  arch  in  the  rocks  at  the 
eastern  end  of  Point  Gore,  which  shows  over  a  small  arc  from  south- 
ward, and  a  folding  in  the  strata  in  the  face  of  the  cliff  on  the  south 
side  of  the  point. 

The  neck  joining  Point  Gore  to  the  mainland  is  low  and  wooded. 
Anchorage  with  shelter  from  southwest  winds  is  reported  toward 
the  northwest  shore  off  the  east  side  of  this  neck  in  about  17  fathoms, 
but  no  description  or  definite  information  as  to  its  exact  location 
is  available.  It  is  wide  open  to  all  easterly  winds,  and  vessels  must 
be  prepared  to  leave  immediately  when  the  swell  begins  to  make 
around  the  point  to  the  anchorage. 

On  the  west  side  of  the  neck  back  of  Point  Gore  is  a  cove  affording 
indifferent  anchorage  with  easterly  winds.  The  south  point  of  the 
cove  is  the  northwest  end  of  Point  Gore,  and  is  a  shelving  ridge  of  bare 
rock,  from  the  end  of  which  rocks,  bare  at  low  water,  and  kelp  extend 
about  200  yards  northwestward.  A  rock  covered  at  high  water  lies 
about  100  yards  from  the  cliff  at  the  southeast  end  of  the  cove,  and  a 
large  kelp  field  extends  about  200  yards  northwestward  from  the  rock. 
The  anchorage  is  in  18  to  25  fathoms,  soft  bottom,  250  to  300  yards 
from  the  beach  of  the  low  neck  and  from  the  edge  of  the  kelp  off  the 
rock,  and  about  %  mile  from  the  cliff  on  the  southern  side.  The 
water  deepens  rapidly  northwestward,  the  swinging  room  is  scant, 
and  the  anchorage  is  uneasy. 

To  enter,  round  the  south  point  of  the  cove  at  a  distance  of  y2  mile 
and  steer  115°  true  (E  mag.)  for  the  gap  in  the  trees,  or  lowest  part 
of  the  neck. 


76  KENAI   PENINSULA. 

PORT   DICK, 

on  the  west  side  of  Point  Gore,  is  about  2^  miles  wide  at  the  entrance 
and  has  a  357°  true  (NNW  Yi  W  mag.)  direction  to  the  glacier  at  its 
head.  From  the  western  side  West  Arm  extends  westward  about  6  J^ 
miles.  The  port  is  not  surveyed;  the  depths  in  the  middle  are  over 
100  fathoms  until  well  toward  the  head  of  West  Arm. 

Sunday  Harbor,  on  the  east  side,  opposite  the  entrance  of  West  Arm, 
is  a  small,  double-headed  bay,  with  anchorage  for  vessels  of  any  size 
in  its  southeastern  cove.  The  southern  point  at  the  entrance  has  a 
few  rocks  close-to,  and  a  reef  marked  by  Kelp  extends  westward  from 
it.  The  western  end  of  the  reef  is  a  very  dangerous  sunken  rock, 
barely  covered  at  low  water,  lying  about  y%  mile  295°  true  (W  mag.) 
from  the  point. 

To  enter  Sunday  Harbor,  stand  up  the  middle  of  the  port  on  a  357° 
true  (NNW  Yi  W  mag.)  course,  heading  for  the  glacier  at  the  head 
until  off  the  entrance  of  the  harbor.  Enter  the  harbor  on  a  90°  true 
(NE  by  E  %  E  mag.)  course,  with  the  head  of  the  harbor  ahead  and 
a  high  wooded  islet  on  the  southern  side  of  West  Arm  astern.  Anchor 
with  the  southwest  point  at  the  entrance  to  Port  Dick  open  from  the 
southeast  point  of  the  harbor,  in  12  to  15  fathoms.  There  are  a  num- 
ber of  high-water  islets  at  the  head  of  the  harbor. 

The  arm  of  Sunday  Harbor  northwest  of  the  anchorage  has  a  large 
grass-covered  rock  in  its  entrance. 

West  Arm  of  Port  Dick  is  about  1  mile  wide  at  the  entrance,  and 
extends  295°  true  (W  mag.)  for  2J^  miles  to  the  narrowest  part  of  the 
arm,  and  then  291°  true  (W  y%  S  mag.)  about  3%  miles,  where  there 
is  anchorage  in  13  to  15  fathoms  below  the  rocky  islet,  with  a  few  trees 
on  top,  which  lies  near  the  southern  shore.  The  flat  at  the  head 
extends  below  the  houses  on  the  north  side,  and  vessels  can  not  go 
above  the  islet.  There  is  a  cascade  inside  the  islet. 

There  is  a  bare  reef  close  to  the  south  point  at  the  entrance  to  West 
Arm,  and  a  high  wooded  islet  lies  on  the  south  side,  about  %  mile  inside 
the  entrance  of  the  arm. 

On  the  north  side  of  West  Arm  is  a  bay  with  an  island  in  it.  An- 
chorage is  reported  in  the  bay  eastward  of  the  island. 

Taylor  Bay,  the  north  arm  of  Port  Dick,  is  reported  to  be  foul. 

In  the  southwest  approach  to  Port  Dick  there  is  a  dangerous  sunken 
rock,  locally  called  Gore  Rock,  having  8  feet  at  mean  lower  low  water, 
lying  73^  miles  244°  true  (SW  YL  S  mag.)  from  Point  Gore  and  8^ 
miles  74°  true  (NE  %  E  mag.)  from  the  southeast  point  of  East 
Chugach  Island.  It  lies  about  %  mile  outside  the  line  between  these 
points  and  approximately  8^2  miles  from  shore. 

CHUGACH  ISLANDS 

are  three  large,  mountainous  islands,  named  in  order  from  eastward — 
East  Chugach,  Pearl,  and  Elizabeth  Islands,  near  the  coast  of  Kenai 
Peninsula  at  the  entrance  of  Cook  Inlet. 

East  Chugach  Island  is  about  3%  miles  long  and  mountainous,  and 
has  a  low  valley  through  the  middle  in  a  northeasterly  and  south- 
westerly direction.  The  south  peak  has  an  elevation  of  1,451  feet, 
and  the  peak  near  the  west  end  is  higher.  The  southeast  point  of  the 


CHUGACH    ISLANDS.  77 

island  is  a  cliff  with  a  peak  at  its  crest  and  slightly  lower  land  back  of 
it  before  rising  to  the  mountains.  There  is  a  light  on  this  point.  The 
northwest  point  of  the  island  is  a  low  wooded  point  or  spit.  There 
is  considerable  foul  ground  between  the  island  and  the  coast.  The 
passage  between  East  Chugach  and  Pearl  Islands  is  clear  and  is  used 
by  vessels  passing  inside  of  Pearl  and  Elizabeth  Islands. 

Pearl  Island  is  about  2}/£  miles  long  and  1%  miles  wide.  It  is 
mountainous,  with  elevations  up  to  1,742  feet,  but  its  northwest  part 
is  much  lower.  Its  northwest  point  is  a  sand  spit  on  the  west  side 
and  a  high  cliff  on  the  north  side.  High  bare  rocks  extend  y%  to  % 
mile  off  the  middle  of  the  south  side  of  the  island. 

Nagahut  Rocks  are  three  large,  prominent,  bare  rocks,  close  together 
and  connected  'at  low  water,  lying  1  ^  miles  southwestward  from  the 
southwest  end  of  Pearl  Island,  with  foul  ground  and  no  safe  passage 
between. 

Dora  Reef  is  a  small  patch  of  sunken  rocks,  on  which  the  sea  breaks 
at  low  water  with  a  moderate  sea,  lying  l^  miles  238°  true  (SW  by  S 
mag.)  from  Nagahut  Rocks.  It  is  steep-to. 

There  is  deep  water  in  the  passage  between  Nagahut  Rocks  and 
Dora  Reef  on  the  southeast  and  Elizabeth  Island  on  the  northwest, 
but  a  depth  of  6  fathoms  was  found  %  mile  eastward  from  the  rock 
or  islet  close  to  the  southeast  end  of  Elizabeth  Island,  and  4  fathoms 
1  mile  westward  of  the  west  end  of  Pearl  Island. 

A  reef,  bare  at  low  water,  makes  out  about  %  mile  from  the  eastern 
side  of  the  prominent  point  on  the  north  shore  between  Pearl  and 
Elizabeth  Islands.  On  the  northeast  part  of  the  reef,  about  one- 
third  the  distance  from  the  shore  to  its  end,  is  a  bare  ledge  that  always 
shows  above  water.  The  outer  rock  that  shows  at  low  water  lies 
about  %  mile  130°  true  (ESE  %  E  mag.)  from  the  point  and  about 
iy8  miles  333°  true  (NW  y%  W  mag.)  from  the  northwest  end  of  Pearl 
Island.  This  is  the  worst  danger  in  the  passage  inside  of  Pearl  and 
Elizabeth  Islands. 

Elizabeth  Island  is  about  3  miles  in  diameter  and  is  two  mountain 
masses,  with  elevations  up  to  1,656  feet,  and  a  low  valley  between 
them  extending  through  in  a  northwesterly  direction.  The  northeast 
point  of  the  island  is  a  sand  spit,  awash  at  high  water.  There  is  a 
prominent,  large,  bare  rock  close  to  the  north  shore  of  Elizabeth 
Island  about  %  mile  westward  of  the  sand  spit.  Southward  of  the 
rock,  kelp  makes  out  about  350  yards  from  Elizabeth  Island.  Cape 
Elizabeth  is  the  western  end  of  the  island. 

The  passage  inside  Pearl  and  Elizabeth  Islands  is  commonly  used 
by  vessels  entering  Cook  Inlet  from  eastward.  It  is  about  1  mile 
wide,  and  depths  of  9  to  10  fathoms  were  found  in  the  shoalest  part 
of  the  channel  between  the  southeast  end  of  Elizabeth  Island  and  the 
dangerous  reef  extending  from  the  north  shore. 

There  are  strong  tidal  currents  in  the  passage  on  either  side  of  Eliz- 
abeth Island,  and  heavy  tide  rips  occur  from  the  northwest  end  of 
Pearl  Island  to  the  western  end  of  the  passage.  The  heaviest  rips 
are  in  the  vicinity  of  Pearl  Island,  with  an  ebb  current  and  easterly 
wind.  Heavy  rips  also  occur  off  the  southeast  point  of  East 
Chugach  Island.  The  turn  of  the  current  occurs  later,  possibly  as 
much  as  one  hour,  in  the  passage  than  in  the  main  entrance  south  of 
Elizabeth  Island. 


78  CHUGACH    ISLANDS. 

DIRECTIONS,  INSIDE  PEARL   AND  ELIZABETH  ISLANDS. 

From  a  position  1  mile  south-southeastward  from  the  southeast 
point  of  East  Chugach  Island,  steer  293°  true  (W  Y%  S  mag.)  for  8 
miles  to  a  position  ^  mile  off  the  high  north  point  of  Pearl  Island. 
Then  steer  275°  true  (WSW  M  Wmag.),  heading  for  the  high  south 
peak  of  Elizabeth  Island.  When  Nagahut  Rocks  bear  180°  true 
(SSE  M  E  mag.),  steer  347°  true  (NW  %  N  mag.),  heading  for  the 
prominent  white  scar  in  the  cliffs  on  the  north  shore  of  the  approach 
to  Port  Chatham,  and  pass  about  mid-channel  between  the  shores 
of  Elizabeth  Island  and  the  mainland. 

When  the  large  bare  rock  close  to  the  north  shore  of  Elizabeth 
Island  is  abeam,  and  is  closed  with  the  north  shore  of  Elizabeth  Island 
west  of  it,  steer  284°  true  (W  by  S  mag.)  for  about  4J^  miles,  with 
the  middle  one  of  the  three  highest  peaks  on  the  eastern  shore  astern, 
and  pass  %  mile  northward  of  the  rock  and  over  1  mile  southward  of 
the  yellow  bluff  at  the  east  entrance  point  of  Koyuktolik  Bay. 

Then  steer  307°  true  (WNW  %  W  mag.)  with  the  sharp  southwest 
peak  of  Pearl  Island  snowing  over  the  middle  of  the  low  valley  in 
Elizabeth  Island  astern,  and  pass  \y^  miles  southwestward  of  Point 
Adam. 

DIRECTIONS,  POINT  GORE  INSIDE    EAST  CHUGACH  ISLAND. 

This  area  was  partly  surveyed  in  1915.  The  results  of  this  survey 
indicate  the  existence  of  a  good  channel  inside  East  Chugach  Island, 
with  least  depths  of  about  12  fathoms  off  the  north  spit,  and  depths 
of  20  to  80  fathoms  eastward  of  the  island. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  depths  found  were  very  irregular,  and  a 
more  detailed  examination  might  reveal  shoaler  areas  than  those 
already  found.  The  region  is  one  which  should  not  be  considered 
free  from  danger  until  it  has  been  dragged. 

A  kite,  set  to  depths  of  12  fathoms  from  Elizabeth  Island  to  the 
spit  of  East  Chugach  Island,  and  15  to  20  fathoms  in  the  deeper  water 
eastward,  was  towed  over  the  track  here  recommended.  In  using 
the  passage,  therefore,  vessels  are  advised  to  follow  this  track  closely, 
as  elsewhere  there  is  not,  as  yet,  adequate  assurance  that  the  passage 
is  free  from  dangers. 

From  a  position  1^  miles  off  Point  Gore,  steer  265°  true  (SW  by 
W  ^g  W  mag.)  with  the  end  of  the  sand  spit  on  the  northwest  end  of 
East  Chugach  Island  right  ahead,  and  in  range  with  the  south  shore 
of  Elizabeth  Island.  This  course  passes  midway  between  Gore  Rock 
and  another  rock,  bare  at  low  water,  which  lies  2%  miles  352°  true 
(NNW  y%  W  mag.)  from  Gore  Rock.  Hold  this  course  for  12  miles, 
until  the  southeast  end  of  East  Chugach  Island  bears  220°  true  (S  by 
W  y8  W  mag.),  then  steer  283°  true  (W  by  S  mag.)  for  4^  miles  fo"r 
the  head  of  Chugach  Bay,  passing  1  %  miles  off  the  northeast  point  of 
East  Chugach  Island. 

When  the  end  of  the  spit  on  the  northwest  end  of  the  island  bears 
211°  true  (S  Y2  W  mag.)  haul  sharply  to  a  236°  true  (SSW  %  W  mag.) 
course,  heading  midway  between  the  two  peaks  of  Pearl  Island,  and 
pass  in  mid-channel  between  the  end  of  the  spit  and  the  bare  reef  off 
the  south  point  of  Chugach  Bay.  At  the  above  change  in  course  the 
reef  on  the  north  shore  of  East  Chugach  Island  just  eastward  of  the 


CHUGACH    ISLANDS.  79 

end  of  the  spit  should  be  abeam  and  in  range  with  the  high  western 
peak  of  the  island.  Hold  this  course  for  2.9  miles,  until  the  rock  off 
the  south  point  of  Chugach  Bay  bears  9°  true  (N  by  W  %  W  mag.), 
and  then  steer  264°  true  (SW  by  W  M  W  mag.)  for  3^  miles,  head- 
ing for  the  rocks  off  the  south  shore  of  Elizabeth  Island,  to  a  point  ^2 
mile  off  the  high  north  point  of  Pearl  Island.  Then  proceed  as  di- 
rected for  the  passage  inside  Pearl  and  Elizabeth  Islands. 

In  following  the  above  courses,  care  should  be  taken  to  make  proper 
allowance  for  the  currents  which  set  in  and  out  of  Port  Dick,  and 
diagonally  across  the  course  in  approaching  East  Chugach  Island. 
Because  of  these  currents,  the  passage  should  not  be  attempted  unless 
the  weather  is  clear  enough  to  permit  the  leading  marks  to  be  seen. 

BARREN   ISLANDS 

are  six,  mountainous,  grass-covered  islands  nearly  in  the  middle  of  the 
entrance  to  Cook  Inlet  between  Chugach  Islands  and  Shuyak  Island, 
and  are  about  13  miles  long  and  5  miles  wide.  The  best  anchorages 
are  Amatuli  Cove  and  the  northern  bight  in  the  western  end  of 
Ushagat  Island.  Some  sounding  has  been  done,  and  the  dangers  so 
far  as  known  are  mentioned. 

The  tidal  currents  have  great  velocity  among  and  outside  the  islands, 
the  flood  current  setting  northwestward  and  being  apparently  stronger 
than  the  ebb.  Heavy  tide  rips  occur  with  strong  winds  in  the  vicinity 
of  the  islands,  and  during  spring  tides  are  frequently  dangerous  for 
small  vessels. 

East  Amatuli  Island,  at  the  eastern  end  of  the  group,  is  about  2 
miles  long  and  has  a  high  peak  at  either  end  joined  by  a  sharp  ridge, 
which  at  the  head  of  Amatuli  Cove  is  about  300  feet  high.  A  rocky 
islet  about  100  feet  high  lies  250  yards  off  its  eastern  end. 

Amatuli  Cove,  on  the  northwest  side  of  East  Amatuli  Island,  is 
about  y<i  mile  in  diameter  and  a  good  anchorage  for  small  vessels. 
With  heavy  northeast  winds,  considerable  sea  makes  in  to  the  anchor- 
age unless  well  in  the  bight,  but  the  wind  is  little  felt.  The  anchorage 
is  in  the  middle,  abreast  or  inside  the  north  point  of  the  cove,  in  6  to 
11  fathoms,  mud  and  rock  bottom.  Scattered  kelp  grows  in  places 
in  the  cove,  and  along  the  shores  there  is  thick  kelp,  which  makes  out 
farthest  on  the  southeast  side.  There  are  no  known  dangers  outside 
the  thick  kelp.  There  is  a  stream  at  the  head  of  the  cove. 

Approaching  from  southward  pass  about  ^  mile  westward  of  Sugar- 
loaf  Island  and  in  mid-channel  between  East  and  West  Amati  li 
Islands,  course  about  38°  true  (N  by  E  J£  E  mag.).  The  least  depth 
found  was  7  fathoms  when  the  southwest  peak  of  East  Amatuli  bore 
about  103°  true  (E  by  N  mag.). 

Approaching  Amatuli  Cove  from  northward  pass  in  mid-channel 
between  East  Amatuli  Island  and  the  bare  rocks  (about  20  feet  high) 
lying  y%  mile  eastward  from  the  northeast  end  of  West  Amatuli 
Island.  The  least  depth  found  in  this  entrance  was  about  12  fathoms. 

West  Amatuli  Island  is  about  3  miles  long  and  mountainous.  A 
cluster  of  rocks  about  20  feet  high  lies  about  y%  mile  eastward  from 
the  northeast  end  of  the  island,  with  a  reef  between.  A  bare  rock  lies 
close  to  the  northwest  point  of  West  Amatuli,  and  a  dangerous  rock, 
awash  at  low  water  and  on  which  the  sea  generally  breaks,  lies  about 


80  BARREN    ISLANDS. 

1*4  miles  348°  true  (NW  %  N  mag.)  from  the  same  point  and 
miles  88°  true   (NE  by  E   %   E  mag.)  from  the  summit  of  Nord 
Island  . 

Sugarloaf  Island,  1J^  miles  southward  of  East  Amatuli  Island,  is 
about  y±  mile  in  diameter  and  about  1,200  feet  high.  A  large  bare 
rock  lies  %  mile  southeastward  of  it,  with  foul  ground  and  breakers 
between.  There  is  also  a  rocky  islet  close  to  its  eastern  end,  and 
breakers  extend  nearly  J^  mile  off  its  western  end. 

Nord  Island,  1^  miles  northward  from  the  eastern  end  of  Ushagat, 
with  deep  water  between,  is  about  %  mile  in  diameter.  Its  southern 
half  is  a  dome  570  feet  high,  while  its  northern  half  is  lower  and 
irregular. 

Sud  Island,  1J^  miles  off  the  southeast  end  of  Ushagat,  is  13/g 
miles  long  and  about  1,200  feet  high  near  its  southwestern  end. 
Near  its  northeastern  end  is  a  knob  over  300  feet  high. 

A  small  rocky  island  over  200  feet  high  lies  lf/2  miles  southeast- 
ward from  the  south  end  of  Ushagat.  A  low  rock  and  breakers 
lie  600  yards,  and  two  large  bare  rocks  lie  %  mile  southward  from  it. 

Ushagat  Island,  the  westernmost  and  largest  of  the  Barren  Islands, 
is  6%  miles  long  and  3^  miles  wide  near  its  western  end.  It  is 
practically  inaccessible  except  at  the  low  neck  near  the  northeast 
end  and  at  several  beaches  fronting  the  valley  in  its  northwest  part. 
The  southern  part  of  the  island  is  high,  rocky  peaks,  with  elevations 
up  to  1,985  feet.  Table  Mountain,  at  the  northeast  end,  is  1,356 
feet  high,  and  is  separated  from  the  other  high  land  of  the  island 
by  a  low,  narrow  neck.  There  are  several  fresh-water  lakes. 

Two  rocks,  nearly  awash  at  high  water,  lie  %  mile  northward 
from  the  northwest  end  of  Ushagat. 

A  bare  rock  about  5  feet  high  lies  %  mile  southwestward  from  the 
northwest  end  of  Ushagat.  A  reef  awash  at  half  tide  lies  250  yards 
northwestward  from  the  bare  rock.  A  bare  reef,  nearly  awash  at 
high  water,  lies  J^  mile  eastward  from  the  bare  rock  and  %  mile 
260°  true  (SW  by  W  mag.)  from  the  high  bare  rocks  close  to  a  point 
of  Ushagat  %  mile  southeastward  of  its  northwest  end. 

The  west  side  of  Ushagat  Island  is  indented  about  1  mile  by  an 


open  bay,  about  2J/£  miles  long,  and  having  two  bights.  A  good 
anchorage  for  all  easterly  winds  may  be  had  in  the  bight  at  the 
north  end  of  the  bay.  To  enter  from  westward,  give  the  northwest 
end  of  the  island  a  berth  of  1  mile  and  pass  about  ^  mile  westward 
and  southward  of  the  bare  rock  lying  %  mile  southwestward  from 
the  northwest  end.  Then  steer  92°  true  (ENE  mag.)  for  Table 
Mountain  and  anchor  about  %  mile  from  shore  in  6  to  8  fathoms, 
hard  bottom.  Kelp  extends  some  distance  off  the  point  dividing 
the  bights  on  the  east  side  of  the  bay. 

Bare  rocks  extend  ^  mile  southwestward  from  the  southwest 
end  of  Ushagat  Island. 

COOK  INLET. 

Surveys  are  available  of  all  parts  of  Cook  Inlet  northward  of  Port 
Graham  and  Augustine  Island,  with  the  exception  of  the  head  of 
Kachemak  Bay  above  Coal  Bay,  and  parts  of  Turnagain  Arm.  The 
inlet  is  shown  on  charts  8502,  8553,  and  8554,  Knik  Arm  on  chart 
8557,  Iliamna  Bay  on  chart  8665,  Port  Chatham  on  chart  8588,  and 
Port  Graham  and  Seldovia  Bay  on  chart  8589. 


COOK    INLET.  81 

Prominent  features. — The  shore  on  both  sides  of  the  inlet  can  be 
seen  in  clear  weather,  but  it  is  sometimes  difficult  to  locate  the  posi- 
tion on  account  of  the  lack  of  marked  features  on  the  eastern  shore 
and  the  currents  are  so  strong  that  logged  distances  are  deceptive. 
Augustine,  Iliamna,  and  Redoubt  volcanoes  are  conspicuous  and 
useful  marks  in  the  lower  inlet,  and  Mounts  Susitna  and  Spurr  in  the 
upper  inlet.  The  numerous  peaks  of  the  high  land  southward  of 
Kachemak  Bay  and  northward  from  Kamishak  Bay,  Anchor  Point, 
the  1,900-foot  hill  lying  10  miles  from  the  east  shore  between  Capes 
Starichkof  and  Ninilchik,  Chisik  Island,  Kalgin  Island,  East,  West, 
and  North  Forelands,  Point  Possession,  and  Fire  Island  are  promi- 
nent in  their  respective  localities. 

Dangers. — The  shoals  in  Cook  Inlet  are  generally  strewn  with 
bowlders,  which  lie  on  the  otherwise  flat  bottom,  give  no  indication 
to  the  lead  unless  it  strikes  them,  and  are  not  marked  by  kelp. 
Most  of  those  located  by  the  survey  were  found  by  sighting  them 
at  low  water.  Many  of  the  bowlders  are  of  sufficient  size  to  show 
above  low  water  in  depths  of  30"  feet.  As  a  measure  of  caution, 
therefore,  it  is  considered  advisable  for  vessels  to  avoid  areas  having 
depths  not  more  than  30  feet  greater  than  the  draft.  At  low  water 
deep-draft  vessels  should  avoid  areas  with  a  charted  depth  less  than 
10  fathoms. 

In  general  the  shoal  banks  fronting  the  marshy  parts  of  the  shores 
in  the  upper  inlet  are  free  from  bowlders,  the  deposit  having  been 
sufficient,  apparently,  to  cover  them;  but  there  are  indications  that 
bowlders  do  occur  in  the  deeper  water  outside  these  banks. 

With  an  average  tida]  current  there  are  swirls  throughout  the  inlet, 
but  they  do  not  necessarily  indicate  dangers  as  they  show  in  depths 
of  15  fathoms  if  the  bottom  is  uneven.  Heavy  swirls  with  slight 
overfalls  should  be  avoided,  and  any  disturbance  which  has  a  recog- 
nized wake  in  the  water  should  be  considered  as  indicating  a  danger- 
ous rock  or  shoal. 

The  waters  of  the  inlet  are  much  discolored  by  glacial  silt.  At  low 
water  the  discoloration  may  extend  to  the  mouth  of  the  inlet,  and  at 
high  tide  the  water  may  be  comparatively  clear  to  East  and  West 
Forelands  or  even  above.  Frequently  with  either  a  flood  or  ebb 
current  the  water  above  the  Forelands  appears  as  a  liquid  mud. 

Harbors  and  anchorages. — Port  Graham,  Seldovia  Bay,  Kahsitsnah 
Bay,  and  Coal  Bay  in  Kachemak  Bay,  Iniskin  Bay,  Tuxedni  Harbor, 
and  Knik  Arm  are  the  secure  harbors  in  the  inlet,  and  the  anchorage 
at  East  Foreland  (Nikishka)  is  sheltered  from  all  easterly  winds. 
Temporary  anchorage  in  thick  weather  can  be  selected  at  most  places 
in  the  inlet  with  the  aid  of  the  chart.  On  account  of  the  great  range 
of  the  tides,  the  stage  of  the  tide  must  always  be  kept  in  mind  when 
anchoring  to  insure  a  depth  sufficient  to  lie  afloat  and  have  swinging 
room  at  low  water. 

Settlements  and  supplies. — There  are  stores  and  settlements  at 
Port  Graham,  Seldovia,  Kenai,  Susitna,  Anchorage,  Knik,  Hope, 
and  Sunrise,  and  at  the  canneries  operating  during  the  summer  at 
Kenai  and  Kasilof.  Woodrow  Creek,  in  Knik  Arm,  is  the  headquar- 
ters from  which  the  railroad  is  being  constructed  into  the  interior. 
From  this  point  the  mail  goes  to  Hope  and  Sunrise  during  the  summer. 
31056°— 16 6 


82  COOK    INLET. 

Water  is  piped  to  the  wharf  at  Port  Graham  and  Seldovia.  It  can 
also  be  readily  obtained  from  numerous  streams  along  all  of  the  high 
shores.  In  the  upper  inlet  water  is  difficult  to  obtain  and  is  accessi- 
ble only  at  high  water.  The  streams  at  East  Foreland  (Nikishka), 
the  north  side  of  Point  Possession,  and  in  Knik  Arm  are  the  only  ones 
known  where  a  vessel  can  approach  the  shore  closely  enough  to  per- 
mit boating  water  in  any  quantity. 

Weather. — The  prevailing  winds  during  the  summer  are  easterly 
with  rain,  the  gales  during  that  time  being  from  the  same  direc- 
tion. In  the  late  summer  and  early  fall,  fresh  southwesterly 
winds  with  clear  but  hazy  weather  are  of  frequent  occurrence  in  the 
lower  inlet,  but  they  seldom  blow  with  much  force  above  the  Fore- 
lands. Fresh  northwesterly  winds  may  occur  during  the  early  sum- 
mer; they  are  generally  accompanied  by  rain  and  last  from  one  to 
two  days.  At  such  times  navigation  in  the  inlet,  except  southward 
with  an  ebb  tide,  is  uncomfortable  and  even  dangerous  for  small 
vessels. 

Easterly  gales  become  more  frequent  in  the  fall,  and  southeast 
gales  may  also  be  expected  in  and  following  September.  Snow- 
storms may  be  expected  from  the  1st  ol  October  to  the  last  of  April. 
Cloud  caps  forming  about  the  high  peaks  are  generally  followed  by 
easterly  weather  and  rain. 

Fog  may  be  expected  occasionally  during  the  summer.  Its  dura- 
tion without  partially  clearing  is  generally  short,  although  spells  of 
generally  foggy  weather  may  last  several  days. 

Ice. — The  winter  of  1915-16  was  the  first  in  which  there  had  been 
any  attempt  at  navigating  the  upper  inlet  after  the  ice  had  begun 
to  form.  The  data  as  yet  available  is  very  meager,  but  the  following 
statement  will  furnish  a  close  approximation  of  prevailing  conditions : 

The  upper  part  of  the  inlet  is  more  or  less  obstructed  by  floating  ice, 
which  forms  on  the  flats  and  in  the  shallower  waters  from  December 
to  April.  The  determining  factor  is  the  severity  of  the  winter,  which 
varies  greatly  from  year  to  year. 

During  a  mild  winter  or  after  a  period  of  several  days  of  mild 
weather,  vessels  will  probably  have  no  difficulty  in  reaching  the  head 
of  the  inlet  and  lying  at  anchor  long  enough  to  discharge  their  cargoes 
to  lighters  alongside. 

During  a  severe  winter  or  after  a  considerable  period  of  severe  cold 
such  a  course  is  not  feasible;  full-powered  vessels  could  probably 
reach  the  head  of  the  inlet  even  at  such  times  but,  because  of  the  heavy 
masses  of  ice  floating  in  the  strong  currents,  would  find  it  imprac- 
ticable to  discharge  to  lighters,  either  when  lying  at  anchor  or  drifting 
with  the  current. 

Ice  does  not  generally  interfere  with  navigation  southward  of 
Anchor  Point  except  on  the  western  side  of  the  inlet,  where  large  fields 
of  it  are  sometimes  carried  by  wind  and  tide  as  far  as  Augustine  Is- 
land, closing  Iliamna  Bay  for  brief  periods. 

The  tides  fall  below  the  plane  of  mean  lower  low  water  when  minus 
tides  occur  in  the  tide-table  predictions  for  Kodiak,  the  amount  being 
greater  in  Cook  Inlet.  A  safe  rule  for  Cook  Inlet  is  to  multiply  by  3 
the  minus  heights  taken  from  the  Kodiak  predictions,  the  maximum 
fall  of  the  water  below  mean  lower  low  water  in  Cook  Inlet  being  about 
6  feet. 


GENERAL    INFORMATION.  83 

CURRENTS.  COOK  INLET. 

The  tidal  currents  have  great  velocity  in  Cook  Inlet  and  must  be 
considered  at  all  times.  The  small  local  steamers  plan  their  trips  so 
as  to  have  a  favorable  current  and  prefer  to  anchor  rather  than  steam 
against  the  current  of  a  large  tide.  A  vessel  with  a  speed  of  8  knots, 
picking  up  the  flood  current  of  a  large  tide  a  little  northward  of 
Anchor  Point,  can  carry  it  to  Fire  Island. 

At  the  entrance  of  Cook  Inlet  the  tidal  currents  have  an  estimated 
average  velocity  of  2  to  3  knots  at  strength,  and  in  general  the  veloci- 
ties increase  up  the  inlet,  with  maximum  velocities  in  the  vicinity  of 
Harriet  Point,  East  and  West  Forelands,  and  the  entrances  to  Knik 
and  Turnagain  Arms.  The  maximum  current  velocity  measured  by 
the  McArthur  was  5  knots  at  anchorages  near  East  and  West  Fore- 
lands, Tyonek,  and  Point  Mackenzie.  These  anchorages  were  out  of 
the  full  strength  of  the  current,  and  there  is  little  doubt  that  the 
maximum  velocity  of  the  current  at  the  strength  of  a  large  tide  is  as 
much  as  8  knots  between  East  and  West  Forelands  and  probably 
more  between  Harriet  Point  and  the  south  end  of  Kalgin  Island. 

The  following  statements  are  made  from  observations  taken  near 
the  shores,  and  it  is  probable  that  the  velocities  in  the  main  channel 
exceed  these  somewhat;  also,  since  the  current  runs  in  the  channel 
somewhat  longer  than.it  does  near  the  shore,  the  times  in  the  channel 
may  be  a  little  later  than  these  given. 

In  general,  the  direction  of  the  current  is  approximately  parallel  to 
the  trend  of  the  nearest  shore,  and  when  flats  are  uncovered,  parallel 
to  their  edges.  Off  the  various  bays  a  set  may  be  expected,  toward 
the  bay  on  a  flood  current  and  from  the  bay  on  an  ebb  current. 

At  Dangerous  Cape. — A  current  of  nearly  3  knots  sets  at  times  across 
the  broken  ground  around  the  cape,  causing  heavy  rips  and  overfalls. 

Kacheinak  Bay. — From  Dangerous  Cape,  a  flood  current  sets  up 
Kachemak  Bay  with  a  velocity  of  1  to  2  knots  in  a  northeasterly  direc- 
tion, and  the  ebb  flows  in  a  southwesterly  to  westerly  direction.  The 
currents  at  the  mouth  of  the  bay  are  uncertain,  and  may  vary  from 
place  to  place,  making  it  difficult  to  make  correct  allowance  for  set 
in  crossing  from  Anchor  Point  to  Seldovia. 

At  Seldovia. — The  tidal  currents  have  an  estimated  velocity  of  1  to 
2  knots  at  strength. 

At  Anchor  Point. — The  strength  of  flood  and  ebb  occur,  respectively, 
1  hour  and  10  minutes  before  the  times  of  high  and  low  waters  at 
Kodiak.  Slack  water  before  flood  and  ebb  occur,  respectively,  2 
hours  after  the  times  of  low  water  and  high  water  at  Kodiak.  The 
mean  velocities  of  the  current  at  the  strength  of  flood  and  ebb  are 
2.4  and  1.9  knots,  respectively,  the  greatest  currents  observed  being 
2.8  knots  on  the  flood  and  2.2  on  the  ebb. 

Off  Cape  Kasilof. — The  strength  of  flood  and  ebb  occur,  respec- 
tively, at  the  times  of  high  water  and  low  water  at  Kodiak.  Slack 
water  before  flood  and  ebb  occur,  respectively,  2  hours  and  40  minutes 
before  the  times  of  high  and  low  waters  at  Kodiak.  The  mean  ve- 
locities of  the  current  at  strength  of  flood  and  ebb  are  2.4  and  2.6 
knots,  respectively,  the  greatest  currents  observed  being  2.8  knots  on 
the  flood  and  2.9  on  the  ebb.  In  the  middle  of  the  channel  east  of 
Kalgin  Island,  the  currents  at  times  may  exceed  5  knots. 


84  COOK    INLET CURRENTS. 

Off  East  and  West  Forelands. — The  strength  of  flood  and  ebb  occur, 
respectively,  30  minutes  after  the  times  of  high  water  and  low  water 
at  Kodiak.  Slack  water  before  the  flood  and  ebb  occur,  respectively, 
2  hours  and  15  minutes  before  the  times  of  high  water  and  low  water 
at  Kodiak.  The  mean  velocity  of  the  current  at  strength  of  flood 
and  ebb  is  3.3  knots,  the  greatest  current  observed  being  5  knots, 
and  is  probably  greatly  exceeded  at  times  in  the  middle  of  the  channel. 

Off  Moose  Point. — The  strength  of  flood  and  ebb  occur,  respectively, 
1  hour  and  15  minutes  after  the  times  of  high  water  and  low  water  at 
Kodiak.  Slack  water  before  the  flood  and  ebb  occur,  respectively,  1 
hour  and  40  minutes  before  the  times  of  high  and  low  waters  at 
Kodiak.  The  mean  velocities  of  the  current  at  strength  of  flood  and 
ebb  are  2.8  and  2.5  knots,  respectively,  the  greatest  current  observed 
being  2.9  knots  on  the  flood  and  2.6  Knots  on  the  ebb. 

Off  the  west  side  of  Fire  Island. — The  strength  of  the  flood  and  ebb 
occur,  respectively,  1  hour  and  45  minutes  after  the  times  of  high  and 
low  waters  at  Kodiak.  Slack  water  before  flood  and  ebb  occur,  respec- 
tively, 1  hour  and  10  minutes  before  the  times  of  high  and  low  waters 
at  Kodiak.  The  mean  velocities  of  the  current  at  strength  of  flood 
and  ebb  are  2.8  and  1.5  knots,  respectively,  the  greatest  current 
observed  being  3  knots  on  the  flood  and  1.6  Knots  on  the  ebb. 

Off  Point  Woronzof. — The  strength  of  the  flood  and  ebb  occur, 
respectively,  2  hours  and  15  minutes  after  the  times  of  high  and  low 
waters  at  Kodiak.  Slack  water  before  the  flood  and  ebb  occur,  respec- 
tively, 50  minutes  before  the  times  of  high  and  low  waters  at  Kodiak. 
The  mean  velocity  of  the  current  at  strength  of  flood  and  ebb  is  4.5 
knots,  the  greatest  currents  observed  being  5  knots  on  the  flood  and 

4.6  knots  on  the  ebb. 

In  Knik  Arm,  South  of  Goose  Creek. — The  strength  of  the  flood 
occurs  2  hours  and  30  minutes  after  the  time  of  high  water  at  Kodiak, 
and  the  strength  of  the  ebb  3  hours  and  40  minutes  after  the  time  of 
low  water  at  Kodiak.  Slack  water  before  flood  and  ebb  occur,  respec- 
tively, 20  minutes  after  the  times  of  high  and  low  waters  at  Kodiak. 
The  mean  velocities  of  the  current  at  strength  of  flood  and  ebb  are 
3.4  and  3.7  knots,  respectively,  the  greatest  currents  observed  being 

5.7  knots  on  the  flood  and  5.4  knots  on  the  ebb. 

At  Knik  Harbor. — The  tidal  currents  have  moderate  velocity  at 
the  anchorage  near  the  shore,  and  are  strong  in  mid-channel. 

Turnagain  Arm. — The  currents  are  very  strong,  and  the  flood  fre- 
quently comes  in  as  a  bore,  with  spring  tides,  under  certain  weather 
conditions.  This  bore  is  said  at  times  to  be  4  to  6  feet  high,  and  is 
very  dangerous  for  small  craft.  Boats  should  be  beached  well  above 
the  level  of  the  flats,  and  thus  avoid  the  bore  when  it  comes  in.  The 
bore  can  be  heard  about  J^  hour  before  it  reaches  one,  sounding  like 
breakers  on  the  beach;  it  travels  slowly. 

Harriet  Point. — The  currents  are  very  swift  at  Harriet  Point,  ex- 
ceeding 5  knots  on  spring  tides,  and  with  southerly  breezes  bad  tide 
rips  occur  between  Harriet  Point  and  Kalgin  Island,  and  extend 
some  distance  southward. 

Tuxedni  Harbor. — Slack  water  before  the  ebb  occurs  45  minutes 
after  the  time  of  high  water  at  Kodiak,  and  slack  water  before  the 
flood  1  hour  and  45  minutes  after  the  time  of  low  water  at  Kodiak. 
The  greatest  observed  currents  are  2.2  knots  on  the  ebb  and  1.7  knots 
on  the  flood.  The  currents  set  fair  with  the  channel. 


COOK    INLET CURRENTS.  85 

Iniskin  Bay. — The  currents  set  fair  with  the  channel.  At  the 
entrance,  the  strength  of  the  flood  and  ebb  occur,  respectively,  1  hour 
and  40  minutes  before  the  times  of  high  and  low  waters  at  Kodiak. 
Slack  water  before  the  flood  and  ebb  occur,  respectively,  1  hour  and 
30  minutes  after  the  times  of  low  and  high  waters  at  Kodiak.  The 
mean  velocities  of  the  current  at  the  strength  of  the  flood  and  ebb 
are  1  and  1.2  knots,  respectively,  the  greatest  currents  observed  being 
1.3  knots  on  the  flood  and  1.6  knots  on  the  ebb. 

Kamishak  Bay. — In  the  northern  part  of  the  bay,  the  currents  fol- 
low the  coast,  flooding  northeastward  and  ebbing  southwestward  at 
a  rate  of  1  knot  at  strength.  The  current  seemed  to  flood  inside  of 
Augustine  Island  and  then  flow  toward  Chinitna  Point.  A  slight 
set  northward  was  observed  on  the  flood,  and  westward  on  the  ebb. 
The  current  was  more  noticeable  near  the  shore.  With  a  strong 
westerly  wind,  tide  rips  occur  about  2  to  4  miles  north  of  Chinitna 
Point.  A  very  slight  current  was  observed  off  Rocky  Bay,  and  at  time 
of  low  water  a  small  rip  was  seen  near  the  reefs  off  Rocky  Bay. 

DIRECTIONS,   COOK  INLET. 

The  tidal  currents  have  great  velocity  in  Cook  Inlet  and  must  be 
considered  at  all  times.  The  small  local  steam  vessels  plan  their 
trips  so  as  to  have  a  favorable  current,  and  prefer  to  anchor  rather 
than  steam  against  a  current  of  a  large  tide. 

A  vessel  with  a  speed  of  8  knots,  picking  up  a  flood  current  of  a 
large  tide  a  little  northward  of  Anchor  Point,  can  carry  it  to  Fire 
Island. 

The  shoals  fringing  the  shores  of  Cook  Inlet  are  generally  strewn 
with  bowlders,  and  the  lead  is  not  a  sufficient  guide  to  avoid  them. 
As  a  measure  of  safety  deep-draft  vessels  should  avoid  areas  with 
depths  less  than  10  fathoms  southward  of  the  Forelands.  The  fol- 
lowing courses  are  suggested : 

From  a  position  with  Cape  Elizabeth  bearing  359°  true  (NNW  ^ 
W  mag.)  distant  5^  miles,  make  good  a  335°  true  (NW  Y%  W  mag.) 
course  for  13  Y^  miles,  passing  2  miles  off  the  outer  rocks  near  Cape 
Elizabeth  and  Point  A.dam;  Flat  Island  light  should  then  bear  28° 
true  (N  y±  E  mag.)  distant  41/2  miles. 

Then  make  good  a  0°  true  (NNW  %  W  mag.)  course  for  31  miles 
to  a  position  with  Anchor  Point  light  abeam,  distant  6  miles. 

Then  make  good  a  16°  true  (N  y%  W  mag.)  course  for  43  miles  to 
a  position  with  the  northeast  point  of  Kalgin  Island  abeam,  distant 
5  miles. 

Then  make  good  a  12°  true  (N  by  W  J4  W  mag.)  course  passing 
midway  between  East  and  West  Forelands,  and  continue  the  course 
for  a  total  distance  made  good  of  19  miles. 

Then  bring  the  southeast  end  of  West  Foreland  astern  on  a  57° 
true  (NNE  y%  E  mag.)  course,  and  make  good  this  course  lor  45 
miles  to  a  position  %  to  1  mile  northwestward  of  Race  Point,  Fire 
Island.  To  make  good  this  course,  it  is  imperative  to  make  proper 
allowance  for  the  currents  setting  to  or  from  Turnagain  Arm.  An 
allowance  of  as  much  as  two  points  is  sometimes  necessary. 

Passing  %  to  1  mile  off  Race  Point,  a  65°  true  (NE  %  N  mag.) 
course  for  Point  Mackenzie  leads  in  about  the  best  water  across  the 
bar  at  the  entrance  to  Knik  Arm.  Having  in  mind,  however,  the 


86  COOK   INLET  -  DIRECTIONS. 

difficulties  of  navigation  due  to  strong  currents  and  swirls,  vessels 
should  not  depend  on  finding  a  greater  depth  than  17  feet  at  mean 
lower  low  waters.  Vessels  of  less  than  15  feet  draft  going  at  mod- 
erate speed  should  experience  no  difficulty  at  mean  lower  low  water; 
those  of  greater  draft  should  wait  for  sufficient  tide  to  insure  a  safe 
passage.  When  Point  Woronzof  bears  southward  of  95°  true  (ENE 
mag.)  the  bar  will  have  been  passed  and  a  mid-channel  course  should 
then  be  followed  until  up  with  Cairn  Point,  above  which  the  channel 
favors  the  western  shore  as  shown  on  the  chart. 

It  is  important  to  have  in  mind  the  minus  tides  on  the  bar  at  the 
entrance  of  Knik  Arm.  See  tides  preceding. 

PORT  CHATHAM 

lies  northward  of  Elizabeth  Island,  and  has  a  25°  true  (N  mag.) 
direction  for  2  miles,  narrowing  from  about  2  miles  to  ^  mile.  It 
then  turns  to  about  115°  true  (E  mag.)  for  lJ/£  miles  with  a  width 
of  ^g  to  %  mile.  It  is  a  secure  harbor  for  vessels  of  any  size  and 
easily  entered  in  the  daytime  with  clear  weather.  During  heavy 
gales  some  williwaws  are  felt  at  the  anchorage,  but  they  are  not 
dangerous.  Southward  of  Chatham  Island  the  shores  are  foul,  but 
northward  of  it  the  main  part  of  the  harbor  is  clear.  The  dangers 
are  marked  by  kelp  with  the  water  below  half  tide.  The  mountains 
on  either  side  of  the  harbor  and  approach  rise  abruptly  from  the 
water  and  are  wooded  about  halfway  to  the  summits. 

Claim  Point,  on  the  west  side  at  the  entrance,  is  a  wooded  hill  220 
feet  high,  with  a  low  wooded  neck  back  of  it.  Bare  rocks  and  kelp 
extend  about  400  yards  off  the  southeast  side  of  the  point.  The  bay 
between  Claim  Point  and  Kelp  Point  has  considerable  foul  ground, 
and  there  are  depths  of  4  to  6  fathoms  in  the  entrance. 

Kelp  Point  is  on  the  west  side  ^  mile  northeastward  from  Claim 
Point.  A  bare  rock  lies  250  yards  southeastward  from  Kelp  Point, 
and  kelp  extends  J£  mile  eastward  from  the  rock  toward  Chatham 
Island.  Care  should  be  taken  to  avoid  it  at  high  water  when  the  kelp 
does  not  show. 

Chatham  Island,  small,  low,  rocky,  and  partly  wooded,  lies  in  the 


middle  of  the  port  about  1  %  miles  inside  the  entrance.  The  channel 
is  west  of  the  island,  and  the  only  known  danger  is  a  rock  with  7 
feet  over  it,  marked  by  kelp  except  near  high  water,  nearly  in  the 
middle  354°  true  (NNW  %  W  mag.)  from  the  island.  There  is 
deep  water  on  either  side  of  the  rock.  A  depth  of  5  fathoms,  wuth  a 
possibility  of  less,  was  found  250  yards  230**  true  (SSW  y±  W  mag.) 
from  the  western  end  of  Chatham  Island. 

The  passage  east  of  Chatham  Island  is  foul  and  should  not  be 
attempted  by  strangers.  A  rock,  with  13  feet  over  it  and  marked  by 
kelp,  fies  y%  mil6  from  the  eastern  shore  and  over  ^g  mile  165°  true 
(SE  %  S  mag.)  from  the  western  end  of  Chatham  Island. 

On  the  east  side,  %  mile  north-northeastward  from  Chatham  Island, 
is  a  projecting,  rocky,  wooded  point,  where  the  port  changes  direction. 
The  opposite  side,  northeastward  from  this  point,  is  a  low,  grassy  spit, 
wooded  near  its  eastern  end.  The  best  anchorage  is  in  the  broad  part 
of  the  harbor  %  to  J£  mile  eastward  of  this  spit,  in  10  to  13  fathoms, 
soft  bottom.  At  the  eastern  end  of  the  harbor  are  some  rocks  showing 
but  little  above  high  water.  On  the  south  shore,  188°  true  (S  by  E 


PORT   CHATHAM.  87 

y^  E  mag.)  from  these  rocks,  fresh  water  can  be  conveniently  obtained 
by  boats,  which  can  be  placed  under  a  waterfall  at  the  higher  stages 
of  the  tide. 

Tides. — High  and  low  water  occur  about  the  same  time  as  at  Kodiak, 
and  the  mean  rise  and  fall  of  the  tides  is  12.1  feet.  To  find  the  height 
of  the  tide  at  Port  Chatham,  multiply  the  height  of  the  corresponding 
tide  at  Kodiak  by  the  ratio  of  ranges,  1.75.  The  tidal  currents  have 
little  velocity  in  the  entrance  and  harbor,  but  in  the  approach  on 
either  side  of  Elizabeth  Island  there  are  strong  tidal  currents,  and  at 
times  heavy  tide  rips. 

DIRECTIONS,   PORT  CHATHAM. 

The  entrance  and  harbor  of  Port  Chatham  are  very  broken  and  not 
completely  developed.  As  a  measure  of  safety  vessels  should  proceed 
with  caution  in  the  vicinity  of  broken  areas  where  abrupt  changes  in 
depth  are  indicated  by  the  chart  to  depths  less  than  about  15  fathoms. 

From  eastward. — Follow  the  directions  for  passing  inside  Pearl  and 
Elizabeth  Islands  preceding,  until  up  with  Elizabeth  Island,  and  then 
steer  356°  true  (NNW  J^  W  mag.)  with  Nagahut  Rocks  astern  and 
Chatham  Island  a  little  on  the  starboard  bow.  Pass  500  yards  south- 
westward  of  Chatham  Island  and  steer  47°  true  (NNE  mag.),  passing 
150  to  200  yards  westward  of  the  island.  When  inside  the  prominent 
point  y%  mile  above  it,  steer  about  109°  true  (E  3^  N  mag.)  in  mid- 
channel  for  %  mile  to  the  anchorage. 

From  westward. — Reverse  the  direction  forpassing  inside  Pearl  and 
Elizabeth  Islands,  page  78,  until  approaching  Elizabeth  Island,  or  enter 
about  midway  between  Elizabeth  Island  and  the  shore  northwestward. 
Then  steer  about  47°  true  (NNE  mag.)  for  the  west  end  of  Chatham 
Island  with  the  hummock  at  the  west  end  of  Elizabeth  Island  astern. 
Pass  500  yards  southwestward  and  150  to  200  yards  westward  of 
Chatham  Island  and  continue  to  anchorage  as  directed  in  the  preceding 
paragraph. 

COAST  FROM    PORT  CHATHAM  TO   SELDOVIA. 

Koyuktolik  Bay,  about  3  miles  westward  of  Port  Chatham,  is  1J^ 
miles  long,  with  a  uniform  width  of  about  1  mile.  Its  north  shore 
consists  of  bare  rocky  cliffs,  while  the  south  shores  are  lower,  the 
souih  entrance  point  consisting  of  a  low  yellow  bluff.  The  entrance 
is  clear,  with  depths  of  14  to  16  fathoms,  except  for  a  reef  which 
makes  off  about  600  yards  from  the  yellow  bluff  point.  A  sand  and 
gravel  shoal  makes  out  about  Y%  mile  from  the  stream  in  the  south- 
east corner  at  the  head  of  the  bay. 

Temporary  anchorage  in  8  to  10  fathoms,  hard  bottom,  may  be 
found  1/2  mile  from  the  head  of  the  bay.  It  is  probable,  however, 
that  in  any  heavy  weather  a  considerable  swell  reaches  this  anchorage. 

Point  Adam,  6^  miles  336°  true  (NW  %  W  mag.)  from  Cape 
Elizabeth,  is  low  at  the  end,  and  rises  in  a  steep  grassy  slope  to 
mountains. 

Magnet  Rock  lies  3J4  miles  345°  true  (NW  %  N  mag.)  from  Point 
Adam  and  about  %  mile  from  the  coast  in  the  vicinity  of  Point  Bede. 
It  is  small,  black,  and  prominent. 

Flat  Islet,  \y%  miles  13°  true  (N  by  W  mag.)  from  Magnet  Rock, 
is  small,  flat,  grass-covered,  and  about  50  feet  high,  and  is  two  closely 


88  PORT    CHATHAM    TO    SELDOVIA. 

connected  islands  joined  by  bare  reefs.  There  is  a  light  on  the 
northwest  part  of  the  island. 

Port  Graham  is  described  below. 

There  is  a  prominent,  flat=-topped,  grassy  point,  with  rocky  sides 
and  about  50  feet  high,  63^  miles  northward  of  Flat  Islet  and  1^4 
miles  northward  of  Dangerous  Cape.  Its  end  is  detached.  At  this 
point  the  coast  changes  direction  northeastward  for  about  5  miles 
to  Seldovia  Bay. 

Kelp  extends  %  mile  on?  the  bight  lying  2  miles  south  westward 
of  Point  Naskowhak. 

PORT  GRAHAM, 

on  the  east  side  of  Cook  Inlet,  4  miles  northward  of  Flat  Island,  is  a 
secure  harbor  inside  Passage  Island,  and  with  care  is  easily  entered 
in  the  daytime.  Its  entrance,  between  Russian  Point  and  Danger- 
ous Cape,  is  about  2  miles  wide,  and  has  extensive  outlying  reefs, 
covered  at  various  stages  of  the  tide.  The  dangers  are  generally 
steep-to  and  are  marked  by  kelp  in  summer  and  fall. 

Russian  Point,  orf  the  south  side  of  the  entrance,  lies  about  2% 
miles  northeastward  of  Flat  Island.  Alexandrovsk,  a  small  Indian 
village  with  a  Greek  church,  is  on  the  northeast  side  of  English  Bay, 
300  to  400  yards  southeastward  of  the  point. 

English  Bay,  the  open  bight  south  of  Russian  Point,  is  not  sur- 
veyed and  should  be  avoided  by  strangers.  English  Bay  Reef,  bare 
at  low  water,  lies  about  %  mile  off  the  bay  and  1  mile  268°  true 
(SW  by  W  %  W  mag.)  from  Russian  Point.  Foul  ground  also  extends 
nearly  ^  mile  westward  of  Russian  Point. 

A  reef  bare  at  low  water  extends  600  yards  northward  from  Rus- 
sian Point.  Between  this  reef  and  that  extending  J£  mile  south- 
westward  from  Passage  Island  is  a  channel  250  yards  wide,  with 
depths  of  6  to  8  fathoms  on  the  rocky  bar,  leading  into  Port  Graham 
southward  of  Passage  Island.  A  small  reef,  with  7  feet  over  it,  lies 
%  mile  inside  Russian  Point  and  400  yards  from  the  southern  shore; 
the  channel  is  northward  of  it. 

Dangerous  Cape,  on  the  north  side  at  the  entrance,  lies  5  miles 
northward  of  Flat  Island.  A  reef  extends  %  mile  westward  from 
the  western  side  of  the  cape;  there  are  two  rocks  bare  at  low  water, 
and  a  rock  with  7  feet  over  it  lies  nearly  %  mile  from  shore. 

A  reef,  with  bare  rocks  and  some  that  cover,  extends  650  yards 
southward  from  Dangerous  Cape. 

Bird  Reef,  250  yards  long,  lies  ^2  to  ^  mile  southward  from  Dan- 
gerous Cape.  The  highest  rock  at  the  north  end  of  the  reef  is  cov- 
ered at  extreme  high  tide.  A  rock  with  3  feet  over  it  and  marked 
by  kelp  lies  nearly  J^  mu<e  northeastward  from  the  north  end  of 
Bird  Reef. 

Midway  between  this  reef  and  Passage  Island  and  ^  mile  from 
the  north  shore  is  a  small  shoal  with  2^  fathoms  and  kelp.  Vessels 
should  pass  southward  of  it,  as  another  shoal  with  kelp  makes  out 
650  yards  irom  the  shore  inside  it,  and  there  are  probably  bowlders 
on  the  shoals. 

Passage  Island,  1  mile  inside  the  entrance,  is  140  feet  high  and 
wooded.  It  is  generally  fringed  with  reefs  to  a  distance  of  150  yards, 
and  a  shelving  spit,  covered  at  high  water,  extends  350  yards  east- 
ward from  its  eastern  end.  A  reef,  with  numerous  rocks,  bare  and 


PORT    GRAHAM.  89 

covered  at  various  stages  of  the  tide,  extends  %  mile  southwestward 
from  the  western  end  of  the  island.  The  northern  end  of  the  island 
is  marked  by  a  light. 

A  rock,  bare  at  low  water,  lies  250  yards  west-southwestward  from 
the  point  on  the  north  shore  northeastward  of  Passage  Island.  This 
is  the  worst  danger  in  the  entrance  north  ol  the  island.  The  channel 
lias  a  width  of  300  yards  between  the  rock  and  the  reef  fringing 
Passage  Island. 

Above  Passage  Island  the  port  is  4J^  miles  long  and  J/£  to  %  mile 
wide,  with  depths  of  10  to  17  fathoms.  The  shores  are  generally 
fringed  with  kelp  to  a  distance  ol  200  yards.  The  only  serious  danger 
is  a  narrow,  sunken  reef  with  kelp  which  extends  halfway  across  the 
port  from  the  northern  shore  %  mile  above  Passage  Island,  and  is 
marked  at  its  south  end  by  a  black  buoy.  There  are  small  streams 
on  the  shores  of  the  port  and  a  large  stream  and  valley  at  its  head. 

There  are  a  cannery  and  wharf  on  the  south  side  1%  miles  above 
Passage  Island.  There  is  a  depth  of  18  feet  at  its  end.  Water  can 
be  obtained  through  pipe  and  hose,  and  small  quantities  of  coal  are 
generally  kept  on  hand.  There  is  a  small  store. 

Anchorage. — Temporary  anchorage  for  a  small  vessel  can  be  selected 
in  the  middle  of  Coal  Cove,  inside  Dangerous  Cape,  in  5  to  10  fath- 
oms, rocky  bottom;  the  shore  ol  the  cove  is  fringed  with  kelp  to  a 
distance  of  350  yards,  and  the  cove  should  be  used  with  caution.  A 
better  anchorage  with  more  room  will  be  found  in  the  bight  on  the 
north  shore  northward  of  Passage  Island  in  7  to  10  fathoms;  a  shoal 
extends  400  yards  from  the  northeast  end  of  the  bight,  and  kelp 
extends  250  yards  from  its  north  shore.  These  anchorages  are 
exposed  to  a  heavy  swell  in  southerly  or  westerly  weather. 

When  inside  Passage  Island,  anchorage  can  be  had  in  any  part  of  the 
port,  the  depths  being  17  to  10  fathoms.  One  of  the  best  is  north- 
ward or  northeastward  ol  the  wharf,  in  10  to  13  fathoms,  sticky  bot- 
tom. The  cove  southeastward  of  the  wharf  is  shoal.  An  equally 
good  anchorage  is  in  the  middle  1  mile  above  the  wharf,  in  9  to  10 
fathoms;  above  this  anchorage  the  port  narrows  to  ^  mile,  and  is 
then  shoal  to  the  head,  a  distance  of  l^  miles. 

Tides. — High  and  low  waters  occur  about  18  minutes  later  than  at 
Kodiak,  and  the  mean  rise  and  fall  of  the  tides  is  14.4  feet.  To  find 
the  height  of  the  tide,  multiply  the  height  of  the  corresponding  tide 
at  Kodiak  by  the  ratio  of  ranges,  2.1. 

Strong  tidal  currents,  both  ebb  and  flood,  set  across  the  mouth  of 
the  harbor,  but  there  is  little  current  at  or  inside  of  Passage  Island. 
With  opposing  wind  and  current,  heavy  tide  rips  occur  off  and  well 
northward  and  southward  of  the  entrance  to  Port  Graham. 

DIRECTIONS,  PORT  GRAHAM. 

The  safest  time  to  enter  the  port  is  at  low  water,  and  the  better 
entrance  is  north  of  Passage  Island.  The  channel  south  of  Passage 
Island  should  not  be  used  by  strangers. 

From  southward,  pass  1  to  \y%  miles  westward  of  Flat  Island  and 
steer  for  the  prominent  coast  point  northward  of  Port  Graham, 
course  about  41°  true  (N  by  E  J^  E  mag.).  When  the  village  of 
Alexandrovsk  is  abeam,  head  in  with  Passage  Island  a  little  on  the 
starboard  bow,  course  about  92°  true  (ENE  mag.),  and  pass  about 
300  yards  northwestward  of  the  light  on  the  north  end  of  the  island. 


90  PORT    GRAHAM. 

Pass  200  to  not  over  300  yards  northeastward  of  the  light  on  the 
north  end  of  Passage  Island  and  steer  129°  true  (ESE  %  E  mag.), 
passing  midway  between  the  east  end  of  the  island  and  the  point  on 
the  north  shore.  Continue  the  course  300  yards  past  the  island,  and 
then  steer  157°  true  (SE  ^  E  mag.),  with  the  point  on  the  north 
shore  astern,  and  pass  westward  and  southward  of  black  can  buoy 
No.  1.  Then  keep  in  mid-channel.  A  flat  extends  1J4  miles  from 
the  head  of  the  port,  and  the  cove  in  the  south  shore  southeastward 
of  the  wharf  is  snoal. 

From  northward. — Follow  the  shore  northward  of  the  port  on  a 
210°  true  (S  J^  W  mag.)  course,  and  pass  over  1  mile  westward  of 
Dangerous  Cape.  Then  steer  for  the  village  of  Alexandrovsk,  course 
about  168°  true  (SE  %  S  mag.),  and  when  Bird  Reef  is  about  J/£  mile 
on  the  port  beam  steer  for  the  summit  of  Passage  Island,  course  about 
120°  true  (E  ^  S  mag.).  When  the  point  on  the  north  shore  north- 
eastward of  Passage  Island  bears  103°  true  (E  by  N  mag.),  steer  for 
it  and  pass  about  300  yards  northwestward  of  the  light  on  the  north 
end  of  Passage  Island.  Then  follow  the  directions  in  the  preceding 
paragraph. 

SELDOVIA  BAY, 

on  the  southeast  side  of  Kachemak  Bay,  eastern  shore  of  Cook  Inlet, 
is  a  secure  harbor  in  any  weather.  It  extends  2  miles  in  a  176°  true 
(SSE  y<i  E  mag.)  direction  to  Powder  Island,  with  a  width  of  j/^  to 
%  mile,  and  then  turns  to  147°  true  (SE  by  E  mag.)  for  2  miles. 
The  head  of  the  bay  is  shoal  down  to  J/£  mile  southeastward  of  Powder 
Island. 

From  the  entrance  until  nearly  up  with  the  wharf,  shoals  with  10 
to  12  feet  in  places  on  their  eastern  part  extend  halfway  across  the 
harbor  from  the  western  shore.  The  channel  is  between  the  shoals  and 
several  rocks  and  kelp  patches  near  the  eastern  shore,  and  varies  in 
width  from  150  to  400  yards.  The  channel  has  a  depth  of  18  feet  or 
more  at  low  water,  with  a  rise  and  fall  of  tides  of  16  to  24  feet.  The 
shoals  and  rocks  are  marked  by  kelp  at  slack  water  in  summer  and 
fall,  but  it  is  run  under  during  the  strength  of  the  tidal  currents. 

Point  Naskowhak,  the  western  point  at  the  entrance,  is  the  north- 
west one  of  two  small,  high,  rocky,  wooded  knobs  which  stand  on  a 
low,  grassy  spit  surrounding  a  lagoon.  A  reef  extends  nearly  %  mile 
northward  from  the  point,  and  broken  ground,  marked  by  kelp,  with 
26  feet  at  its  end,  extends  nearly  y^  mile  41°  true  (N  by  E  ^  E 
mag.)  from  it.  Two  kelp  patches,  in  which  the  least  depth  found  is 
18  feet,  lie  600  to  700  yards  northeastward  from  the  point. 

Gray  Cliff,  the  eastern  point  at  the  entrance,  is  a  bare  rock  cliff  60 
to  70  feet  high,  and  is  marked  at  the  south  end  by  a  light. 

Seldovia  Point,  lying  1  mile  northward  of  Gray  Cliff,  is  a  cliff  200 
feet  high,  wooded  on  top.  Kelp  extends  %  mile  from  the  shore  in 
the  bight  northeastward  of  Seldovia  Point. 

On  the  eastern  side  of  the  harbor,  nearly  %  mile  southward  of  Gray 
Cliff,  is  a  prominent  high,  reddish  bluff,  which  is  a  good  mark. 

A  rock,  bare  4  feet  at  low  water,  lies  300  yards  southwestward  from 
the  red  bluff,  with  foul  ground  between.  This  rock  is  steep-to  on  its 
western  side,  and  is  the  principal  danger  in  the  harbor.  It  is  marked 
by  a  buoy. 


SELDOVIA    BAY.  9l 

A  high,  pointed  rock  with  some  dead  brush  on  top  lies  near  the  east- 
ern shore  about  midway  between  the  rock  and  Watch  Point. 

Watch  Point,  on  the  eastern  shore,  Y%  mile  southward  of  the  red 
bluff,  is  a  small,  grassy  head,  about  30  feet  high,  with  a  few  trees,  and 
a  short,  low,  grassy  neck  behind  it. 

A  rock,  with  15  feet  over  it  and  marked  by  kelp,  lies  150  yards  210° 
true  (S  Yi  W  mag.)  from  Watch  Point.  The  channel  is  westward  of 
the  rock. 

Seldovia  is  a  village  and  post  office,  with  several  stores,  a  small  hotel, 
and  a  Greek  church,  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  harbor,  %  mile  south- 
eastward of  Watch  Point.  The  village  has  a  few  white  men  and  about 
100  Indians.  A  shoal,  partly  bare  at  low  water,  extends  200  yards 
southwestward  from  the  point  at  the  village,  and  the  cove  south- 
eastward of  it  is  nearly  dry  at  a  good  low  water.  The  southwest  side 
of  the  cove  is  formed  by  a  grassy  head  with  a  few  trees  about  75  feet 
high,  which  at  its  southeast  end,  at  the  inner  end  of  the  wharf,  is 
joined  to  the  shore  by  a  low,  narrow  spit. 

A  cannery  and  wharf  are  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  harbor,  %  mile 
southward  of  Watch  Point.  The  wharf  has  a  depth  of  about  11  feet 
at  its  end.  Water  can  be  obtained  through  pipe  and  hose.  The 
cannery  shows,  when  approaching  the  harbor  from  southwestward, 
over  the  low  spit  westward  of  the  entrance.  When  in  the  harbor  the 
wharf  is  hidden  until  nearly  up  with  it  by  the  grassy  head  northwest- 
ward. 

The  best  anchorage  in  the  harbor  is  in  the  middle,  about  y%  mile 
238°  true  (SW  by  S  mag.)  from  the  wharf,  in  9  to  10  fathoms,  sticky 
bottom.  A  small  vesselcan  anchor  in  the  channel  off  the  village,  with 
the  high,  red  bluff  open  westward  from  Watch  Point,  and  the  Greek 
church  bearing  86°  true  (NE  by  E  Y^  E.  mag.),  in  5  fathoms. 

Tides. — High  and  low  water  occur  27  minutes  later  than  at  Kodiak. 
To  find  the  height  of  the  tide,  multiply  the  height  of  the  corresponding 
tide  at  Kodiak  by  the  ratio  of  ranges,  2.23.  The  tidal  currents  have 
an  estimated  velocity  of  1  to  2  knots  at  strength. 

DIRECTIONS,  SELDOVIA  BAY. 

Steer  for  the  north  end  of  Gray  Cliff  on  a  137°  true  (ESE  mag.) 
course  until  Point  Naskowhak  is  a  little  forward  of  the  beam.  Then 
steer  for  Watch  Point  in  range  with  the  pinnacle  rock  off  the  north 
side  of  the  wooded  head  lying  northwestward  of  the  wharf,  course 
168°  true  (SE  %S  mag.).  A  spot  on  Watch  Point  and  the  pinnacle 
rock  are  kept  whitewashed;  otherwise  the  pinnacle  rock  blends  with 
the  background.  The  course  on  the  range  should  lead  about  300 
yards  westward  of  Gray  Cliff  and  about  50  yards  westward  of  the 
rock,  bare  at  low  water. 

When  about  350  yards  from  Watch  Point,  and  the  high,  pointed 
rock  near  the  eastern  shore  is  forward  of  the  beam,  steer  193°  true 
(S  by  E  mag.)  and  pass  125  to  150  yards  westward  of  Watch  Point. 
When  about  200  yards  past  the  point  and  the  graveyard  on  the  east- 
ern shore  is  abaft  the  beam,  steer  176°  true  (SSE  J^  E  mag.)  and 
pass  200  yards  off  the  point  northwestward  of  the  wharf.  In  going 
to  the  wharf,  give  the  shore  northwestward  of  it  a  berth  of  100  yards. 


92  COOK  INLET. 

EASTERN  SHORE  OF  COOK  INLET. 

The  eastern  shore  at  the  entrance  of  Cook  Inlet  is  mountainous, 
with  steep  slopes  from  the  water  in  the  vicinity  of  Point  Adam  and 
Point  Bede.  The  mountains  trend  northeastward  between  Kache- 
mak  Bay  and  the  sea,  and  then  extend  across  to  the  head  of  Turn- 
again  Arm.  The  greatest  elevations  occur  about  halfway  up  Keriai 
Peninsula,  where  there  are  numerous  glaciers.  The  coast  and  har- 
bors from  Port  Chatham  to  Seldovia  are  included  in  the  description 
preceding. 

Kachemak  Bay  has  secure  anchorages  at  Kahsitsnah  Bay  and  Coal 
Bay;  above  the  latter  the  head  of  Kachemak  Bay  is  not  surveyed. 

The  point  2  miles  northeastward  of  Seldovia  Point  is  low,  sandy, 
and  prominent. 

Nubble  Point  is  a  long  sandspit  terminating  in  a  rocky  knoll,  which 
may  be  mistaken  for  Point  Naskowhak  if  not  sure  of  the  position. 
The  easterly  part  of  the  point  is  wooded. 

Kahsitsnah  Bay,  between  Nubble  Point  and  Herring  Islets,  affords 
good  anchorage  in  12  to  15  fathoms,  good  holding  ground.  The  water 
shoals  abruptly  to  the  shore,  and  to  the  flat  which  fills  the  cove  formed 
by  Nubble  Point;  but  the  flat  in  the  cove  will  be  avoided  by  keeping 
the  easterly  end  of  the  point  bearing  westward  of  14°  true  (N  by  W 
mag.). 

A  rock,  bare  at  extreme  low  water  and  marked  by  heavy  kelp,  lies 
Yz  mile  59°  true  (NE  by  N  mag.)  from  the  north  end  of  Nubble  Point. 
A  least  depth  of  14  fathoms  was  found  between  the  rock  and  Nubble 
Point,  by  giving  the  north  end  of  the  point  a  berth  of  over  200  yards. 

Hesketh,  Yukon,  and  Cohen  Islands  are  high  and  wooded.  There 
is  an  islet  on  the  reef  which  extends  J^  mile  northwestward  from 
Hesketh  Island.  A  rock  60  feet  high  lies  near  the  north  end  of  a  reef 
which  extends  J^  mile  northward  from  Cohen  Island.  There  is  a 
prominent  yellow  cliff  on  the  west  end  of  Cohen  Island. .  The  pas- 
sages between  the  islands  should  be  avoided.  Eldred  Passage,  east- 
ward of  the  islands,  is  deep  near  the  middle,  except  at  the  north  end, 
where  there  is  a  bar  on  which  the  least  depths  found  are  8  to  12 
fathoms. 

Tutka  Bay  has  no  desirable  anchorage  and  is  not  completely  sur- 
veyed. Broken  ground,  on  which  some  pinnacle  rocks  have  been 
found,  extends  across  the  entrance. 

Sadie  Cove,  the  inlet  in  the  east  side  of  Eldred  Passage,  is  not  com- 
pletely surveyed,  but  is  apparently  clear  near  mid-channel. 

A  rock,  bare  at  low  water,  lies  ft  mile  northward  of  the  point  lying 
1 Y^  miles  northeastward  of  Cohen  Island,  and  the  bight  eastward  of 
the  point  is  foul. 

Gull  Island  is  a  prominent  pile  of  bare  rocks,  visible  about  10  miles; 
above  the  island  Kachemak  Bay  is  not  surveyed. 

Homer  Spit  is  a  low  gravel  and  shingle  spit,  3J^  miles  long,  from 
100  to  500  yards  wide,  and  covered  with  grass  and  some  trees.  Homer, 
a  village  at  the  end  of  the  spit,  is  practically  abandoned.  A  wharf 
on  the  north  side  of  the  spit  near  its  end  is  dry  at  lowest  tides. 

There  is  excellent  anchorage  at  a  distance  of  %  mile  or  more  north- 
westward of  the  wharf,  in  10  to  15  fathoms,  soft  bottom.  Greater 
depths  and  abrupt  shoaling  are  found  near  the  wharf,  and  It  is  not 


COOK  INLET EASTERN  SHORE.  93 

safe  to  anchor  in  less  than  18  fathoms.  Coal  Bay,  the  bight  north- 
west of  Homer,  is  shoal,  but  there  are  no  outlying  dangers. 

From  Homer  Spit  to  Anchor  Point  the  coast  is  a  line  of  bluffs,  with 
a  greatest  height  of  750  feet  at  Bluff  Point.  In  front  of  the  bluffs 
there  is  a  narrow,  rocky  and  shingle  beach.  The  depths  inside  the 
10-fathom  curve  are  rocky  and  irregular,  and  there  is  a  possibility  of 
detached  bowlders  not  found  by  the  survey.  There  is  a  light  on 
Anchor  Point. 

From  northward  of  Anchor  Point  to  Cape  Ninilchik  the  coast  is 
free  from  dangers  so  far  as  known,  and  anchorage  can  be  selected,  the 
bottom  being  sandy.  The  surveying  vessel  frequently  used  an  anchor- 
age close  inshore  just  northward  of  Cape  Starichkof,  in  6  to  7  fathoms 
(low  water).  The  holding  ground  is  fair,  and  there  is  some  shelter 
from  southerly  weather. 

The  hill,  1,900  feet  high,  lying  10  miles  from  the  shore  between  Cape 
Starichkof  and  Cape  Ninilchik,  is  a  sharp  peak  with  a  high  saddle 
between  it  and  a  slightly  lower  peak  just  southward,  and  is  the  only 
prominent  feature  between  Anchor  Point  and  the  Forelands. 

Ninilchik  is  a  small  native  settlement  with  a  Greek  church  at  the 
mouth  of  a  small  stream.  The  church  and  a  part  of  the  village  are 
prominent  from  well  offshore. 

North  of  Cape  Ninilchik  the  coast  is  very  foul,  being  characterized 
by  immense  bowlders  not  marked  by  kelp.  The  bowlders  rest 
apparently  on  a  comparatively  flat  bottom,  so  that  soundings  give  no 
indication  of  them.  From  the  appearance  of  those  found  and  the 
soundings  taken  alongside,  it  is  probable  that  there  are  many  of  the 
same  character  not  found  by  the  survey. 

The  Sisters  are  three  prominent  rocks,  close  together  and  the 
largest  showing  about  5  feet  above  high  water.  The  foul  ground 
inside  the  Sisters  and  extending  about  10  miles  southward  from  Cape 
Kasilof  is  strewn  with  bowlders  from  15  to  50  feet  high,  of  which  the 
Sisters  are  the  largest.  There  are  many  bowlders  in  this  area  not 
located  by  the  survey. 

There  is  a  break  in  the  high  bluffs  on  the  eastern  shore  between  Cape 
Kasilof  and  Kenai. 

Temporary  anchorage  can  be  had  in  4  fathoms  about  ^  mile  from 
shore  a  little  southward  of  Cape  Kasilof.  This  anchorage  is  exposed 
except  in  northeasterly  weather. 

Kasilof  is  a  cannery  on  the  northern  bank  at  the  mouth  of  Kasilof 
River.  An  extensive  flat  with  bowlders  in  places  fills  the  bight 
between  Cape  Kasilof  and  the  mouth  of  the  river,  and  extends  offshore 
2 1/2  miles.  A  narrow  winding  channel,  nearly  dry  in  places  at  low 
water,  leads  through  the  inner  shoals  to  the  mouth  of  the  river.  This 
channel  is  marked  for  the  cannery  steamers  and  launches  during  the 
season.  The  river  is  narrow  and  has  a  strong  current.  Boats  up  to 
6  feet  draft  can  lie  afloat  in  the  river  at  low  water. 

To  anchor  off  the  cannery,  stand  for  it  on  a  105°  true  (E  by  N 
mag.)  course.  Keep  the  lead  going  and  anchor  3  to  4  miles  from  the 
cannery,  in  a  depth  not  less  than  5  fathoms  at  low  water. 

Karluk  Reef,  partly  bare  at  low  water,  is  2)^  miles  long,  its  southern 
end  lying  4  miles  298°  true  (W  %  N  mag.)  from  Kasilof  cannery. 
There  are  shoals  between  it  and  the  shore. 

Kenai  is  a  cannery  and  post  office  on  the  northern  bank  at  the 
mouth  of  Kenai  River.  Extensive  bowlder  flats  make  off  about  3 


94  COOK  INLET EASTERN  SHORE. 

miles  from  the  mouth  of  the  river.  Salmo  Rock,  which  shows  well  at 
low  water,  is  one  of  the  outer  ones  of  numerous  scattered  bowlders 
located  by  the  survey,  and  lies  2%  miles  232°  true  (SSW  %  W  mag.) 
from  Kenai  Church.  It  is  generally  marked  by  a  buoy,  maintained 
by  the  cannery  vessels.  The  bar  at  the  entrance  of  the  river  is  nearly 
dry  at  low  water,  and  there  are  depths  of  8  to  10  feet  in  places  in  the 
channel  in  the  river.  The  tidal  currents  in  Kenai  River  have  a  veloc- 
ity of  3  to  6  knots.  The  currents  turn  about  1  hour  after  high  water 
and  about  2  hours  after  low  water. 

Salamato  is  an  old  village  4J^  miles  northward  of  Kenai  and  6  miles 
southeastward  of  East  Foreland. 

East  Foreland  is  a  prominent,  nearly  level,  wooded  headland,  with 
a  bluff  at  the  water  276  feet  high.  There  is  a  light  on  the  highest 
point  of  the  bluff.  A  dangerous  shoal  with  a  least  found  depth  of 
17  feet  (about  11  feet  at  lowest  tides)  lies  2  miles  from  the  eastern 
shore  for  a  distance  of  3  miles  southeastward  from  East  Foreland. 
The  area  is  not  thoroughly  developed. 

Nikishka  is  a  fish  trap  and  house  2}^  miles  northeastward  of  East 
Foreland.  There  is  good  anchorage  for  a  small  vessel,  sheltered 
from  all  easterly  winds,  %  to  J^  mile  from  shore  abreast  or  a  little 
below  the  fish  house,  bearing  151°  true  (SE  by  E  mag.),  in  about 
6  fathoms,  good  holding  ground.  An  anchorage  farther  southwest- 
ward  is  not  desirable,  as  the  holding  ground  is  not  as  good  and  the 
ebb  current  increases  greatly  in  velocity  on  approaching  East  Fore- 
land. Fresh  water  in  small  quantities  may  be  had  by  boats  at 
high  water  from  a  seepage  just  north  of  the  fish  house.  Water  in 
larger  quantities  may  be  had  from  a  stream  %  mile  northeastward 
of  the  fish  house,  but  the  flow  does  not  usually  last  through  the 
summer. 

From  the  fish  house  northward  nearly  to  Boulder  Point,  a  distance 
of  2  J/2  miles,  bowlder  shoals,  bare  in  places  at  low  water,  extend  % 
mile  from  shore. 

Middle  Ground  Shoal,  in  the  form  of  a  long  ridge  of  hard  sand  with 
rocky  bottom  in  places,  lies  in  the  middle  of  the  inlet  10  miles  north- 
ward of  East  Foreland.  It  shows  at  low  water  for  a  distance  of  3^ 
miles  in  a  northeasterly  and  southwesterly  (magnetic)  direction, 
and  its  greatest  height  above  low  water  is  about  6  feet. 

Beginning  at  Boulder  Point,  a  prominent  bowlder  reef  with  but 
few  breaks  in  it  extends  along  shore  to  Moose  Point,  a  distance  of 
20  miles.  For  the  greater  part  of  this  distance  the  bowlders,  some 
very  large,  show  at  low  water  to  a  distance  of  2  miles  from  shore, 
and  there  are  occasional  ones  which  show  above  high  water.  A  rock 
awash  at  low  water  lies  3J/2  miles  from  shore  and  4  miles  346°  true 
(NW  y%  N  mag.)  from  Gray  Cliff;  there  is  a  depth  of  10  fathoms 
close  to  the  west  side  of  the  rock.  Owing  to  the  size  of  the  bowiders 
along  this  shore,  it  is  not  safe  to  skirt  it  in  a  less  depth  than  about 
5  fathoms  greater  than  the  draft. 

There  is  a  prominent  yellowish  bluff  4  miles  northeastward  of 
Boulder  Point.  Gray  Cliff,  164  feet  high,  lies  10  miles  northeast- 
ward of  Boulder  Point,  and  is  a  good  mark  from  the  inlet.  There 
is  a  break  in  the  bowlder  reef  off  Gray  Cliff,  and  a  small  vessel  may 
here  approach  the  shore  as  close  as  %  mile,  and  find  anchorage  in 
about  5  fathoms,  mud  bottom,  sheltered  from  easterly  and  south- 
easterly weather. 


COOK    INLET EASTERN    SHORE.  95 

Moose  Point  is  low  and  wooded,  with  a  grassy  flat  at  its  end,  and 
is  not  prominent.  Between  it  and  Point  Possession,  a  distance  of 
10  miles,  there  are  few  bowlders  so  far  as  known,  but  the  bottom  is 
generally  rocky  and  irregular.  Moose  Point  Shoal,  5  miles  long  and 
partly  bare  at  low  water,  begins  just  above  Moose  Point,  and  lies 
from  1J4  to  2J4  miles  from  shore. 

About  6  miles  northeastward  of  Moose  Point  there  is  a  prominent 
reddish  bluff,  on  the  north  side  of  which  is  a  small  stream  in  a  deep 
canyon,  the  latter  showing  from  southwestward. 

Point  Possession  is  a  low,  rounding,  heavily  wooded  headland, 
with  a  bluff  at  the  water.  There  is  a  small  native  village  on  the 
western  side  of  the  point,  where  the  bluff  is  low  and  a  valley  leads 
inland.  The  bluff  is  140  feet  high  J^J  mile  southward  of  the  village, 
and  from  the  village  the  bluff  increases  in  height  northeastward 
around  into  Turnagain  Arm  to  a  greatest  elevation  of  284  feet  at 
Grand  View. 

A  reef  extends  about  1  mile  off  the  northwest  side  of  Point  Pos- 
session for  a  distance  of  about*  %  mile  northward  of  the  village. 
There  are  depths  of  3  fathoms  on  its  western  edge ;  the  northern  edge 
drops  off  abruptly  to  depths  of  12  to  20  fathoms.  The  range  of 
the  eastern  side  of  Fire  Island  and  Point  Woronzof  leads  close  to 
the  western  edge  of  the  reef,  and  care  should  be  taken  when  round- 
ing the  point  at  low  water  not  to  open  this  range  until  well  clear 
of  the  reef.  A  current  line  generally  indicates  the  edge  of  the  reef 
when  the  tidal  current  is  strong  in  either  direction. 

Temporary  anchorage  for  a  small  vessel  may  be  had  %  mile  from 
shore  and  2  miles  southward  of  the  village  in  4  fathoms,  sandy  bot- 
tom. It  is  sheltered  from  easterly  and  southeasterly  winds,  but 
considerable  sea  makes  around  Point  Possession  at  times  from  the 
violent  northeasterly  winds  that  blow  at  intervals  out  of  Turn- 
again  Arm. 

On  the  north  side  of  Point  Possession,  temporary  anchorage  for 
a  small  vessel  can  be  had  in  4  fathoms,  hard  bottom,  J£  mile  off  a 
gulch  at  the  western  end  of  a  high  bluff  1%  miles  northeastward 
of  the  village.  The  anchorage  is  inside  of  the  strong  tidal  currents 
that  set  in  and  out  of  Turnagain  Arm.  Water  can  be  secured  by 
boats  at  high  water  from  the  gulch,  but  in  the  late  summer  the  flow 
is  small  and  the  water  discolored  by  flowing  over  the  clay  bluff. 

Turnagain  Arm  is  partially  surveyed,  the  shore  line  being  correct. 
Most  of  the  arm  at  low  water  is  a  large  mud  flat  interspersed  with 
winding  sloughs,  and  navigation  is  safe  only  for  small  craft  of  6  feet 
or  less  draft.  Local  knowledge  is  necessary  since  the  channels  wind 
from  side  to  side  and  are  subject  to  change,  and  strong  currents  and 
tide  rips  increase  the  difficulties  of  navigation.  The  flood  tide  comes 
in  at  spring  tides  as  a  bore,  sometimes  attaining  a  height  of  6  feet.  It 
travels  about  6  knots,  but  the  velocity  of  the  current  may  exceed 
that  in  places. 

Small  craft  generally  use  the  anchorage  on  the  west  side  of  Fire 
Island  until  the  conditions  are  favorable  for  proceeding  up  Turnagain 
Arm.  The  only  anchorage  in  the  arm  is  in  the  narrow  channel  close 
to  the  shore  northward  of  Burnt  Island;  but  it  is  exceedingly  uncom- 
fortable and  even  dangerous  for  launches  when  the  strong  easterly 
winds  are  blowing  down  the  arm.  For  launches  the  best  thing  to  do 
is  to  beach  them  on  a  gradually  sloping,  smooth  sand  beach  in  the 


96  COOK   INLET EASTERN    SHORE. 

bight  on  the  west  side  of  Gull  Rock  or  the  bight  on  the  west  side  of 
the  small  point  2  miles  westward  of  Gull  Rock. 

Hope,  Sunrise,  and  Girdwood  have  stores,  and  can  be  reached  by 
small  craft  at  high  water.  In  1914  mail  and  freight  for  these  places 
came  by  launches  from  Knik  Arm. 

Turnagain  Arm  is  noted  for  the  violent  winds  which  blow  out  of 
it  whenever  the  wind  is  easterly,  and  is  locally  referred  to  as  the 
"  Cannon,"  which  expresses  the  opinion  held  of  it.  With  light  to 
moderate  easterly  winds  in  other  parts  of  the  inlet,  a  moderate  gale 
will  frequently  blow  out  of  the  arm  and  a  heavy  sea  and  tide  rips 
will  be  raised  from  its  mouth  across  to  Ladd  on  the  western  shore. 

Fire  Island  is  wooded  and  has  a  greatest  elevation  of  350  feet  near 
its  middle.  Its  southern  part  is  broken,  there  being  some  high  sand 
hills  with  bare  summits,  between  which  is  a  lake.  There  is  another 
lake  near  the  north  end  of  the  island.  The  shore  is  high  bluffs, 
except  the  northern  and  southern  ends  of  the  island,  which  are  low. 
There  are  no  streams  on  the  island,  and  after  the  snow  is  melted  the 
island  is  dry  except  for  the  lakes.  Except  in  late  summer  some  fresh 
water  may  be  haa  at  a  depth  of  a  few  feet  at  the  foot  of  the  low  bluff 
on  the  shore  northwestward  of  the  lake  near  the  south  end. 

There  is  good  anchorage  for  a  small  vessel  in  the  northern  part  of 
the  bight  on  the  western  side  of  Fire  Island,  in  4  to  5  fathoms,  hard 
bottom.  It  is  about  J^  mile  from  shore  and  about  1  mile  from  Race 
Point,  with  the  highest  hill  near  the  middle  of  the  island  bearing  about 
128°  true  (E  by  S  mag.).  The  current  is  strong  here  throughout 
the  flood,  but  tne  ebb  current  has  little  velocity  and  after  the  first  2 
hours  of  ebb  is  nearly  slack.  With  fresh  southwesterly,  northwesterly, 
or  northerly  winds  the  anchorage  is  untenable,  as  a  rough  sea  and 
tide  rips  prevail. 

Fire  Island  is  joined  to  Point  Campbell  by  a  flat,  bare  at  low  water. 
A  flat,  bare  at  low  water,  fills  the  bight  on  the  west  side  of  Fire  Island 
and  extends  about  %  mile  northwestward  from  Fire  Island  light,  at 
the  southwest  end  of  the  island. 

There  is  a  sand  shoal  or  bar  about  2  miles  northward  of  Fire  Island 
on  the  crest  of  which  the  least  depth  found  is  17  feet.  Having  in 
mind  the  difficulties  of  navigation  due  to  strong  currents  and  swirls, 
vessels  will  find  it  difficult  to  avoid  the  shoal  places  in  the  absence  of 
aids.  With  the  minus  tides,  and  especially  with  strong  northerly 
winds,  the  low  tides  may  fall  as  much  as  6  feet  lower  than  the  plane 
of  reference,  and  vessels  of  more  than  about  10  feet  draft  should  wait 
for  sufficient  tide  to  insure  a  safe  passage  at  lowest  tides. 

Knik  Arm  has  sufficient  depth  for  deep-draft  vessels,  with  the 
exception  of  the  bar  at  its  entrance  which  is  mentioned  in  the  pre- 
ceding paragraph.  The  generally  used  anchorage  is  in  the  bight 
Between  Woodrow  Creek  and  Cairn  Point,  3  miles  northeastward  of 
Point  Mackenzie,  where  good  depths  extend  fairly  close  to  the  shore. 
Toward  Cairn  Point,  anchorage  can  be  selected  in  as  little  as  8  fathoms 
at  low  water;  toward  Woodrow  Creek,  the  anchorage  depths  are 
greater.  Vessels  anchored  close  in  avoid  the  strongest  currents, 
which  have  an  estimated  velocity  of  4  knots  or  more  at  strength  in 
the  middle  of  the  arm.  The  currents,  however,  are  so  strong  that 
vessels  should  use  a  long  scope  of  chain,  and  they  will  generally  foul 
the  anchor  if  remaining  over  two  tides.  Chart  8557  is  the  best  guide. 


KNIK   ARM.  97 

Woodrow  (Anchorage  post  office),  near  the  mouth  of  Woodrow 
Creek,  is  a  town  of  about  3,000  inhabitants.  It  has  a  post  office, 
general  stores,  and  is  a  port  of  call  for  all  steamship  lines  making 
Cook  Inlet. 

The  local  headquarters  for  the  construction  of  the  government 
railroad  around  Turnagain  and  Knik  Arms  are  located  here.  Black- 
smith and  machine  shops  are  maintained.  There  is  communication 
with  Seward  by  telephone  and  telegraph.  There  are  at  present  no 
wharves  to  which  vessels  may  go;  freight  is  handled  by  means  of 
lighters. 

Goose  Bay  is  a  slight  indentation  on  the  west  side  of  Knik  Arm,  7 
miles  above  Cairn  Point.  A  cannery  is  located  here,  with  a  wharf 
having  a  depth  at  the  end  of  about  30  feet  at  low  tide.  The  channel 
is  narrow  here,  and  the  currents  are  very  strong;  in  making  the  wharf 
a  vessel  should  first  drop  an  anchor  and  swing  to  it. 

From  a  point  about  5  miles  above  Cairn  Point  the  head  of  the  arm 
is  obstructed  by  extensive  mud  flats  which  bare  soon  after  high  water. 
These  flats  are  cut  by  numerous  channels  and  sloughs  leading  from 
the.  various  streams.  The  main  channel  to  the  head  of  the  arm  lies 
close  to  the  west  shore  at  the  point  just  above  Goose  Bay,  thence 
diagonally  outward  to  the  middle  of  the  arm,  and  up  the  middle  to 
the  head.  It  is  narrow  and  intricate,  navigable  only  on  the  tide,  and 
then  only  with  local  knowledge. 

Knik  is  a  village  on  the  western  side  of  the  arm,  about  15  miles 
above  Point  Mackenzie,  to  which  small  craft  go  at  high  water  and  lie 
on  the  bottom  at  the  ends  of  the  landings  at  low  water.  Above 
Goose  Bay,  the  channel  to  Knik  lies  close  along  the  western  shore. 
This  channel  is  said  to  be  filling  in  at  present. 

WESTERN  SHORE  OF  COOK  INLET. 

On  the  western  side  of  Cook  Inlet,  from  Cape  Douglas  to  Chisik 
Island,  the  mountains  generally  rise  abruptly  from  the  water,  and 
Iliamna  and  Eedoubt  Volcanoes  tower  well  above  the  surrounding 
peaks,  affording  excellent  marks  from  ah1  parts  of  the  lower  inlet. 
^Northward  from  Redoubt  Volcano  the  higher  snow-clad  peaks  trend 
away  from  the  inlet,  passing  through  the  lofty  Mount  Spurr. 

Kamishak  Bay  is  not  surveyed  southward  of  Rocky  Cove  and 
Augustine  Island.  Its  south  and  west  sides  are  said  to  be  occupied  by 
a  flat  as  shown  on  the  chart,  and  it  is  probable  that  there  are  numerous 
bowlders.  The  shore  is  mountainous,  with  cliffs  and  slides  in  many 
places,  and  there  is  no  timber  except  at  the  north  end  of  the  bay. 
From  Iniskin  Bay  to  Chinitna  Bay  the  lower  lands  are  about  half 
wooded.  There  are  sand  beaches  in  the  bights  and  bays,  which  are 
covered,  however,  at  high  water. 

Kamishak  Bay  is  characterized  by  bowlders,  which  can  be  seen 
strewn  along  the  shores  and  extending  off  toward  the  deeper  water. 
So  far  as  surveyed  the  shoaling  is  abrupt  on  approaching  the  reefs 
which  fringe  the  shores,  and  the  lead  will  not  serve  as  a  guide  to  clear 
them.  Vessels  should  proceed  with  caution  where  the  depths  are 
not  more  than  about  3  fathoms  greater  than  the  draft,  as  there  are 
probably  bowlders  on  the  bottom.  An  unsurveyed  bank,  on  which 
4  fathoms  was  obtained,  extends  over  3  miles  westward  from  Augus- 
tine Island.  Owing  to  the  probability  of  bowlders,  vessels  should 
31056°— 16 7 


98  KAMISHAK  BAY. 

not  pass  westward  of  Augustine  Island,  and  great  caution  should  be 
exercised  if  attempting  to  pass  south  of  the  island. 

Augustine  Island,  about  7  miles  in  diameter  and  3,970  feet  high,  is 
a  volcanic,  conical  peak  from  the  crater  of  which  steam  is  frequently 
discharged.  The  shore  is  low  with  bluffs  in  places,  and  is  generally 
strewn  with  bowlders.  A  bowlder  reef  extends  about  %  mile  off  the 
northwestern  half  of  the  island  as  shown  on  the  chart,  and  this  area 
has  not  been  closely  developed.  The  north  end  of  the  island  consists 
of  numerous  small  mounds  of  bowlders  with  sloughs  between.  The 
west  end  is  detached  from  the  main  island  by  a  lagoon,  the  entrances 
to  which  are  partly  blocked  by  bowlders.  The  lower  parts  of  the 
island  are  covered  with  brush  and  alder. 

The  surveying  vessel  anchored  in  the  bight  on  the  southwest  side 
of  Augustine  Island.  There  are  no  bowlders  on  the  beach  and  it 
seemed  clear;  it  affords  shelter  in  northerly  and  easterly  winds.  The 
vessel  approached  the  anchorage  on  a  65°  true  (NE  %  N  mag.) 
course  for  the  volcano,  and  anchored  in  6  fathoms,  sandy  bottom, 
about  %  mile  from  shore. 

The  surveying  vessel  also  anchored  about  1  mile  off  the  northwest 
side  of  Augustine  Island,  with  the  volcano  bearing  135°  true  (ESE  y% 
E  mag.)  and  the  north  tangent  of  the  island  bearing  75°  true  (NE  ^ 
E  mag.)  in  8  fathoms,  sandy  bottom.  Care  should  be  taken  not  to 
get  nearer  the  island,  as  there  are  numerous  bowlders.  It  is  exposed 
to  northerly  and  northeasterly  winds. 

Augustine  Rocks  lie  8  miles  168°  true  (SE  J^  S  mag.)  from  the  peak 
of  Augustine  Island,  and  approximately  5^2  miles  from  the  shore  of 
the  island.  They  are  two  flat  rocks,  with  a  smaller  one  between 
them,  all  covered  at  high  water.  Their  position  is  said  to  be  generally 
indicated  by  kelp  or  breakers. 

Bruin  Bay  is  obstructed  by  numerous  bowlder  reefs  and  is  not  avail- 
able as  an  anchorage.  The  upper  end  is  bare  at  low  water. 

Rocky  Cove  is  obstructed  by  reefs,  bare  at  lowest  tides,  which 
extend  2  miles  offshore. 

TJrsus  Cove  is  exposed  to  a  heavy  swell  in  easterly  weather,  and  the 
bottom  is  very  broken. 

Iliamna  Bay  (chart  8665)  is  in  the  northwest  corner  of  Kamishak  Bay 
about  15  miles  347°  true  (NW  %  N  mag.)  from  the  peak  of  Augustine 
Island.  It  is  1  mile  wide  at  the  entrance  and  wider  inside,  and  has 
a  length  of  about  5  miles  to  its  northern  end  and  to  the  head  of  its 
western  arm,  called  Cottonwood  Bay.  The  greater  part  of  the  bay 
is  filled  by  a  flat,  but  there  is  good  anchorage  just  inside  the  entrance. 
The  shores  are  mountainous  and  there  are  no  trees  except  the  cotton- 
woods  on  the  flats  at  the  heads  of  the  bay. 

From  the  small  native  village  in  the  cove  1  mile  from  the  north 
end  of  Iliamna  Bay,  a  trail  about  12  statute  miles  long  leads  to 
Iliamna,  a  village  on  a  river  of  the  same  name  4  miles  from  Iliamna 
Lake.  The  summit  of  the  pass  is  about  3  miles  from  the  bay  and 
has  an  elevation  of  about  900  feet.  From  Iliamna  village  boats 
up  to  about  3  feet  draft  can  be  taken  through  Iliamna  Lake  and 
Kvichak  River  to  Bristol  Bay.  See  also  Iliamna  Lake  and  Kvichak 
River. 

White  Gull  Island,  grass-covered  and  about  70  feet  high,  is  con- 
spicuous near  the  middle  of  Iliamna  Bay  just  inside  the  entrance. 
There  is  a  depth  of  7  fathoms  in  the  entrance  north  of  White  Gull 


ILIAMNA  BAY.  99 

Island,  and  the  deepest  water  extends  diagonally  across  to  the 
entrance  of  Cottonwood  Bay,  where  the  depth  is  12  feet.  Anchorage 
in  4^  to  5  fathoms,  soft  bottom,  may  be  had  %  mile  inside  the 
entrance,  with  the  northern  side  of  White  Gull  Island  in  range  with 
the  south  point  at  the  entrance,  and  the  north  point  at  the  entrance 
bearing  106°  true  (E  %  N  mag.).  The  anchorage  is  exposed  to 
east  and  southeast  winds  and  there  are  heavy  williwaws  with  west- 
erly winds,  but  it  is  regarded  as  secure  during  the  summer. 

In  the  approach  to  Iliamna  Bay  the  depths  are  6  to  8  fathoms 
several  miles  from  shore,  and  these  depths  extend  close  to  Turtle 
and  Black  Reefs  so  that  the  lead  will  not  serve  as  a  guide  to  clear 
them.  Enter  the  bay  on  a  305°  true  (W  by  N  mag.)  course,  pass- 
ing between  the  north  point  at  the  entrance  and  White  Gull  Island, 
favoring  the  point  slightly,  and  anchor  %  mile  inside  the  entrance. 
When  in  the  l>ay  the  lead  is  a  good  guide,  but  care  must  be  taken 
to  avoid  a  reef,  partly  bare  at  low  water  and  with  2^  to  3  fathoms 
close-to,  which  extends  %  mile  eastward  (true)  from  the  south 
point  at  the  entrance  to  Cottonwood  Bay. 

Turtle  Reef  extends  over  %  mile  eastward  (true)  from  the  south 
point  at  the  entrance  of  Iliamna  Bay.  The  reef  is  largely  bare  at 
low  water,  and  is  about  15  feet  high  at  its  highest  point. 

Black  Reef  lies  over  J/2  mile  from  shore  and  l££  miles  93°  true 
(ENE  ^g  E  mag.)  from  the  northern  point  at  the  entrance  of  Iliamna 
Bay.  The  highest  part  of  the  reef  is  two  rocks  5  to  10  feet  high. 
Lying  }/%  mile  northeastward  of  Black  Reef  is  another  reef  which 
covers  at  half  tide  and  extends  l/2  mile  from  shore. 

It  is  reported  that  Iliamna  Bay  does  not  freeze,  but  that  drift 
ice  in  large  quantities  sets  in  at  times  from  the  upper  inlet.  Fresh 
water  may  be  obtained  from  streams  on  the  northeast  side  about 
1  mile  inside  the  entrance.  Northerly  gales  prevail  in  winter,  and 
heavy  williwaws  are  reported  to  come  from  the  mountains  on  the 
northeast  shore.  The  prevailing  summer  winds  are  down  the  bay, 
and  are  frequently  fresh,  especially  on  bright  days. 

The  tidal  currents  at  the  anchorage  have  an  estimated  velocity 
of  1  to  2  knots. 

Iniskin  Bay  is  a  secure  harbor  in  any  weather,  although  subject 
to  some  williwaws  from  the  mountains  on  the  west  shore.  The  west 
shore  is  formed  by  sharp,  bare  peaks  about  2,900  feet  high,  while 
the  eastern  shore  is  generally  low  and  alder-covered.  The  western 
side  and  upper  part  of  the  bay  are  filled  with  bowlder-strewn  flats 
bare  at  low  water,  and  the  eastern  part  is  shoal  and  fringed  by  a 
reef.  The  channel  is  nearly  %  mile  wide  at  the  entrance  and  tapers 
to  a  narrow  slough  at  the  head. 

To  enter  Iniskin  Bay,  avoid  the  reefs  which  rise  abruptly  from 
deep  water  and  extend  about  1  mile  from  the  shore  eastward  of  the 
bay.  Keep  White  Gull  Island  bearing  northward  of  278°  true 
(WSW  Y%  W  mag.),  and  pass  over  1  mile  southward  of  the  outer 
islands  off  the  entrance.  When  the  two  prominent  headlands  on 
the  west  side  of  Iniskin  Bay,  lj/2  and  4  miles  inside  the  entrance, 
are  in  line  steer  this  range,  course  14°  true  (N  %  W  mag.)  until 
approaching  the  western  shore.  Follow  this  shore  at  a  distance  of 
J£  mile  until  Range  Peak,  on  the  north  side  of  Right  Arm,  is  in 
line  with  Iliamna  Volcano,  and  then  steer  this  range,  course  26° 
true  (N  }/8  E  mag.).  Anchor  on  the  range,  from  \y2  to  2V>  miles 


100  INISKIN  BAY. 

above  Scott  Island,  in  7  to  8  fathoms,  muddy  bottom,  where  the 
width  of  the  channel  between  the  5-fathom  curves  is  about  700 
yards. 

Water  can  be  obtained  from  the  streams  in  Iniskin  Bay,  the  most 
convenient  to  the  anchorage  being  a  stream  on  the  west  side  about 
2  miles  above  the  entrance.  The  tidal  currents  at  the  anchorage 
have  an  estimated  velocity  of  about  2  knots  at  strength,  setting  fair 
with  the  channel. 

Iniskin  River,  at  the  head  of  Iniskin  Bay,  is  navigable  for  boats  of 
not  more  than  3  feet  draft  for  a  distance  of  about  2  miles  above  the 
entrance. 

Three  small  islands  with  outlying  reefs  lie  on  the  east  side  of  the 
entrance  of  Iniskin  Bay.  The  northerly  one,  called  Scott  Island,  is 
about  40  feet  high  and  partly  wooded,  and  from  it  a  reef  with  rocks 
about  15  feet  high  extends  V^  mile  northwestward.  The  middle 
island  is  about  35  feet  high,  and  from  it  a  reef  extends  M  mile  south- 
westward.  The  outer  island  is  50  feet  high  on  the  north  side,  and 
from  it  a  reef  partly  bare  at  low  water  extends  J^  mile  southwestward ; 
lying  1  to  l}i  miles  southwestward  from  the  islet  is  a  sunken  reef 
with  little  depth,  which  does  not  break  in  heavy  weather.  These 
reefs  rise  abruptly  from  depths  of  7  to  8  fathoms,  and  the  lead  will 
not  serve  as  a  guide  to  clear  them. 

From  Iniskin  Bay  to  Oil  Bay  the  coast  is  fringed  by  a  reef,  which 
extends  about  1  mile  from  shore  and  rises  abruptly.  Many  of  the 
rocks  show  at  low  water.  Pomeroy  Island,  iy±  miles  eastward  of 
Scott  Island,  is  small  and  rocky  and  has  a  few  trees  on  its  west  end. 
A  large  rock  about  10  feet  high  lies  1  mile  eastward  of  Pomeroy  Island. 
From  Iniskin  Bay  to  Oil  Bay  there  is  a  comparatively  smooth  pas- 
sage for  launches  inside  the  reefs. 

From  Oil  Bay  to  Chinitna  Point  reefs  extend  about  1  mile  from 
shore  in  places  and  rise  abruptly  from  deep  water.  Kocks  show  at 
low  water  close  to  shore  only.  With  northerly  winds  small  boats 
can  get  some  shelter  in  Oil  Bay,  Dry  Bay,  and  the  small  bight  under 
Chinitna  Point. 

Oil  Bay  is  a  shoal  open  bay  having  a  sand  beach  at  its  head,  which 
bares  %  mile  from  shore.  The  bottom  is  rocky  and  broken,  and  is 
foul  for  about  1  mile  offshore  on  the  west  side  of  the  entrance.  Aban- 
doned oil  wells  are  located  in  the  valley  of  Bowser  Creek  about  2 
miles  from  the  head  of  the  bay.  From  Oil  Bay  a  valley  leads  through 
to  Chinitna  Bay  and  there  is  a  good  trail  to  Iniskin  Bay  along  the 
north  side  of  Mount  Pomeroy. 

Dry  Bay  is  a  rocky,  shoal  bight  between  Oil  Bay  and  Chinitna 
Point.  The  head  is  a  sand  beach,  on  the  eastern  end  of  which  is  a 
cabin  of  an  abandoned  oil  company. 

Chinitna  Bay  is  shoal,  and  an  anchorage  in  4  to  5  fathoms  in  the 
entrance  is  exposed  to  all  easterly  winds.  The  bottom  is  muddy  and 
good  holding  ground,  and  anchorage  can  be  selected  anywhere  in  the 
bay  where  there  is  sufficient  depth  to  lie  afloat  at  low  water.  A  small 
vessel  of  less  than  about  12  feet  draft  can  anchor  with  fairly  good 
shelter  in  a  depth  of  about  18  feet  in  a  narrow  channel  300  yards 
northwestward  of  the  low  point  on  the  south  side  3  miles  above  the 
island  in  the  entrance.  There  are  strong  williwaws  with  westerly 
winds.  The  bay  is  reported  to  be  full  of  ice  during  the  winter.  The 
tidal  currents  rarely  exceed  1  %  knots  in  the  bay. 


BAY.,,, 


101 


A  prominent,  rocky,  grass-covered  island,  about  140  feet  high,  lies 
on  the  south  side  in  the  entrance  of  Chinitna  Bay.  Reefs  extend  % 
mile  northward,  northeastward,  and  southeastward  from  the  island. 
A  deep  channel  %  mile  wide  leads  into  the  bay  southwestward  of  the 
island,  but  the  main  entrance  is  northward  of  the  island  and  sur- 
rounding reefs  as  shown  on  the  chart. 

From  Chinitna  Bay  to  the  prominent  waterfall  5  miles  southward  of 
Chisik  Island,  the  coast  is  low  and  wooded,  with  lagoons  and  marshes 
in  places,  and  there  is  some  quicksand.  Thence  into  Tuxedni  Harbor 
the  coast  is  rocky  bluffs  and  rises  quickly  to  high  land. 

An  extensive  shoal,  apparently  an  old  glacial  moraine,  with  rocky, 
very  irregular  bottom  and  indications  of  bowlders,  extends  6  miles 
from  the  west  shore  between  Chinitna  Bay  and  Tuxedni  Harbor. 
The  least  depth  found  is  about  3%  fathoms,  but  there  is  probably 
less.  Deep-draft  vessels  should  avoid  areas  with  depths  less  than  10 
fathoms.  Tide  rips  mark  the  shoal  at  all  times  except  at  slack  water, 
and  are  dangerous  at  times  for  small  craft  in  heavy  weather;  the 
heaviest  rips  are  near  the  extrentity  of  the  shoal,  about  6  miles  from 
shore. 

Iliamna  Volcano,  10,017  feet  high,  is  an  important  mark.  Steam 
generally  issues  from  fissures  just  below  the  summit  and  from  one  of 
the  lower  peaks  on  its  southeast  slope. 

Chisik  Island  is  a  narrow  ridge,  about  5  miles  long  and  compara- 
tively smooth  on  top,  that  slopes  gradually  upward  from  the  south- 
east end  of  the  island  to  its  northwest  end,  where  it  terminates 
in  a  cliff,  2,678  feet  high,  which  is  a  conspicuous  mark.  A  reef 
extends  about  J4  mile  southeastward  from  the  southeast  end  of  the 
island. 

Tuxedni  Harbor,  on  the  southwest  side  of  Chisik  Island,  is  a  large 
and  secure  anchorage.  Heavy  williwaws  occur  with  gales  from  any 
direction,  and  raise  a  choppy  sea  in  the  harbor  dangerous  to  open 
boats.  There  is  a  cabin  on  the  sand  spit  on  Chisik  Island  4  miles 
from  its  southeast  end.  Water  can  be  had  from  a  fall  J^  mile  north- 
westward of  the  cabin.  The  harbor  is  reported  to  be  blocked  with 
ice  from  December  to  March. 

To  enter  Tuxedni  Harbor  give  the  southeast  point  of  Chisik  Island 
a  berth  of  over  y%  mile,  keep  in  mid-channel  until  about  2  miles  inside 
the  entrance,  and  then  follow  Chisik  Island  at  a  distance  of  J£  mile. 
The  anchorage  is  about  %  to  J/£  mile  from  Chisik  Island  for  a  distance 
of  1  mile  below  the  cabin,  in  15  to  17  fathoms,  sticky  bottom,  and  has 
a  clear  width  of  %  mile.  On  the  island  side  the  shore  is  bold,  but  a 
shoal  makes  out  ^  to  1  mile  from  the  main  shore  abreast  the  anchor- 
age; the  shoaling  is  abrupt  on  the  sides  of  the  channel  and  there  are 
bowlders  in  places  on  the  shoals.  The  passage  northward  of  Chisik 
Island  should  be  avoided,  even  by  small  craft. 

Current. — The  tidal  current  sets  fair  with  the  channel,  and  turns 
from  y%  to  1  hour  after  high  water.  The  ebb  runs  about  2  hours 
longer  than  the  flood.  The  maximum  flood  and  ebb  currents 
observed  was  1.7  and  2.2  knots,  respectively. 

From  Tuxedni  Harbor  to  Harriet  Point  the  shore  is  a  gravel  bluff 
with  trees  on  top  and  a  few  bowlders  in  the  water.  The  point  8  miles 
southward  of  Harriet  Point  is  an  alder-covered  bluff  from  200  to  300 
feet  high,  with  a  number  of  bare  slides.  There  are  bowlders  in  places 


102  COOK    TNXET— WESTERN    SHORE. 

on  the  shoals  which  fringe  this  .shore,  and  vessels  should  proceed  with 
caution  when  inside  the  10-fa thorn  curve. 

Redoubt  Volcano,  10,198  feet  high,  is  an  important  mark,  lying  12 
miles  from  the  shore  westward  of  Harriet  Point.  There  is  a  notch 
on  its  southeast  slope  just  below  the  summit. 

Double  Peak,  lying  15  miles  northward  of  Redoubt  Volcano,  is 
7,088  feet  high,  has  two  knobs  on  top,  and  is  easily  identified  from  the 
inlet. 

Harriet  Point  is  a  clay  bluff  about  100  feet  high,  with  bowlders  at 
the  water.  A  bowlder  reef  bare  at  low  water  extends  %  mile  east- 
ward from  Harriet  Point,  and  the  point  should  not  be  approached 
closer  than  1  J/£  miles  on  the  line  of  the  reef. 

There  is  a  fair  anchorage  in  moderate  weather  on  the  north  side  of 
Harriet  Point,  which  so  far  as  known  is  safe  during  the  summer  except 
for  southerly,  southeasterly,  and  northeasterly  gales.  Very  small 
vessels  can  anchor  in  about  5  fathoms,  about  }/£  mile  from  shore,  with 
the  point  bearing  177°  true  (SSE  ^2  E  mag.).  At  the  anchorage  the 
ebb  current  has  a  velocity  of  2  to  3  knots,  while  the  flood  current  is 
weak  and  of  short  duration. 

From  Harriet  Point  to  West  Foreland  the  shore  is  generally  low 
and  backed  by  patches  of  woods,  which  appear  continuous,  and  is 
subject  to  overflow  at  extreme  high  tides.  It  is  fronted  by  a  flat 
which  extends  off  a  greatest  distance  of  2  y2  miles  in  the  bight  north- 
westward of  Harriet  Point  and  at  the  north  end  of  Redoubt  Bay. 
The  edge  of  the  flat  is  generally  steep-to,  but  no  bowlders  were  seen 
on  those  parts  lying  in  front  of  marshy  shores.  Drift  River  is 
shallow,  rapid,  and  obstructed  by  rocks  and  snags. 

Butte  is  a  prominent  wooded  hill  488  feet  high,  lying  4  miles  inland 
and  14  miles  southwestward  of  West  Foreland. 

Kalgin  Island  is  11  miles  long,  over  200  feet  high  at  its  north  and 
south  ends,  and  wooded.  The  entire  island  is  fringed  with  bowlders. 

A  shoal  extends  16  miles  southward  from  Kalgin  Island.  There  are 
spots  bare  at  low  water  for  a  distance  of  nearly  8  miles  from  the 
island,  and  thence  southward  the  least  depths  found  are  9  and  14  feet. 
It  is  apparently  a  part  of  an  old  glacial  moraine,  the  bottom  is  very 
broken,  and  there  are  probably  less  depths  than  found  by  the  survey, 
especially  between  the  shoaler  lumps.  No  bowlders  show  at  low 
water,  however,  on  the  shoal  except  near  the  island.  The  shoaling  is 
abrupt  on  the  sides  of  the  shoal  from  depths  of  15  to  nearly  40  fath- 
oms, as  shown  on  the  chart.  There  is  a  5-fathom  spot  close  to  the 
10-fathom  curve  at  the  south  end  of  the  shoal  which  lies  110°  true 
(E  y<i  N  mag.)  from  the  peak  of  Chisik  Island. 

A  passage  with  general  depths  of  12  to  15  feet,  which  is  used  by 
cannery  tenders,  leads  across  the  shoal  from  1  to  2^  miles  southward 
of  Kalgin  Island,  as  shown  on  the  chart.  A  range  should  be  picked 
up  in  the  opening  northward  of  Chisik  Island  to  insure  making  the 
course  good,  as  the  currents  on  either  side  of  the  island  have  a  velocity 
of  3  to  4  knots  at  times,  and  are  nearly  slack  in  the  lee  of  the  island. 
There  are  bowlders  near  Kalgin  Island,  and  they  may  also  exist  in 
the  passage. 

A  sand  shoal  or  ridge  about  8  miles  long  lies  2^  to  3  J^  miles  west- 
ward of  Kalgin  Island,  'it  shows  about  7  feet  above  mean  lower  low 
water  at  the  highest  point  near  its  middle.  The  shoaling  is  abrupt 
on  the  sides  of  the  shoal. 


COOK   INLET — WESTERN   SHORE.  103 

A  bowlder-strewn  shoal  with  depths  of  7  fathoms  or  less  extends  8 
miles  northward  from  the  northeast  point  of  Kalgin  Island.  The 
area  has  been  gone  over  at  a  good  low  water,  and  the  outer  bowlders 
which  show  at  low  water  lie  2^  miles  from  the  island  in  depths  of 
nearly  30  feet.  As  there  may  be  other  bowlders  not  found,  it  is 
advisable  to  proceed  with  caution  where  the  depths  are  not  more 
than  30  feet  greater  than  the  draft. 

Small  vessels  can  select  anchorage  off  the  middle  of  the  north  end 
of  Kalgin  Island,  with  good  shelter  from  southerly  gales  drawing  up 
the  inlet.  The  holding  ground  is  good  and  the  currents  as  little  as 
will  be  found  at  any  of  the  exposed  anchorages.  Caution  must  be 
observed,  however,  at  low  water  when  crossing  the  broken,  bowlder- 
strewn  area  with  depths  less  than  7  fathoms  making  off  from  the 
north  end  of  the  island. 

The  highest  parts  of  the  shoal  lying  between  Kalgin  Island  and 
West  Foreland  show  between  3  and  4  feet  at  mean  lower  low  water. 
Although  the  bottom  is  rocky  in  places,  there  are  no  bowlders  showing 
in  its  vicinity  at  lowest  tides.  "There  are  bowlders  in  places  on  the 
bottom  between  the  shoal  and  West  Foreland. 

West  Foreland  is  a  flat  wooded  headland  262  feet  high,  with  a  bluff 
at  the  water.  The  shore  at  West  Foreland  and  for  a  distance  of  4  or 
5  miles  northward  is  fringed  with  bowlders,  which  extend  below  low 
water.  The  bottom  is  broken  and  there  are  bowlders  between  West 
Foreland  and  the  shoal  southward. 

Kustatan  River  has  its  entrance  3J^  miles  westward  of  West  Fore- 
land. It  connects  inland  with  Me  Arthur  River,  which  enters  the  inlet 
12  miles  northward  of  West  Foreland,  and  this  route  is  used  by  the 
natives  in  bidarkas  when  going  to  Tyonek. 

For  a  distance  of  8  miles  northward  from  West  Foreland  the  bluff  is 
at  the  water  and  there  are  numerous  bowlders  on  the  beach.  The 
bluff  then  trends  inland  to  a  conspicuous  wooded  ridge,  5  miles  long 
and  300  feet  high,  which  is  2%  miles  inland  at  its  northern  end. 

For  a  distance  of  15  miles  northward  from  the  end  of  the  bluff  the 
shore  of  Trading  Bay  is  flat,  grass  covered,  and  subject  to  overflow, 
and  there  are  several  sloughs.  This  part  of  the  bay  is  .fronted  by  a 
flat  which  extends  off  a  greatest  distance  of  2  j/£  miles  at  the  mouth  of 
McArthur  River.  This  river  is  about  1  mile  wide  at  its  entrance  at 
high  water,  but  due  to  a  bar  across  its  mouth  it  can  not  be  entered  at 
low  water. 

Nikolai  River  is  a  narrow  slough  19  miles  northward  of  West  Fore- 
land. There  is  a  depth  of  1  to  2  feet  at  low  water  in  the  channel 
across  the  flat  which  extends  upward  of  2  miles  from  shore.  A  depth 
of  about  15  feet  can  be  taken  into  the  river  at  high  water.  The  water 
in  the  river  is  fresh  nearly  to  its  mouth  except  for  a  short  time  at  high 
water. 

Beginning  at  a  prominent  gulch  2%  miles  northeastward  of  Nikolai 
River  the  bluff  comes  to  the  shore  and  so  continues  around  North 
Foreland.  The  gray  bluff  just  eastward  of  the  gulch  is  a  prominent 
feature.  There  is  a  small  stream  in  the  gulch.  Anchorage  can  be 
had  about  %  mile  off  the  gulch,  in  4  to  5  fathoms,  hard  bottom,  with 
the  village  of  Tyonek  open  about  100  yards  from  the  grayish  bluff 
point  eastward  of  the  anchorage.  Rocks  awash  at  low  water  extend 
%  mile  from  shore  1  mile  eastward  of  the  gulch. 


104  COOK   INLET  —  WESTERN    SHORE. 


Old  Tyonek  is  a  small  native  village  6J^  miles  northeastward  of 
Nikolai  River.  For  a  distance  of  1  mile  westward  of  Old  Tyonek 
there  are  several  large  bowlders  %  mile  from  shore.  Thence  east- 
ward the  shore  is  clearer. 

Tyonek  is  a  native  village  on  a  grassy  spit  on  the  southeast  side  of 
North  Foreland  3  miles  eastward  of  Old  Tyonek.  Anchorage  can  be 
had  about  300  yards  off  the  eastern  end  of  Tyonek,  with  the  Greek 
church  bearing  about  4°  true  (NNW  mag.),  in  4  to  5  fathoms,  mud 
and  gravel.  The  flood  current  has  a  velocity  of  4  to  5  knots,  and  ebb 
2  to  3  knots.  Care  should  be  taken  to  avoid  a  shoal  bare  at  low  water 
which  lies  about  250  yards  westward  of  the  anchorage  and  extends 
100  yards  from  shore.  The  anchorage  is  good  during  moderate 
weather  or  with  offshore  winds. 

North  Foreland  is  a  bluff  about  150  feet  high  at  the  end  of  a  hilly, 
wooded  ridge.  Thence  northward  the  bluff  is  lower. 

Chuit  River,  about  3  miles  northward  of  North  Foreland,  is  marked 
by  a  low  break  in  the  bluff.  A  depth  of  about  8  feet  can  be  taken 
into  the  mouth  of  the  river  at  high  water,  and  the  tides  are  felt  about 
1  mile  up  the  river.  Ladd  is  a  small  native  village  and  a  large  ware- 
house on  the  north  side  at  the  mouth  of  the  river. 

There  is  a  prominent  bluff  150  feet  high  on  the  south  side  of  Three- 
mile  Creek.  The  bluff  continues  northward  for  2J^  miles  from  this 
creek,  and  then  the  tree  line  is  from  2  to  3  miles  inland  from  ordinary 
high-water  mark,  the  strip  between  being  subject  to  overflow  at 
extreme  high  tides.  This  feature  continues  to  within  2  miles  of 
Point  Mackenzie. 

Beginning  at  Threemile  Creek  the  shore  is  fronted  by  a  mud  flat 
which  extends  off  an  increasing  distance  from  the  shore  northward. 
Its  low-water  edge  is  about  2  miles  off  the  mouth  of  Beluga  River, 
5^2  miles  off  the  mouth  of  Susitna  River,  3J^  miles  off  the  shore  east- 
ward nearly  to  Little  Susitna  River,  and  extends  to  the  shore  about 
1  mile  westward  of  Point  Mackenzie. 

Beluga  River  is  llJ/£  miles  northward  of  North  Foreland.  The 
channel  through  the  flats  at  the  mouth  of  the  river  has  a  depth  of 
about  2  feet  .or  less  at  low  water,  and  is  said  to  shift  in  the  winter  and 
spring  from  the  action  of  ice.  A  depth  of  as  much  as  18  feet  at  high 
water  can  be  carried  to  Beluga,  a  former  trading  station,  about  2 
miles  above  its  entrance,  where  the  depth  is  not  over  8  feet  at  low 
water.  The  effect  of  the  tide  is  felt  in  the  Beluga  River  6  or  8  miles 
from  its  mouth,  and  it  is  said  that  boats  can  ascend  to  Beluga  Lake, 
about  20  miles  inland. 

Theodore  River,  3J^  miles  northward  of  Beluga  River,  is  similar  to 
Nikolai  River.  About  3  or  4  miles  up  Theodore  River  it  reaches  to 
within  %  mile  from  Beluga  River,  and  there  is  an  easy  portage 
between. 

Lewis  River,  3  miles  northward  of  Theodore  River,  is  a  slough 
draining  the  marshes. 

Susitna  River  is  navigable  for  stern-  wheel  steamers  of  2  or  3  feet 
draft  to  the  Talkeetna  River,  a  distance  of  about  68  nautical  miles, 
but  this  was  done  only  at  good  stages  of  high  water  and  presented 
many  difficulties;  under  the  most  favorable  conditions  of  very  high 
water  a  steamer  has  been  taken  to  Indian  Creek,  about  100  miles 
from  the  mouth.  Launches  occasionally  run  up  the  Yentna  River 
to  the  forks,  about  65  nautical  miles  above  its  junction  with  the 


COOK   INLET — WESTERN    SHORE.  105 

Susitna.     The  tides  are  not  felt  more  than  7  miles  up  the  Susitna, 
and  above  this  the  current  is  swift. 

The  channels  across  the  flat  at  the  mouth  of  the  river  have  depth 
of  about  2  feet  or  less  at  low  water.  They  change  during  the  winter 
and  spring,  due  to  the  action  of  ice  and  freshets,  and  the  channels 
in  and  above  the  entrance  are  said  to  change  frequently  in  the  spring 
and  early  summer. 

Susitna,  the  principal  base  of  supplies,  is  on  the  Susitna  about  18 
nautical  miles  above  the  entrance  and  just  below  the  mouth  of  the 
Yentna.  The  principal  traffic  is  in  launches,  occasionally  towing 
scows,  which  run  from  Knik  Arm  to  Susitna. 

Little  Susitna  River,  about  9  miles  westward  of  Point  Mackenzie, 
is  reported  to  be  navigable  for  launches  at  high  water  for  a  distance 
of  8  miles. 

Susitna  Mountain,  the  prominent  mark  in  the  upper  inlet,  is  4,401 
feet  high  and  lies  on  the  west  side  of  Susitna  River,  13  miles  above 
the  head  of  Cook  Inlet.  A  high  ridge  extends  off  from  it  in  a  westerly 
direction. 

KODIAK  AND   AFOGNAK  ISLANDS. 

This  group,  lying  southwestward  of  Cook  Inlet,  and  separated 
from  the  mainland  by  Shelikof  Strait,  consists  of  the  two  large 
islands  above  named,  and  numerous  small  ones  along  their  shores. 
The  group  is  about  155  by  54  miles  in  extent,  with  its  greatest  length 
in  a  southwesterly  direction. 

The  land  is  rugged  and  mountainous,  with  elevations  of  2,000  to 
3,000  feet  along  the  shores,  and  in  excess  of  4,500  feet  in  the  interior. 
The  shores  are  rugged  and  rocky,  and  are  indented  by  numerous 
deep  narrow  inlets,  in  which  are  numerous  rocks  and  reefs. 

The  eruption  of  Katmai  Volcano  in  1912  covered  this  group  with 
a  thick  deposit  of  volcanic  ash.  This  ash  is  now  rapidly  disappear- 
ing, but  at  present  (1916)  vessels  approaching  to  the  leeward  of  the 
islands  in  thick  weather  with  any  breeze  will  be  warned  of  their 
proximity  to  the  land  by  the  presence  of  this  volcanic  dust  in  the  air. 

This  region  is  one  of  the  important  centers  of  the  salmon  canning 
industry.  Previous  to  the  eruption  there  was  also  considerable 
cattle  raising,  and  this  is  now  being  resumed  on  a  smaller  scale. 
Some  mineral  prospects  have  been  located. 

EAST  COAST  OF  SHUYAK  AND  AFOGNAK  ISLANDS. 

Shuyak  Island  is  generally  wooded  and  hilly,  with  elevations 
probably  above  1,000  feet.  Some  of  the  hills  on  the  island,  and  the 
outlying  islands  and  rocks  on  its  northern  and  western  sides,  are 
located.  The  island  is  deeply  indented  by  inlets,  but  no  information 
is  available  respecting  them. 

Point  Banks  is  an  island  about  %  mile  long  close  to  the  northeast 
end  of  Shuyak  Island.  A  rock  about  20  feet  high  lies  J^  mile  north- 
westward of  Point  Banks ;  no  breaker  was  seen  outside  of  the  rock  at 
low  water  with  a  moderate  swell. 

Perevalnie  Island  is  close  to  the  northern  shore  of  Shuyak,  its 
western  end  lying  1  %  miles  southwestward  of  the  rock  northwestward 
of  Point  Banks.  Temporary  anchorage  for  a  small  vessel,  sheltered 
from  southeasterly  winds,  can  be  had  in  the  western  entrance  of  the 


106  SHUYAK   ISLAND — EAST   COAST. 

narrow  passage  between  Perevalnie  and  Shuyak  Islands,  in  10  fathoms 
muddy  bottom.  There  is  no  shelter  in  northeasterly  weather,  and 
it  is  a  bad  place  to  leave  on  account  of  the  heavy  sea  and  tide  rips. 

The  northern  side  of  Shuyak  Island  westward  of  Perevalnie  Island 
is  apparently  foul,  rocks  awash  and  sunken  extending  well  off  in 
places.  The  western  coast  of  Shuyak  Island  is  described  on  page  125. 

Sea  Otter  Island,  lying  7^  miles  southeastward  from  Point  Banks, 
is  grass  covered,  %  mile  long,  and  about  100  feet  high.  It  is  sur- 
rounded by  bare  rocks  and  breakers  to  a  distance  of  \Y^  to  2  miles. 

Afognak  Island  is  in  its  eastern  part  a  series  of  mountain  ridges 
with  low  depressions  between  them  running  through  the  island  from 
north  to  south.  From  a  distance  Marmot  Island  shows  as  the  eastern- 
most of  these  ridges.  The  lower  parts  of  Afognak  Island  are  wooded, 
except  its  eastern  coast,  and  its  southwestern  end  southward  of 
Paramanof  Bay.  The  northern  part  of  the  island  between  Black 
Cape  and  Tonki  Cape  is  not  surveyed. 

Tonki  Cape  is  the  northern  end  of  the  high  ridge  separating  Tonki 
Bay  from  Marmot  Strait.  It  is  about  100  feet  high  and  grass  covered, 
and  rises  gradually  southward  to  high  land.  A  short  reef  with  some 
large  bare  rocks  on  it  extends  northward  from  the  cape,  terminating 
in  a  rock,  bare  at  low  water,  J4  mn<e  from  shore.  Temporary  anchor- 
age in  southeasterly  weather  can  be  had  by  a  small  vessel  off  the  bight 
on  the  west  side  of  the  end  of  Tonki  Cane. 

Tonki  Bay,  on  the  west  side  of  Tonki  Cape,  has  two  main  arms. 
The  eastern  one  is  about  5  nrles  long  from  Tonki  Cape.  The  arm  is 
1%  miles  wide  abreast  the  headland  separating  the  arms,  which  is 
23/2  miles  inside  Tonki  Cape,  and  has  a  high  rocky  islet  about  %  mile 
northward  from  it.  Three  rocks,  covered  at  high  water,  lie  about  % 
mile  from  the  eastern  shore  and  1  %  miles  southward  of  Tonki  Cape. 
The  west  side  of  the  arm  is  steep  and  apparently  bold;  the  east  side 
is  lower  and  more  broken.  There  is  anchorage  about  J^  mile  from 
the  head  of  the  arm  in  10  fathoms,  soft  bottom,  but  it  is  not  secure 
with  northerly  winds. 

The  western  arm  of  Tonki  Bay  extends  southward  to  within  about 
2  miles  of  Izhut  Bay,  with  low  land  between.  There  is  no  bottom  at 
20  fathoms  in  mid-channel  until  J£  mile  from  the  beach  in  the  bight 
on  the  eastern  side  %  mile  from  the  head,  where  there  is  secure  anchor- 
age in  about  12  fathoms,  hard  bottom. 

The  coast  for  5  miles  southward  of  Tonki  Cape  is  a  low  bluff,  with 
a  marsh  %  to  %  mile  wide  between  it  and  the  foot  of  the  ridge  which 
rises  abruptly.  Numerous  islets  and  rocks  fringe  the  coast,  extending 
off  J4  mnl?  in  places.  Thence  southward  the  bluffs  increase  in  height 
toward  King  Cove.  Southward  of  King  Cove  the  coast  is  a  bluff  over 
500  feet  high,  which  extends  around  Pillar  Cape. 

King  Cove,  lying  288°  true  (W  J^  S  mag.)  from  the  south  end  of 
Marmot  Island,  is  an  open  bight  1J^  miles  long  and  indents  the  coast 
3/2  mile.  It  may  be  used  as  a  temporary  anchorage  with  offshore 
winds,  and  otherwise  affords  no  shelter.  There  are  numerous  kelp 
patches  in  the  cove  near  the  shore. 

Marmot  Strait,  between  Afognak  and  Marmot  Islands,  is  2^  to  3 
miles  wide,  and  is  frequently  used  by  vessels.  While  no  sounding 
has  been  done,  it  is  apparently  deep  and  clear  in  the  middle.  The 
shores  are  more  or  less  foul  and  should  be  given  a  berth  of  over  % 
mile.  The  tidal  currents  have  an  estimated  velocity  of  1  to  3  knots, 


AFOGNAK   ISLAND — EAST   COAST.  107 

tin1  flood  current  setting  northward.  Sailing  directions  through  the 
strait  are  given  on  page  27. 

Sealion  Rocks  lie  5*4  miles  east-northeastward  from  Tonki  Cape  and 
4  miles  northward  from  Marmot  Island.  They  are  two  bare  rocks, 
close  together,  the  larger  one  about  40  feet  high,  and  a  reef,  bare  at 
low  water,  lying  y%  mile  northeastward  from  the  bare  rocks. 

Marmot  Island  is  about  6^  miles  long,  with  elevations  up  to  about 
1,300  feet,  and  wooded  to  a  height  of  about  500  feet.  The  north  end 
is  low  and  rises  gradually  to  the  high  land.  The  eastern  side  and 
southern  end  of  the  island  are  bluffs  over  500  feet  high  in  places. 
The  western  shore  is  also  steep  but  lower.  There  are  three  high  rocks 
close  to  Marmot  Cape,  the  south  end  of  the  island,  and  two  close  to  its 
southeast  side. 

A  rock  about  6  feet  high  lies  600  yards  from  the  northwest  side  of 
Marmot  Island,  about  1^  miles  from  its  northern  end.  An  exten- 
sive kelp  field  makes  out  from  the  island  to  a  distance  of  about  J^ 
mile  northward  from  the  rock,  and  extends  around  to  the  north  end 
of  the  island. 

Two  sunken  rocks,  on  which  the  sea  generally  breaks  at  low  water, 
lie  about  1  mile  apart  and  2^  miles  eastward  of  Cape  St.  Hermogenes, 
the  eastern  end  of  Marmot  Island.  The  northern  rock  lies  108°  true 
(E  y2  N  mag.)  from  the  north  end  of  the  island  and  38°  true  (N  by  E 
J4  E  mag.)  from  its  southeast  end.  The  southern  rock  lies  120°  true 
(E  Yi  S  mag.)  from  the  north  end  of  the  island  and  45°  true  (N  by  E 
%  E  mag.)  from  its  southeast  end.  The  range  of  the  two  pinnacle 
rocks  close  to  the  southeast  side  of  Marmot  Island,  bearing  232°  true 
(SSW  J/2  W  mag.),  passes  southeastward  of  both  breakers. 

Pillar  Cape  is  a  bluff  over  500  feet  high,  similar  to  the  southeast 
side  of  Marmot  Island,  and  there  is  a  high  pinnacle  rock  at  the  foot 
of  the  bluff  Y^  mile  eastward  of  the  south  end  of  the  cape.  On  the 
southwest  side  of  Pillar  Cape  are  three  high  bluff  points  with  small 
coves  between.  About  lJ/£  miles  westward  of  the  cape  is  an  open 
bight  from  which  a  low  divide  extends  through  to  the  western  arm 
of  Tonki  Bay. 

MARMOT  BAY 

extends  westward  between  Afogiiak  and  Kodiak  Islands  to  Whale 
Island.  The  route  along  the  south  side  of  the  bay  through  Narrow 
Strait  and  Whale  Passage  is  generally  used  by  vessels  from  Kodiak 
bound  to  Shelikof  Strait.  These  passages  are  described  on  pages 
123-124. 

The  northern  part  of  Marmot  Bay  is  clear  except  its  western  end 
between  Kostromitinof  Cape  and  Hog  Island.  The  outlying  broken 
ground  in  the  entrance  and  middle  of  the  bay  has  not  been  closely 
developed.  Pillar  Cape  may  be  rounded  at  a  distance  of  1  mile  in 
depths  of  over  20  fathoms.  Deep  water  extends  as  close  as  J4  mile 
to  Izhut  Cape.  In  the  western  end  of  the  bay  danger  will  be  avoided 
by  keeping  eastward  of  a  line  from  the  eastern  end  of  Kostromitinof 
Cape  to  Stripe  Rock,  and  eastward  of  this  range  extended  southward, 
until  Hog  Island  is  open  from  the  northwestern  side  of  Whale  Island. 

Izhut  Bay  has  its  entrance  between  Pillar  Cape  and  Peril  Cape,  and 
extends  into  Afognak  Island  about  7  miles  in  a  northwesterly  direc- 
tion with  a  width  of  3  miles  in  its  lower  part.  No  dangers  were  seen 
in  the  bay,  but  it  has  not  been  sounded  and  kelp  extends  a  short  dis- 


108  MARMOT  BAY. 

tance  off  all  the  points.  The  shores  are  wooded  and  water  may  be 
obtained  from  numerous  streams. 

The  southern  arm  on  the  western  side  of  Izhut  Bay  has  its  entrance 
3  miles  inside  Peril  Cape,  and  is  about  3  miles  long  in  a  316°  true 
(WNW  mag.)  direction  with  a  width  of  about  %  mile.  Lying  \y2 
miles  inside  the  entrance  of  the  arm  there  is  an  islet  with  a  rock,  bare 
at  low  water,  50  yards  off  its  southern  side.  The  surveying  vessel 
used  the  channel  southward  of  the  island.  Just  above  the  island 
the  arm  contracts  to  34  mile  and  then  expands  into  a  basin  about  % 
mile  in  diameter.  There  is  a  rock,  bare  at  low  water,  close  to  the 
north  point  at  the  entrance  of  the  basin.  Secure  anchorage  can  be 
selected  in  the  basin.  A  stream  enters  on  its  southern  side. 

At  the  northern  end  of  Izhut  Bay  is  the  entrance  to  two  small  arms, 
about  34  mile  off  the  western  point  of  which  is  a  prominent,  steep 
rocky  islet  about  60  feet  high.  The  eastern  arm  has  an  islet  in  it, 
the  channel  being  eastward  of  it;  there  is  secure  anchorage  for  a 
small  vessel  above  the  islet  in  7  to  9  fathoms.  The  western  arm  is 
straight  and  clear,  and  has  secure  anchorage  about  }/%  mile  from  the 
head  in  9  fathoms.  A  mid-channel  course  should  be  followed  in  the 
arms. 

Peril  Cape  is  a  prominent,  precipitous  headland  about  600  feet 
high,  and  there  is  a  high  pinnacle  rock  close  to  its  southern  side. 

Izhut  Cape,  lying  2^  miles  southwestward  of  Peril  Cape,  is  a  pro- 
jecting, long,  wooded,  hilly  point  from  250  to  500  feet  high.  There 
is  deep  water  around  the  cape  as  close  as  34  mile. 

Duck  Bay  is  about  6  miles  long  from  Izhut  Cape  to  Kostromitinof 
Cape.  At  the  eastern  end  of  the  bay  temporary  anchorage  may 
be  had  in  the  middle  of  the  cove  IJ^j  miles  northwestward  of  Izhut 
Cape,  in  6  to  7  fathoms.  The  anchorage  is  eastward  of  an  islet, 
about  30  feet  high,  which  lies  34  mile  from  the  northern  shore  and 
should  not  be  approached  closely. 

A  round,  rocky  island,  160  feet  high  and  grass  covered  on  cop, 
lies  23^  miles  westward  from  Izhut  Cape  and  %  mn<e  from  shore. 
Kelp  extends  nearly  34  mile  westward  and  northward  of  the  island, 
and  numerous  bare  rocks  extend  3^2  mile  eastward  of  the  island  and 
to  the  shore  northeastward  of  it.  In  the  cove  northward  of  the 
island  is  a  small  native  settlement.  Temporary  anchorage  may  be 
had  in  the  middle  of  the  cove,  in  10  to  12  fathoms.  Enter  the  cove 
westward  of  the  island,  between  it  and  a  large  rock,  awash  at  high 
water,  lying  34  mn<e  southward  from  the  western  point  of  the  cove. 

The  next  cove  westward  having  its  entrance  1  mile  northwest- 
ward of  the  island,  is  1  mile  long  and  %  mile  wide.  The  bottom 
is  rocky  and  kelp  extends  some  distance  from  shore  in  places.  Small 
craft,  entering  with  care,  can  anchor  in  5  to  8  feet  of  water  at  the 
head. 

Kostromitinof  Cape  is  a  projecting,  long,  level,  wooded  point, 
about  200  feet  high,  with  bluffs  in  places  at  the  water.  Northward 
from  the  cape  the  land  rises  gradually  in  a  distance  of  5J^  miles 
to  a  prominent  peak  2,080  feet  liigh. 

Spruce  Island,  on  the  south  side  of  Marmot  Bay,  has  generally  a 
low,  wooded  strip  all  around  it,  but  the  middle  of  the  island  is  a 
grassy  ridge  1,580  feet  high,  with  but  few  trees.  South  Point  of  the 
island  is  marked  by  a  high,  black,  rocky  islet,  with  a  lower  one  close 
to  its  south  side,  lying  600  yards  southward  from  the  point.  East 


MARMOT   BAY.  109 

Cape 

8  fathoms 

from  it.     North  Cape  is  a  wooded  knob  550  feet  high.     There  is 

high,  wooded  island  close  to  the  western  end  of  Spruce  Island. 

The  Triplets,  lying  \y%  miles  westward  of  North  Cape  of  Spruce 
Island,  are  three  grass-covered  islands,  the  highest  190  feet.  The 
group  forms  a  chain  1  mile  long,  and  there  are  bare  rocks  between 
them.  The  14-fathom  soundings  lying  nearly  1  mile  and  2%  miles 
northward  of  The  Triplets,  and  the  25-fathom  sounding  lying  mid- 
way between  The  Triplets  and  Kostromitinof  Cape,  have  not  been 
developed. 

Whale  Island,  at  the  western  end  of  Marmot  Bay,  is  about  4  miles 
in  diameter.  Its  southern  half  is  a  grass-covered  mountain  2,030 
feet  high  with  a  narrow,  light  streak  or  landslide  down  its  eastern 
slope.  The  northern  side  of  the  island  is  low,  and  the  lower  parts 
of  the  island  are  generally  wooded.  Treeless  Islet,  rocky  and  grass 
covered,  lies  %  mile  off  the  eastern  side  of  the  northern  end  of  the 
island.  Whale  Passage  is  southward  of  the  island  and  Afognak 
Strait  northward. 

DANGER  BAY, 

on  the  north  side  near  the  western  end  of  Marmot  Bay,  has  its  en- 
trance between  Kostromitinof  and  Kazakof  Capes,  where  it  is  2% 
miles  wide,  and  extends  6  miles  4°  true  (N  by  W  %  W  mag.)  to  its 
head,  where  it  is  1  mile  wide.  From  the  head  of  the  bay  two  narrow 
arms  extend  northward,  the  western  one  1  mile  long  and  the  eastern 
one  2  miles. 

Parrot  Islet,  round,  rocky,  and  30  feet  high,  is  in  the  entrance  of 
the  bay  and  %  mile  westward  of  Kostromitinof  Cape.  Broken 
ground,  on  which  are  several  rocky  islets  and  rocks  awash,  extends 
southward  from  the  islet  to  two  rocks  bare  at  low.  water  lying  % 
mile  171°  true  (SE  by  S  mag.)  from  it. 

A  sunken  ledge,  with  some  kelp  and  on  which  the  least  depth 
found  is  22  feet,  lies  M  to  1J^  miles  143°  true  (SE  by  E  ^  E  mag.) 
from  Parrot  Islet,  and  its  northern  end  lies  Y^  mile  southwestward 
from  Kostromitinof  Cape. 

Stripe  Rock,  lying  off  the  entrance  of  the  bay  2%  miles  190°  true 
(S  by  E  %  E  mag.)  from  Parrot  Islet,  has  two  pinnacles,  close  to- 
gether and  about  35  feet  high,  the  higher  one  having  a  prominent 
white  streak  for  its  entire  height.  There  are  some  smaller  rocks 
near  them,  and  two  rocks,  covered  at  high  water,  lie  %  mile  north- 
westward from  the  pinnacles. 

A  large  bare  ledge  about  30  feet  high  lies  1  mile  north-northwest- 
ward from  Stripe  Rock.  From  this  ledge  and  Stripe  Rock  to  the 
islands  and  Skipwith  Reefs  off  the  eastern  entrance  to  Afognak  Bay, 
the  area  is  foul,  having  numerous  reefs  and  kelp  patches,  and  should 
be  avoided  by  vessels. 

On  the  eastern  side  of  Danger  Bay,  3^  miles  northward  of  Parrot 
Islet,  there  is  a  cove  which  affords  anchorage  for  a  small  vessel,  in 
12  to  14  fathoms,  and  small  craft  can  anchor  in  its  southeastern  end 
in  about  5  fathoms.  A  reef  extends  about  100  yards  off  the  south 
side  just  inside  the  entrance  of  the  cove,  and  the  small  bight  in  its 
eastern  side  is  shoal. 


110  DANGER   BAY. 

A  bare  rock,  a  few  feet  high,  lies  y%  mile  from  the  eastern  shore  and 
y%  mile  from  the  head  of  the  bay.  Vessels  of  any  size  can  anchor 
about  midway  between  this  rock  and  the  point  separating  the  two 
arms  at  the  head,  in  14  to  15  fathoms,  muddy  bottom.  Small  vessels 
can  anchor,  in  8  to  10  fathoms,  either  in  the  broadest  part  of  the 
western  arm  J^  m^6  from  its  head,  or  in  the  entrance  of  the  eastern 
arm. 

DIRECTIONS,  DANGER  BAY. 

From  eastward,  shape  the  course  for  a  position  about  J/£  mile  south- 
eastward of  Kostromitinof  Cape.  Then  steer  for  Parrot  Islet  on  a 
305°  true  (W  by  N  mag.)  course  until  the  southwestern  end  of  the 
cape  is  a  little  forward  of  the  beam.  Then  steer  333°  true  (NW  J^ 
W  mag.)  and  pass  J4  mile  °ff  the  southwestern  end  of  the  cape  and 
the  same  distance  northeastward  of  Parrot  Islet. 

Then  steer  359°  true  (NNW  M  W  mag.)  with  Parrot  Islet  astern, 
which  will  lead  to  the  head  of  the  bay.  Above  Parrot  Islet  there  are 
no  dangers  if  the  shores  be  given  a  berth  of  %  mile,  except  the  bare 
rock  lying  J-g  mile  from  the  eastern  shore  and  y%  mile  from  the  head 
of  the  bay. 

From  southwestward,  keep  Hog  Island  open  from  the  northwestern 
side  of  Whale  Island  until  Stripe  Rock  is  in  range  with  the  eastern 
side  of  Kostromitinof  Cape.  Then  steer  41°  true  (N  by  E  J/2  E 
mag.)  for  2J4  miles  to  a  position  J£  mile  eastward  of  Stripe  Rock. 
Then  steer  6°  true  (N  by  W  Y%  W  mag.)  for  IJ/g  miles  to  a  position 
Ji  mile  eastward  of  a  bare  ledge  about  30  feet  high.  Then  steer  333° 
true  (NW  Y2  W  mag.)  about  1  mile.  Then  steer  358°  true  (NNW 
J4  W  mag.)  for  %  mile,  keeping  Stripe  Rock  open  westward  of  the 
bare  ledge  (about  30  feet  high)  astern  until  Parrot  Islet  is  J^  mile  on 
the  starboard  beam.  From  this  position  a  5°  true  (N  by  W  ^  W 
mag.)  course  will  lead  to  the  head  of  the  bay. 

AFOGNAK  BAY, 

making  into  Afognak  Island  from  the  western  end  of  Marmot  Bay,  is 
a  secure  anchorage  and  easily  entered  in  the  daytime.  It  is  5  miles 
long  from  Hog  Island,  the  entrance  is  nearly  3  miles  wide  between  Big 
Rock  and  Afognak  village,  and  above  Dot  Island  the  bay  is  J^  mile 
wide.  On  the  western  shore  1  y%  miles  above  Dot  Island  is  a  disused 
cannery,  and  at  the  head  of  the  bay  is  a  Government  fish  hatchery. 
The  best  anchorage  is  off  the  cannery  in  8  to  10  fathoms. 

The  eastern  side  of  the  entrance  is  formed  by  a  chain  of  islands  and 
bare  rocks.  Lamb  Island,  nearest  to  the  shore,  is  y^  mile  long  and 
wooded.  Alexander  Island,  %  mile  eastward  of  Lamb  Island,  is 
grass  covered,  and  has  a  knob  about  80  feet  high  at  its  north  end. 
Skipwith  Reefs,  a  chain  of  bare  rocks,  extend  1^  miles  southeastward 
from  Lamb  Island  to  Big  Rock.  The  southern  side  of  the  rocks 
should  be  given  a  berth  of  over  %  mile.  The  principal  danger  in  the 
approach  is  a  rock,  awash  at  low  water  and  steep-to,  lying  %  mile 
118°  true  (E  %  S  mag.)  from  Big  Rock;  Hog  Island  open  from  the 
northwestern  side  of  Whale  Island  leads  %  mile  southward  of  the 
rock  awash,  and  Stripe  Rock  in  range  with  the  eastern  end  of  Kos- 
tromitinof Cape  leads  ^  mile  eastward  of  it.  The  better  entrance  to 


AFOGNAK   BAY.  Ill 

the  bay  is  between  Big  Rock  and  Hog  Island,  and  has  a  clear  width 
of  over  Yi  mile. 

Hog  Island,  the  prominent  mark  in  the  entrance  of  the  bay,  is  % 
mile  long,  and  has  two  wooded  knolls  with  a  saddle  between.  Foul 
ground  marked  by  kelp  extends  about  350  yards  northeastward  from 
its  eastern  end  and  650  yards  westward  from  its  western  end. 

Af ognak  is  a  village  with  post  office  which  extends  along  the  western 
shore  of  the  bay  for  a  distance  of  nearly  2  miles  northward  of  Head 
Point.  The  church  (white  with  green  roof)  is  the  best  mark  in  the 
village,  and  lies  J4  mile  southward  of  Graveyard  Point. 

Village  Reefs  are  partly  bare  at  low  water  and  covered  with  kelp, 
and  extend  over  1  mile  eastward  from  Af  ognak  toward  Hog  Island. 
The  point  of  the  reefs  is  midway  between  Graveyard  Point  and  Hog 
Island.  Southeastward  from  the  point  of  the  reefs  is  a  detached  shoal 
with  a  least  found  depth  of  3J^  fathoms.  Between  this  shoal  and  the 
reef  extending  westward  from  Hog  Island  is  a  channel  y^  mile  wide. 

Danger  Reef  lies  1^  miles  57° .true  (NE  by  N  mag.)  from  Grave- 
yard Point  and  \y^  miles  317°  true  (WNW  mag.)  from  the  west  end 
of  Hog  Island.  It  is  small,  bare  at  half  tide,  marked  by  some  kelp, 
and  is  a  serious  danger  when  covered. 

A  rock,  with  14  feet  over  it  and  marked  by  kelp,  lies  ^  mile  west- 
northwestward  from  Danger  Reef  and  the  same  distance  52°  true 
(NNE  y%  E  mag.)  from  Lipsett  Point  on  the  western  shore. 

Dot  Island,  small  and  wooded,  is  the  western  one  of  three  small 
islands  close  to  the  eastern  shore  where  the  bay  narrows  to  y^  mile. 
On  the  western  shore  opposite  Dot  Island  is  a  cascade  where  fresh 
water  can  be  obtained  by  boat. 

For  tides,  see  Af  ognak  Strait. 

DIRECTIONS,  AFOGNAK  BAY. 

From  eastward,  keep  Hog  Island  open  from  the  northwestern  side 
of  Whale  Island,  bearing  anything  westward  of  250°  true  (SW  y%  W 
mag.)  until  about  %  mile  from  Hog  Island,  to  clear  the  dangers  on 
the  northern  side  of  the  approach.  Then  pass  midway  between  Hog 
Island  and  Big  Rock. 

From  Narrow  Strait,  follow  the  directions  on  page  123  until  west- 
ward of  Three  Brothers.  Then  steer  328°  true  (NW  by  W  mag.)  for 
6  miles  with  Low  Island  astern  to  a  position  3/2  mile  northeastward 
of  Hog  Island. 

Pass  midway  between  Hog  Island  and  Big  Rock  and  steer  315° 
true  (WNW  %  W  mag.)  for  the  old  cannery  building  showing  mid- 
way between  Dot  Island  and  the  eastern  shore.  Keep  this  range 
for  about  2  miles  until  the  western  end  of  Lamb  Island  is  abeam. 
Then  steer  308°  true  (WNW  %  W  mag.)  for  1%  miles  and  pass  400 
to  500  yards  southward  of  Dot  Island. 

Keep  this  course  for  about  J4  mile  past  Dot  Island  until  34  mile  off 
the  cascade  on  the  western  shore.  Then  steer  353°  true  (NNW  % 
W  mag.),  favoring  slightly  the  western  shore,  for.%  mile.  Anchor 
near  mid-channel  off  the  old  cannery  in  8  to  10  fathoms.  The 
anchorage  is  clear  if  Winter  Island  be  given  a  berth  of  300  yards  and 
Last  Point  (on  the  north  shore)  400  yards. 

From  Afognak  Strait,  steer  for  the  south  end  of  Hog  Island  with 
Deranof  Rock  astern,  course  73°  true  (NE  %  E  mag.)  until  %  mile 


112  AFOGNAK   BAY. 

past  Dolphin  Point  (northeast  end  of  Whale  Island)  .  Then  steer  for 
the  western  end  of  Lamb  Island  with  the  eastern  end  of  Whale  Island 
astern,  course  8°  true  (N  by  W.  %  W  mag.)  and  pass  %  mile  westward 
of  Hog  Island.  When  ^  mile  past  Hog  Island  and  Big  Rock  is  a 
little  forward  of  the  beam,  steer  325°  true  (NW  by  W  J£  W  mag.), 
heading  for  Dot  Island  with  the  western  end  of  Hog  Island  astern, 
which  leads  nearly  J4  mile  northeastward  of  Danger  Reef.  Keep 
this  course  for  2  miles  until  about  %  mile  from  Dot  Island,  and  then 
steer  308°  true  (WNW  %  W  mag.)  and  pass  400  to  500  yards  south- 
ward of  it.  Then  follow  the  directions  in  the  preceding  paragraph. 

AFOGNAK  STRAIT, 

between  Whale  and  Afognak  Islands,  is  not  generally  used,  but  is 
convenient  for  small  vessels  when  bound  to  or  from  Afognak  Bay 
and  the  currents  are  only  half  as  strong  as  in  Whale  Passage.  With 
care  the  navigation  is  not  difficult  on  a  clear  day  when  the  marks  for 
the  strait  can  be  seen.  It  has  a  least  width  of  %  mile,  but  large  areas, 
especially  on  the  north  side,  are  foul  and  there  are  many  dangers. 
The  channel  at  Chiachi  Point,  where  it  is  narrowest  and  shoalest,  has 
a  width  of  l/±  mile  and  a  general  depth  of  24  feet,  but  there  is  a  rock 
with  16  feet  over  it  in  mid-channel.  The  dangers  are  marked  by 
kelp,  which  grows  in  depths  up  to  about  6  fathoms  and  shows  at 
slack  water. 

Dolphin  Point  is  the  northeast  end  of  Whale  Island.  A  reef  partly 
bare  at  low  water  extends  600  yards  from  Whale  Island  at  a  point  J^ 
mile  westward  of  Dolphin  Point. 

Fox  Bay,  the  bight  in  Whale  Island  1  mile  westward  of  Dolphin 
Point,  has  a  reef  in  its  entrance  which  shows  well  at  low  water.  A 
small  vessel  can  anchor  in  the  bay  inside  the  reef  in  4  to  5  fathoms, 
but  the  south  shore  must  be  given  a  berth  of  300  yards.  Thence 
westward  the  shore  of  Whale  Island  is  clear  to  Chiachi  Point,  the 
northwest  end  of  the  island,  from  which  a  shelving  reef  makes  out 
about  350  yards  in  a  northwest  direction. 

In  the  narrowest  part  of  Afognak  Strait,  for  a  distance  of  %  mile 
westward  of  Afognak  village,  foul  ground  extends  %  mu>e  from  the 
north  shore.  Thence  westward  the  northern  half  of  the  strait  is 
foul.  The  principal  danger  is  a  reef  awash  at  low  water  lying  a  little 
over  mile  northwestward  of  Chiachi  Point  and  1  miles  69°  true 


(NE  mag.)  from  the  south  end  of  Deranof  Island. 

A  rock  with  16  feet  over  it  lies  J4  m^e  eastward  of  the  preceding 
reef,  %  mile  24°  true  (N  mag.)  from  Chiachi  Point,  and  on  or  a  very 
little  northward  of  the  range  of  Deranof  Rock  and  Kupreanof  Moun- 
tain. The  channel  is  southward  of  the  rock  and  is  about  300  yards 
wide. 

Deranof  Island,  %  mile  long,  low  and  wooded,  is  the  southernmost 
and  largest  of  the  islands  at  the  western  end  of  Afognak  Strait. 

Deranof  Rock,  about  8  feet  high,  lies  nearly  200  yards  southward 
of  the  island.  Broken  ground  with  a  least  depth  of  16  feet  lies  % 
mile  eastward  of  the  island  and  74°  true  (NE  ^  E  mag.)  from 
Deranof  Rock. 

Temporary  anchorage  may  be  had  in  the  channel  of  Afognak  Strait 
between  Fox  Bay  and  Afognak  village,  in  7  to  8  fathoms,  but  exposed 
to  the  full  strength  of  the  currents  and  to  easterly  and  northeasterly 
winds.  A  small  vessel  can  anchor  in  Fox  Bay. 


AFOGNAK    STRAIT.  113 

Small  vessels  can  anchor  near  the  kelp  on  Village  Reefs,  with  the 
church  (white  with  green  roof)  in  Afognak  bearing  344°  true  (NW 
y%  N  mag.),  and  Head  Point  (south  of  the  village)  inline  with  Deranof 
Rock,  in  5  fathoms.  Little  current  will  be  felt  here,  but  it  is  exposed 
to  easterly  winds. 

With  easterly  winds  small  vessels  can  anchor  about  J£  mile  west- 
ward of  the  point  on  the  north  side  of  Afognak  Strait  %  mile  west- 
ward of  Head  Point,  in  about  4  fathoms,  but  care  is  required.  When 
rounding  into  the  anchorage,  pass  northeastward  of  a  reef,  bare  at 
low  water,  lying  %  mile  southwest  ward  of  the  point,  and  give  the 
point  a  berth  of  over  300  yards. 

Tides. — High  and  low  water  occur  about  10  minutes  later  than 
at  Kodiak,  and  the  mean  rise  and  fall  of  the  tides  is  8.1  feet.  To 
find  the  approximate  height  of  the  tide,  multiply  the  height  of  the 
corresponding  tide  at  Kodiak  by  the  ratio  of  ranges  1.17. 

The  tidal  currents  in  Afognak  Strait  set  westward  on  the  flood 
and  eastward  on  the  ebb.  The  estimated  velocity  is  2  to  5  knots 
at  strength,  depending  on  the  range  of  the  tide.  Slack  water  occurs 
about  1  hour  before  high  and  low  waters  at  Kodiak.  During  the 
flood  there  is  a  strong  set  into  Raspberry  Strait,  which  should  be 
kept  in  mind  when  in  the  western  end  of  Afognak  Strait. 

DIRECTIONS,  AFOGNAK  STRAIT. 

From  Narrow  Strait  follow  the  directions  on  page  123  to  a  position 
J4  mile  northward  of  Shakmanof  Point.  Then  steer  313°  true 
(WNW  %  W  mag.)  for  5^  miles  and  pass  J/£  mile  northeastward 
of  Dolphin  Point. 

From  eastward  in  Marmot  Bay,  keep  Hog  Island  open  from  the 
northwest  side  of  Whale  Island,  bearing  anything  westward  of  250° 
true  (SW  %  W  mag.),  and  pass  ^  mile  or  more  southward  of  Hog 
Island  and  %  mile  northward  of  Dolphin  Point. 

From  Afognak  Bay,  steer  145°  true  (SE  by  E  J£  E  mag.)  for  the 
western  end  of  Hog  Island  with  Dot  Island  astern,  which  leads 
nearly  %  mn*e  northeastward  of  Danger  Reef.  When  Alexander 
Islan'd  is  abeam,  steer  188°  true  (S  by  E  %  E  mag.)  for  the  eastern 
end  of  Whale  Island  with  the  western  end  of  Lamb  Island  astern, 
and  pass  %  mile  westward  of  Hog  Island. 

Passing  J£  mile  northward  of  Dolphin  Point,  steer  for  Deranof 
Rock  in  range  with  the  summit  of  Kupreanof  Mountain,  or,  if  the 
mountain  is  hid,  steer  for  Deranof  Rock  with  the  southern  end  of 
Hog  Island  astern,  course  253°  true  (SW  %  W  mag.).  In  the  nar- 
rowest part  of  the  strait  for  %  m^e  westward  of  Afognak  village, 
go  nothing  northward  of  the  range.  When  approaching  the  western 
end  of  the  strait,  keep  a  little  southward  of  the  range  to  avoid  the 
rock  with  16  feet  over  it,  but  give  the  shore  of  Whale  Island  a  berth 
of  over  300  yards;  on  the  flood  guard  against  a  northerly  set  toward 
Raspberry  Strait. 

When  the  eastern  one  of  the  two  highest  peaks  on  the  southern 
side  of  Whale  Passage  opens  westward  of  Whale  Island,  bearing  184° 
true  (S  by  E  %  E  mag.),  steer  238°  true  (SW  by  S  mag.)  and  pass 
%  mile  southeastward  of  Deranof  Rock.  Continue  the  course  % 
mile  past  the  rock,  and  then  steer  286°  true  (W  %  S  mag.)  with  the 
summit  of  Whale  Island  astern.  This  course  made  good  will  lead 
31056°— 16 8 


114  AFOGNAK    STRAIT. 

through  Kupreanof  Strait,  passing  %  to  %  mile  southward  of  Gori 
Point,  J^  mile  northward  of  Outlet  Cape,  and  J/£  mile  southward 
of  Malina  Point. 

CHINIAK  BAY  AND  ST.  PAUL  HARBOR. 

Chiniak  Bay  is  the  indentation  in  the  northeast  end  of  Kodiak 
Island  between  Cape  Chiniak  and  Spruce  Cape,  and  St.  Paul  Harbor 
is  inside  the  islands  on  its  northwest  side.  The  harbor  is  not  difficult 
of  access  in  the  daytime  and  clear  weather,  but  the  entire  bay  and 
its  approaches  are  dangerous  at  other  times,  and  the  narrow  channel 
leading  to  the  wharf  at  Kodiak  requires  careful  piloting.  Kodiak 
Island  is  mountainous,  while  the  shores  and  islands  of  the  bay  are 
comparatively  low.  The  prominent  features  in  the  bay  and  ap- 
proaches are: 

Cape  Chiniak,  the  southeast  point  of  the  bay,  is  low  and  wooded 
for  %  mile  back  and  then  rises  gradually  to  high  land.  A  flat, 
wooded  islet  and  numerous  high,  bare  rocks  extend  1 3^  miles  north- 
eastward from  the  cape. 

Long  Island,  the  easternmost  island  in  the  northern  end  of  the  bay, 
is  3^  miles  long,  about  250  feet  high,  hilly,  with  cliffs  at  the  water, 
and  wooded  except  toward  its  northern  end.  The  northeast  end  is 
two  grassy  knolls  joined  by  spits,  and  a  high,  steep,  rocky  islet  lies 
250  yards  eastward  of  it.  Extensive,  kelp-marked  reefs,  with  some 
high,  bare  heads,  extend  from  %  to  %  mile  north-northeastward  from 
the  northern  side  of  the  island,  and  broken  ground  with  a  possibility 
of  danger  extends  in  the  same  direction  beyond  the  reefs  to  a  distance 
of  about  2  miles  from  the  island.  The  southeastern  side  of  Long 
Island  is  fringed  with  rocks  and  kelp  to  a  distance  of  %  to  y%  mile 
from  shore.  There  is  a  high  pinnacle  close  to  its  south  end,  and  a 
high  grass-covered  rock  lies  %  mile  eastward  of  the  pinnacle  and  300 
yards  from  shore. 

Woody  Island,  westward  of  Long  Island,  is  2^  miles  long,  166  feet 
high,  and  heavily  wooded.  There  is  a  native  village,  church,  and 
boat  landing  on  its  western  end.  The  naval  radio  station  is  located 
here. 

Westward  of  Woody  Island  is  a  group  of  islands,  of  which  Holiday 
Island,  the  northernmost,  is  165  feet  high  and  wooded.  Bird  Islet, 
close  eastward  of  Holiday  Island,  is  about  30  feet  high  and  there  is  a 
bare  rock  close  to  its  southern  end.  Near  Island,  the  largest  of  the 
group,  is  198  feet  high  and  grass-covered. 

Spruce  Cape,  the  northwest  point  of  the  bay,  is  a  low  bluff,  grass- 
covered  on  top  and  backed  by  woods.  Bare  rocks  and  foul  ground 
extend  J^  mile  northward  from  the  cape  to  Hanin  Rocks,  which  are 
two  masses  about  30  feet  high  with  an  extensive  surrounding  ledge. 
A  rock,  bare  at  k  v  water,  lies  250  yards  northward  of  Hanin  Rocks, 
and  Hutchinson  i.eef  lies  J^  mile  eastward  from  them. 

Miller  Point,  1  mile  westward  of  Spruce  Cape,  is  partly  wooded  and 
terminates  in  a  rocky  bluff.  High,  bare  rocks  extend  300  yards  off 
the  cape,  and  three  rocks,  covered  at  high  water,  lie  %  to  }/%  mile 
northward  of  it. 

Devils  Prongs  are  three  prominent  peaks  southwestward  of  Syca- 
more Bay.  Approaching  from  southeastward  they  appear  of  nearly 


ST.   PAUL  HARBOR.  115 

equal  height,  the  middle  one  flat  on  top.  The  northern  prong  is  2,075 
feet  high. 

Pillar  Mountain,  a  short  ridge  1,206  feet  high,  rises  steeply  from 
the  western  shore  about  1  mile  southwestward  of  Kodiak. 

Barometer  Mountain  is  a  peak  2,475  feet  high  lying  2  miles  from  the 
western  shore  of  Chiniak  Bay  and  5  miles  southwestward  from  Kodiak. 
It  is  a  useful  guide  in  clear  weather  for  the  northern  approach,  from 
which  direction  a  notch  shows  on  the  western  side  of  its  summit. 

Kodiak  is  a  village  and  post  office  on  the  western  shore  of  the  bay 
inside  Near  Island.  There  is  a  good  general  store,  fresh  water  is  piped 
to  the  wharf,  and  coal  in  limited  quantities  can  be  obtained.  There 
is  communication  by  the  mail  steamers  with  Seward,  Valdez,  and 
points  southwestward  to  Unalaska. 

SOUTHERN    ENTRANCE. 

The  entrance  to  the  bay  and  harbor  from  southeastward  is  south- 
ward of  Long  and  Woody  Islands,  and  between  the  latter  and  Holiday 
Island.  The  principal  dangers  near  the  sailing  line  are: 

Humpback  Rock,  lying  3  miles  143°  true  (SE  by  E  %  E  mag.) 
from  the  south  end  of  Long  Island,  is  a  pinnacle  with  two  bare  rocks 
about  5  feet  high.  There  are  numerous  reefs  between  Humpback 
Rock  and  the  southern  shore. 

Woody  Island. — Foul  ground  extends  J^  mile  southward  from 
Woody  Island  to  Inner  Humpback  Rock,  which  is  a  pinnacle  about 
10  feet  high.  There  is  a  kelp  patch  about  300  yards  southwestward 
of  the  rock.  A  rocky  patch  with  6  fathoms  over  it  lies  J^  mile  west- 
ward (true)  from  the  southern  end  of  Woody  Island. 

A  sunken  rock  marked  by  kelp  lies  ^  mile  eastward  (true)  from  the 
southern  end  of  Holiday  Island  and  %  mile  southward  (true)  of 
Bird  Islet.  A  rock,  bare  at  low  water  and  marked  by  kelp,  lies  200 
yards  from  Bird  Islet  in  the  direction  of  the  northern  end  of  Woody 
Island.  Foul  ground  and  kelp  extend  600  yards  northeastward  from 
the  northern  end  of  Holiday  Island. 

NORTHERN    ENTRANCE. 

The  northern  entrance  to  the  harbor  is  not  difficult  in  clear  weather, 
but  is  dangerous  at  night  or  in  thick  weather.  The  soundings  are 
irregular  in  the  approach,  and  the  lead  can  not  be  depended  on  as  a 
guide  to  the  entrance  or  to  avoid  danger.  The  principal  dangers  in 
the  northern  approach  and  entrance  are: 

Williams  Reef  is  two  rocks,  100  yards  apart  and  bare  at  lowest 
tides,  with  deep  water  close-to.  There  are  generally  breaks  on  them, 
except  near  high  water  with  a  smooth  sea.  The  reef  lies  3J4  miles 
26°  true  (N  J^  E  mag.)  from  the  northeast,  end  of  Long  Island,  and 
126°  true  (E  by  S  mag.)  from  the  summit  of  Spruce  Island.  The 
range  of  the  elms  at  the  southwest  end  of  Long  Island  open  from  the 
high,  grassy  head  at  its  northern  end,  bearing  221°  true  (S  by  W  J^ 
W  mag.),  leads  about  Y$  mile  westward  of  the  reef.  Barometer 
Mountain  in  range  with  Kodiak  village  or  the  northwest  side  of  Near 
Island,  bearing  247°  true  (SW  M  S  mag.),  also  leads  about  %  mile 
northwestward  of  it. 


116  ST.   PAUL  HARBOR. 

A  small  patch  with  5  fathoms  over  it  lies  \%  miles  288°  true  (W  % 
S  mag.)  from  Williams  Reef.  The  ranges  given  in  the  sailing  direc- 
tions for  the  northern  entrance  clear  this  patch. 

Hutchinson  Reef,  partly  bare  at  low  water,  is  J4  mile  long?  arid  its 
northern  end  lies  %  mile  122°  true  (E  %  S  mag.)  from  Hamn  Rocks. 
There  is  a  large  kelp  patch  between  the  reef  and  rocks.  A  bell  buoy 
is  moored  ^  mile  northeastward  of  Hutchinson  Reef  to  mark  the 
end  of  the  broken  ground  surrounding  Spruce  Cape. 

On  the  western  side  of  the  channel,  %  and  %  mile  southward  of 
Spruce  Cape,  are  two  bare  reefs  which  extend  600  yards  from  shore. 
Channel  Rock,  the  southern  one,  is  a  black  rock  about  10  feet  high 
with  extensive  surrounding  ledges.  Kelp  surrounds  the  reefs  and 
extends  M  mile  southward  of  Channel  Rock,  and  there  is  deep  water 
close  to  the  kelp. 

A  rock  with  2  fathoms  over  it  lies  near  the  middle  of  the  northern 
entrance,  %  mile  148°  true  (SE  by  E  mag.)  from  Spruce  Cape.  The 
ranges  given  in  the  sailing  directions  for  the  northern  entrance  clear 
the  rock.  The  rock  is  marked  by  a  horizontally  striped  buoy.  The 
clearer  channel  is  westward  of  the  rock. 

Rocks,  bare  at  low  water,  and  kelp  extend  1%  miles  northward 
from  the  eastern  end  of  Woody  Island,  also  nearly  %  mile  northward 
and  300  yards  westward  from  the  northern  end  of  the  island. 

CHANNEL    WESTWARD    OF    NEAR   ISLAND. 

The  channel  on  the  northwest  side  of  Near  Island  has  a  depth  of 
about  26  feet  and  a  width  of  only  50  to  60  yards  in  places.  The 
dangers  are  marked  by  kelp,  but  it  also  sometimes  grows  in  the  chan- 
nel. The  entrance  is  between  Cyane  Rock  and  foul  ground  which 
extends  nearly  200  yards  from  the  bight  in  the  western  shore.  Cyane 
Rock  is  300  yards  northward  of  Near  Island  and  is  bare  at  lowest 
tides;  it  is  marked  on  its  northerly  side  by  a  black  buoy.  The 
northern  side  of  Near  Island  is  foul,  but  its  northwest  side  bordering 
the  channel  is  bold.  The  western  side  of  the  passage  is  foul  nearly 
to  mid-channel  until  through  the  narrowest  part.  The  passage  is 
then  clear  to  the  wharf  if  the  shores  b»  given  a  berth  of  50  yards. 

The  wharf  is  150  feet  long  on  its  face  and  has  17  to  27  feet  alongside. 
Vessels  generally  go  to  the  end  of  the  wharf  port  side  to,  heading 
northward,  and  it  is  preferable  to  approach  it  near  high  water  slack. 
About  100  feet  southward  of  the  wharf  is  a  shoal,  on  which  is  a  rock 
crib  and  post  that  should  be  given  a  berth  of  50  yards. 

From  the  point  southwestward  of  the  wharf  an  extensive  shoal 
extends  J4  mile  southwestward.  It  is  bare  at  low  water  300  yards 
from  shore,  and  there  is  18  feet  near  its  southern  end  abreast  the 
narrow  opening  between  Near  Island  and  Uski  Island,  where  it  is 
marked  by  a  red  buoy.  The  range  of  the  outer  rock  crib  southward 
of  the  wharf  and  the  western  shore  of  the  narrows  M  mile  56°  true 
(NNE  J^  E  mag.)  from  the  crib  leads  close  eastward  of  the  southern 
half  of  the  shoal. 

A  shoal  extends  200  yards  westward  from  Round  Island,  on  the 
eastern  side,  600  yards  southward  from  the  preceding  shoal. 

Anchorages. — The  outer  anchorage  or  roadstead  is  off  Shahafka 
Cove,  %  mile  northward  of  Near  Island,  in  13  to  14  fathoms,  soft 
bottom.  A  good  berth  is  with  the  high  bluff  south  point  of  the  cove 


ST.    PAUL   HARBOR.  117 

bearing  294°  true  (W  mag.),  distant  300  to  500  yards,  and  Barometer 
Mountain  in  range  between.  Near  Island  ana  the  water  front  of 
Kodiak.  This  is  a  good  anchorage,  but  not  convenient,  owing  to  its 
distance  from  the  landing,  and  it  is  exposed  to  considerable  sea  and 
swell  in  heavy  northeasterly  weather.  A  rocky  patch  with  5  fathoms 
over  it  lying  %  mile  107°  true  (E  ^  N  mag.)  from  the  south  point  of 
the  cove  should  be  avoided  when  anchoring.  The  cove  is  shoal,  and 
there  are  some  shacks  on  it. 

The  inner  anchorage  is  about  J^  mile  southwestward  of  the  wharf 
and  250  to  300  yards  from  the  western  shore  under  Pillar  Mountain, 
in  7  to  8  fathoms.  This  is  a  secure  anchorage  for  well-found  vessels, 
though  there  are  heavy  williwaws  with  northwest  winds. 

For  tides  see  the  Pacific  coast  tide  tables,  in  which  the  tides  are 
predicted  for  every  day  of  the  current  year. 

Currents. — In  Chiniak  Bay,  including  the  passage  westward  of  Near 
Island,  the  flood  current  sets  northward  and  the  ebb  southward  with 
considerable  velocity  in  places  among  the  islands.  In  the  northern 
entrance  the  tidal  currents  have  an  estimated  velocity  of  2  to  3  knots 
at  the  strength  of  the  large  tides.  They  turn  sharply  around  Spruce 
Cape  across  the  reefs  northward  of  it,  and  must  be  kept  in  mind. 

DIRECTIONS,  ST.  PAUL  HARBOR. 

St.  Paul  Harbor  and  approaches  are  characterized  by  broken  ground 
which  generally  has  not  been  closely  developed,  and  pinnacle  rocks 
are  a  common  feature.  As  a  measure  of  safety,  vessels  should  proceed 
with  caution  in  the  vicinity  of  shoal  areas  where  abrupt  changes  in 
depth  are  indicated  by  the  chart  to  depths  less  than  about  10  or  12 
fathoms. 

Southern  entrance. — Approaching  from  southward  or  eastward, 
TJgak  Island  will  be  made  unless  the  weather  is  thick.  This  island 
can  hardly  be  mistaken,  as  it  is  well  detached  from  the  land  and 
possibly  1 ,200  feet  high. 

Cape  Chiniak  will  be  recognized  by  the  islets  and  rocks  extending 
northeastward  from  it,  and  may  be  rounded  at  a  distance  of  2  miles. 
Passing  2  miles  or  more  off  Cape  Chiniak,  steer  for  the  south  end  of 
Long  Island.  The  range  of  the  south  end  of  Long  Island  and  the 
north  peak  of  the  Devils  Prongs,  bearing  313°  true  (WNW  %  W 
mag.),  leads  over  1  mile  outside  the  rocks  off  Cape  Chiniak  and  y% 
mile  northward  of  Humpback  Rock,  and  the  distance  from  the  cape 
to  the  rock  is  5^  miles. 

Pass  y%  mile  northward  of  Humpback  Rock,  steer  294°  true  (W 
mag.),  and  pass  1  mile  southward  of  Long  Island  and  %  to  %  mile 
southward  of  Inner  Humpback  Rock.  On  this  course  guard  against 
the  flood  current,  which  sets  strongly  northward  at  times.  Continue 
the  course  for  5  miles  until  1  mile  past  Inner  Humpback  and  the  pas- 
sage between  Long  and  Woody  Islands  is  closed. 

Then  steer  18°  true  (N  Y^  W  mag.)  for  2  miles  and  pass  the  western 
end  of  Woody  Island  at  a  distance  of  200  to  250  yards.  When  Near 
Island  opens  northward  of  Holiday  Island,  steer  345°  true  (NW  % 
N  mag.)  for  the  anchorage  off  Shahafka  Cove. 

To  go  to  the  wharf  at  Kodiak,  round  the  northern  end  of  Holiday 
Island,  giving  it  a  berth  of  over  y%  mile,  and  enter  as  directed  in  a 
following  paragraph. 


118  ST.   PAUL  HARBOR. 

Northern  entrance. — From  seaward,  keep  the  summit  of  Spruce 
Island  bearing  anything  southward  of  294°  true  (W  mag.)  until  the 
cliffs  at  the  southwest  end  of  Long  Island  are  open  westward  of  the 
high,  grassy  head  at  its  northern  end.  Then  steer  for  Barometer 
Mountain,  course  about  243°  true  (SW  ^  S  mag.),  until  on  one  of  the 
ranges  for  the  entrance. 

From  northward. — Directions  from  Marmot  Strait  to  the  entrance 
are  given  on  page  27. 

Or,  for  vessels  approaching  eastward  of  Marmot  Island,  from  a  posi- 
tion 3  miles  off  the  southeast  point  of  the  island,  steer  221°  true 
(S  by  W  Y2  W  mag.)  for  26  miles,  which  should  lead  2  J4  miles  west- 
ward of  Williams  Reef.  Woody  Island  should  be  made  ahead,  its 
western  end  a  little  on  the  starboard  bow,  and  the  course  and  distance 
made  good  should  lead  to  a  position  about  y%  mile  eastward  of 
Hutchinson  Reef  bell  buoy.  Then  enter  on  one  of  the  ranges  for  the 
entrance. 

Or,  passing  1 J^  to  2  miles  eastward  of  East  Cape  of  Spruce  Island, 
steer  for  the  middle  of  Long  Island,  course  about  180°  true  (SSE  y% 
E  mag.),  which  will  lead  about  J^  mile  eastward  of  Hutchinson  Reef 
bell  buoy. 

From  Narrow  Strait. — Pass  M  mile  northward  of  Hanin  Rocks  and 
steer  144°  true  (SE  by  E  %  E  mag.)  for  1^  miles,  heading  for  the 
northeastern  end  of  Long  Island,  until  the  northwestern  side  of  Near 
Island  opens  from  the  shore  northeastward,  and  then  enter  on  this 
range. 

Entering  on  the  ranges. — Either  of  the  following  ranges  may  be 
used: 

Bring  the  water  front  of  Kodiak  just  open  from  the  western  shore, 
bearing  243°  true  (SW  y^  S  mag.),  and  stand  in  on  this  range  until 
the  northern  end  of  Woody  Island  is  abeam.  Then  steer  229°  true 
(SSW  34  W  mag.)  for  ^  mile,  following  the  western  shore  at  a  dis- 
tance of  34  mile. 

Or,  bring  the  northwestern  side  of  Near  Island  barely  open  from 
the  shore  northeastward,  bearing  239°  true  (SW  Y%  S  mag.),  and 
stand  in  on  this  range  until  Spruce  Cape  is  abeam.  Then  steer  229° 
true  (SSW  34  W  mag.),  pass  400  yards  eastward  of  Channel  Rock, 
and  then  follow  the  western  shore  at  a  distance  of  34  mile  until  J^ 
mile  past  the  northern  end  of  Woody  Island. 

Having  followed  the  directions  in  either  of  the  two  paragraphs 
preceding,  when  Barometer  Mountain  is  in  line  with  the  passage 
between  Near  Island  and  the  water  front  of  Kodiak,  steer  this  range, 
course  247°  true  (SW  34  S  mag.),  and  anchor  off  Shahafka  Cove 
(see  " Anchorages"  preceding). 

To  go  to  the  wharf. — Steer  the  range  of  the  preceding  paragraph 
until  up  with  the  end  of  the  small  bluff  34  mile  northward  of  Near 
Island.  Then  bring  the  southernmost  building  (extreme  left-hand 
one)  near  the  wharf  at  Kodiak  open  100  feet  from  Near  Island 
(nearer  that  side  than  the  western  shore),  and  keep  this  range  which 
leads  in  mid-channel  westward  of  Cyane  Rock  where  the  channel 
is  75  yards  wide.  Keep  the  northwest  side  of  Near  Island  aboard 
distant  about  100  feet  until  through  the  narrowest  part  of  the  chan- 
nel, and  then  steer  for  the  wharf. 

To  go  to  the  inner  anchorage,  when  through  the  narrowest  part 
of  the  channel  steer  238°  true  (SW  by  S  mag.),  heading  a  little  west- 


ST.   PAUL  HARBOR.  119 

ward  of  the  islands  southward,  until  abreast  the  first  narrow  open- 
ing between  Near  Island  and  the  next  islet  (Uski)  southward.  Then 
haul  westward  to  the  anchorage  under  Pillar  Mountain  (see  " An- 
chorages ; '  preceding) . 

NARROW  STRAIT  TO  WHALE  PASSAGE. 

Narrow  Strait,  between  Spruce  and  Kodiak  islands,  is  used  by 
vessels  from  Kodiak  bound  to  Shelikof  Strait.  It  has  a  clear  width 
of  1  mile  at  its  eastern  end,  while  at  its  western  end  the  channel  is 
150  to  300  yards  wide  with  a  least  depth  of  about  7  fathoms.  With 
easterly  gales  a  heavy  swell  sets  into  the  strait,  but  this  generally 
loses  much  of  its  force  toward  the  western  end. 

There  are  two  islands  on  the  north  side  of  the  strait.  The  eastern 
one  is  very  uneven  and  grassy  on  top;  foul  ground  extends  300 
yards  southward  from  it.  Nelson  Island,  the  western  one,  is  higher 
and  wooded.  A  rock,  bare  at  low  water,  lies  350  yards  southward 
of  Nelson  Island,  and  three  similar  rocks  lie  %  to  %  mile  westward 
of  the  island  and  about  %  m^e  from  the  northern  shore. 

Course  Point,  on  the  southern  shore  1  JxJ  rniles  westward  of  Nelson 
Island,  is  prominent  and  is  marked  by  a  small,  rocky,  grass-covered 
islet  150  yards  from  shore. 

Prokoda  Island,  in  the  middle  near  the  western  end  of  the  strait, 
is  114  feet  high  and  partly  wooded.  An  islet  lies  100  yards  off  its 
northeast  end,  and  kelp  extends  100  yards  off  the  islet  and  the  south- 
eastern side  of  the  island. 

A  rock,  showing  about  6  feet  at  low  water,  lies  250  yards  south- 
westward  from  the  western  end  of  Prokoda  Island.  It  is  40  yards 
southward  of  a  line  from  the  southern  end  of  Prokoda  Island  to 
Uzinki  Point.  The  channel  southward  of  the  rock  has  a  depth  of 
7  fathoms  and  is  125  yards  wide  between  it  and  a  shelving  spit  with 
kelp  which  extends  125  yards  from  Otmeloi  Point,  on  the  southern 
shore. 

The  channel  northward  and  westward  of  Prokoda  Island  is  300 
yards  wide  and  clear,  but  the  turns  are  sharp  and  are  sometimes 
difficult  to  make  when  the  current  is  running. 

Uzinki  is  a  small  native  village  at  the  head  of  the  cove  in  Spruce 
Island  northward  of  Prokoda  Island. 

The  best  anchorage  in  Narrow  Strait  is  in  the  middle  of  the  cove 
between  Prokoda  Island  and  Uzinki  village,  in  18  to  20  fathoms, 
somewhat  exposed  to  an  easterly  swell.  A  small  vessel  and  small 
craft  can  anchor  at  the  head  of  the  cove  near  Uzinki,  slightly  favoring 
the  western  side,  in  5  to  10  fathoms. 

Uzinki  Point,  the  southwest  end  of  Spruce  Island,  is  wooded, 
and  has  several  knolls  about  100  feet  high.  There  is  kelp  close  to 
the  point,  and  it  should  be  given  a  berth  of  about  100  yards. 

Entrance  Point,  on  the  south  side  at  the  western  entrance  of  Nar- 
row Strait,  is  grassy  with  some  scattered  trees,  and  a  rock  10  feet 
high  lies  100  yards  off  its  eastern  side.  A  kelp-marked  shoal  with 
7  to  12  feet  over  it  extends  250  yards  northward  from  the  point. 

A  good  anchorage  for  a  small  vessel,  exposed  to  northwest  winds 
only,  may  be  had  in  the  cove  between  Otmeloi  and  Entrance  Points 
in  about  13  fathoms.  The  shore  of  the  cove  must  be  given  a  berth 
of  over  100  yards,  and  a  flat  extends  300  yards  from  its  head. 


120  NARROW    STRAIT    TO    WHALE    PASSAGE. 

Low  Island  lies  in  the  bight  on  the  southern  shore  %  mile  westward 
of  Entrance  Point.  It  is  grass  covered  and  about  40  feet  high  at 
its  southern  end.  Near  its  northern  end  is  a  clump  of  trees.  A 
shoal,  with  20  feet  at  its  end  and  some  kelp,  extends  350  yards  north- 
ward of  the  island,  and  a  bank  with  7  to  8  fathoms  extends  northward 
to  a  spot  with  17  feet  over  it  lying  900  yards  from  the  island. 

Three  Brothers  is  a  kelp-marked  reef  400  yards  long  and  steep-to 
except  on  its  eastern  side.  At  its  southwestern  end  are  two  rocks 
bare  at  half  tide,  and  at  its  northeastern  end  is  a  rock  covered  at  one- 
third  flood.  The  southwestern  end  of  the  reef  lies  J^  mile  356°  true 
(NNW  J/2  W  mag.)  from  the  northern  end  of  Low  Island,  and  is  on 
the  range  of  Uzinki  Point  and  the  tangent  to  the  southern  shore  of 
Narrow  Strait,  bearing  120°  true  (E  ]/2  S  mag.).  By  keeping  the 
strait  well  open  vessels  will  pass  clear  southward  of  the  reef. 

Shakmanof  Point  is  the  prominent,  heavily  wooded  point  1^  miles 
westward  of  Low  Island.  Some  rocks  show  at  low  water  close  to  the 
point,  and  it  should  be  given  a  berth  of  over  250  yards. 

Kizhuyak  Point,  %  mile  southwestward  of  Shakmanof  Point,  is 
higher  than  the  latter,  partly  wooded,  and  terminates  in  white  cliffs 
in  places.  A  rock  bare  at  half  tide  lies  400  yards  northward  from 
the  point. 

Between  Kizhuyak  Point  and  Kekur  Point,  a  distance  of  6  miles, 
there  are  two  bays  which  have  not  been  sounded. 

Kizhuyak  Bay  is  the  head  of  Marmot  Bay  southward  of  Whale 
Island.  Kekur  and  Peregrebni  Points,  lying  3J/£  miles  southward  of 
Whale  Island,  are  at  the  entrance  to  the  upper  part  of  the  bay,  which 
trends  221°  true  (S  by  W  y2  W  mag.)  for  2J^  miles  and  then  181° 
true  (SSE  mag.)  for  6  miles,  with  an  average  width  of  1^  miles.  In 
this  part  of  the  bay  the  depths  are  irregular,  but  the  mid-channel  is 
clear.  The  western  shore  from  1)^  to  4^  miles  southward  of  Pere- 
grebni Point  is  foul;  a  rock  bare  at  low  water  lies  2)4  miles  south- 
ward of  the  point  and  %  mile  from  the  western  shore.  Anchorage 
sheltered  from  northeasterly  winds  can  be  selected  about  300  yards 
from  the  eastern  shore  and  3^  to  4^  miles  southward  from  Kekur 
Point  in  16  to  18  fathoms.  A  flat  extends  nearly  ^  mile  from  the 
mouth  of  the  stream  on  the  eastern  shore  5%  miles  southward  of 
Kekur  Point  and  1  mile  northward  from  an  islet.  This  islet  lies  % 
mile  from  the  eastern  shore  and  2J/£  miles  from  the  head  of  the  bay; 
rocks  bare  at  low  water  lie  300  yards  westward  of  the  islet.  A  flat 
extends  y%  to  J^  mile  from  the  head  of  the  bay  where  there  is  a  large 
valley. 

The  tidal  currents  are  weak  except  in  the  western  entrance  of  Nar- 
row Strait,  where  the  estimated  greatest  velocity  is  about  2  knots. 

For  sailing  directions  see 'page  123. 

WHALE  PASSAGE, 

between  Whale  and  Kodiak  Islands,  is  a  part  of  the  route  used  by 
vessels  from  Kodiak  bound  to  Shelikof  Strait.  It  is  %  to  %  mile 
wide  and  generally  clear,  and  the  navigation  is  not  difficult  in  the 
daytime  when  the  current  is  not  too  strong.  The  depths  are  9  to  30 
fathoms,  and  the  bottom  is  very  uneven,  especially  in  the  eastern 
entrance. 


WHALE    PASSAGE.  ,  121 

Ilkognak  Rock,  awash  at  high  water,  lies  in  the  middle  of  the  eastern 
entrance.  A  sunken  reef  extends  250  yards  southwestward,  and  a 
ledge  with  a  least  found  depth  of  6  fathoms  extends  %  mile  eastward 
from  the  rock.  A  detached  rock  with  4  fathoms  over  it  lies  500  yards 
44°  true  (N  by  E  %  E  mag.)  from  Ilkognak  Rock,  and  550  yards 
151°  true  (SE  %  E  mag.)  from  a  rock  awash  at  high  water  near 
Whale  Island.  With  a  strong  ebb  current,  heavy  swirls  and  overfalls 
occur  in  the  wake  of  this  broken  ground,  and  dangerous  tide  rips 
prevail  at  such  times  with  northeasterly  gales. 

Shag  Rocks,  bare  at  half  tide,  lie  a  little  over  y%  mile  southward  of 
Ilkognak  Rock. 

A  rock,  with  a  least  found  depth  of  16  feet,  lies  in  the  vicinity  of 
the  broken  ground,  with  a  charted  depth  of  8  fathoms,  lying  a  little 
northward  of  the  middle  of  Whale  Passage  and  %  mile  westward  of 
Ilkognak  Rock.  Gori  Point,  open  a  little  southward  of  the  south  end 
of  Koniuji  Islet,  leads  in  about  the  deepest  water  found  by  the  survey, 
and  southward  of  the  rock. 

Koniuji  Islet,  grass-covered  find  about  40  feet  high,  lies  %  mile 
from  the  south  side  of  Whale  Passage  and  2  miles  westward  of  Ilkog- 
nak Rock.  Kelp  extends  %  mile  and  broken  ground  %  mile  west- 
ward from  the  islet.  The  channel  is  northward  of  Koniuji  Islet,  and 
it  should  be  given  a  good  berth,  as  the  current  sets  toward  it  at  times. 

Temporary  anchorage  can  be  had  in  the  bight  on  the  north  side  of 
Whale  Passage  if  stopped  by  too  strong  a  flood  current  in  the  passage 
eastward.  There  is  an  eddy  current  in  the  bight,  and  care  should  be 
taken  to  get  in  far  enough  to  ride  to  the  eddy  alone.  A  good  berth 
is  in  about  8  fathoms,  300  yards  from  Whale  Island,  with  Koniuji 
Islet  bearing  about  238°  true  (SW  by  S  mag.). 

A  better  anchorage  can  be  had  %  to  %  mile  off  the  western  side  of 
Whale  Island,  in  8  to  10  fathoms.  This  is  convenient  to  either  Whale 
Passage  or  Afognak  Strait  and  is  well  out  of  the  current,  but  it  is 
exposed  to  westerly  winds. 

The  tidal  currents  in  Whale  Passage  set  westward  on  the  flood  and 
eastward  on  the  ebb.  The  estimated  velocity  is  4  to  10  knots  at 
strength,  depending  on  the  range  of  the  tide.  Slack  water  occurs 
about  1  %  hours  before  high  and  low  waters  at  Kodiak.  With  a  strong 
current  swirls  occur  in  the  passage  in  the  wake  of  all  broken  ground, 
and  rips  occur  at  the  entrances  when  the  current  sets  out  against  a 
strong  wind.  The  worst  place  is  at  the  eastern  entrance,  where  these 
conditions  are  dangerous  at  times. 

For  sailing  directions  see  page  124. 

KUPREANOF  STRAIT 

extends  from  Whale  Island  to  Shelikof  Strait,  between  Raspberry  and 
Kodiak  Islands.  Its  width  is  1  %  to  3  miles  and  the  strait  is  generally 
clear,  but  there  are  shoals  to  be  avoided  off  the  southeast  end  of 
Raspberry  Island,  on  the  south  side  from  Islet  Point  to  the  western 
end  of  Dry  Spruce  Island,  and  4J4  miles  westward  of  Dry  Spruce 
Island  and  1  %  miles  from  the  south  shore. 

The  islands  on  both  sides  are  grass-covered  and  mountainous,  the 
north  shore  especially  rising  abruptly.  The  timber  extends  westward 
along  the  shores  to  Last  Timber  Point  and  Dry  Spruce  Island,  where 


122  KUPREANOF    STRAIT. 

it  terminates  except  for  scattered  clumps.  Anchorage  may  be  had 
in  places  near  the  shore,  but  the  only  secure  harbor  is  Dry  Spruce  Bay. 

Between  Deranof  Island  and  the  southeast  end  of  Raspberry  Island 
there  are  two  wooded  islands,  the  south  end  of  the  western  one  being 
MTachalni  Point.  Thomas  Rock,  awash  at  low  water,  lies  y%  mile  226° 
true  (SSW  mag.)  from  Nachalni  Point,  and  a  patch  with  6  fathoms 
over  it  lies  %  mile  in  the  same  direction  from  the  point. 

Chernof  Point  is  a  prominent,  low,  wooded  point  on  the  south  shore, 
2J^  miles  westward  of  Whale  Island. 

Islet  Point,  2  miles  westward  of  Chernof  Point,  is  low  and  wooded, 
and  has  a  high,  grassy  islet  close- to.  Broken  ground  with  a  depth  of 
4J^  fathoms  lies  %  mile  47°  true  (NNE  mag.)  from  the  islet. 

Dry  Spruce  Island  lies  %  mile  westward  of  Islet  Point,  with  a 
wooded  island  between,  the  two  islands  and  the  shore  eastward  being 
joined  by  shoals  dry  at  low  water.  It  is  1  %  miles  long,  225  feet  high, 
and  wooded.  Foul  ground  extends  y%  mile  northeastward  from  its 
eastern  point,  and  broken  ground  with  a  depth  of  5  fathoms  lies  over 
y%  mile  northward  from  the  same  point.  Two  grassy  islets  and  a 
pinnacle  rock  lie  off  the  north  side  of  the  western  point  of  Dry  Spruce 
Island,  and  a  ledge  bare  at  half  tide  lies  650  yards  334°  true  (NW  ^ 
W  mag.)  from  the  same  point.  Broken  ground  with  a  least  found 
depth  of  5  fathoms  lies  %  mile  northward  from  the  western  end  of 
the  island. 

Bare  Island,  southward  of  the  western  end  of  Dry  Spruce  Island,  is 
y%  mile  long  and  partly  wooded  on  its  eastern  half.  There  is  a  fox 
ranch  on  its  northeastern  side.  A  small  grassy  island  lies  %  mile 
westward  of  Bare  Island. 

Dry  Spruce  Bay,  the  only  secure  harbor  in  Kupreanof  Strait,  is  on 
the  south  side  inside  Bare  and  Dry  Spruce  Islands,  and  extends  2 
miles  eastward  from  the  latter.  The  entrance  between  Dry  Spruce 
and  Bare  Islands  is  over  J£  mile  wide,  and  is  clear  with  the  exception 
of  a  rock  bare  at  low  water  lying  nearly  200  yards  from  the  south  side 
of  Dry  Spruce  Island  just  inside  its  western  end;  a  shoal  extends  150 
yards  off  the  northern  side  of  the  eastern  end  of  Bare  Island.  The 
entrance  south  of  Bare  Island  and  the  small  island  westward  of  it  is 
over  ]/2  mile  wide  and  clear.  The  bay  is  clear  with  the  exception  of 
a  rock,  bare  at  low  water,  in  the  middle,  %  mile  from  its  eastern  end. 

The  best  anchorage  for  large  vessels  is  about  y%  mile  eastward  of 
Bare  Island  and  y%  mile  off  the  cove  in  Dry  Spruce  Island,  in  16  to  19 
fathoms.  A  small  vessel  can  anchor  in  the  middle  of  the  entrance  to 
this  cove  in  about  6  fathoms,  taking  care  to  keep  clear  of  the  flat, 
which  extends  250  yards  from  its  northeast  side.  With  strong 
southwesterly  winds  some  williwaws  are  felt  from  Kupreanof  Moun- 
tain. Water  may  be  obtained  from  a  stream  in  a  cove  on  the  south 
side  of  the  bay  south  (true)  from  the  eastern  end  of  Bare  Island. 

Approaching  Dry  Spruce  Bay  from  eastward,  give  Dry  Spruce  Island 
a  berth  of  %  mile,  and  steer  for  the  western  end  of  Bare  Island  on 
any  bearing  southward  of  226°  true  (SSW  mag.)  until  past  the  reef 
northwestward  of  the  western  end  of  Dry  Spruce  Island.  Then  haul 
eastward  and  pass  midway  between  Dry  Spruce  and  Bare  Islands, 
course  about  139°  true  (SE  by  E  %  E  mag.). 

Approaching  Dry  Spruce  Bay  from  westward,  vessels  may  enter 
either  between  Bare  and  Dry  Spruce  Islands,  or  south  of  Bare  Island 
and  the  small  island  westward  of  it. 


KUPREANOF    STRAIT.  123 

A  rock  with  16  feet  over  it  lies  in  Kupreanof  Strait  4J4  miles  west- 
ward of  Dry  Spruce  Island,  1%  miles  from  the  south  shore,  and  2*4 
miles  97°  true  (ENE  ^  E  mag.)  from  the  northern  extremity  of 
Outlet  Cape.  It  is  at  the  northern  end  of  a  bank  about  J£  mile  in 
diameter  with  depths  of  7  to  20  fathoms.  The  range  of  Chernof 
Point  and  the  southern  side  of  Whale  Island  leads  200  yards  north- 
ward of  the  rock. 

Onion  Bay  makes  into  Raspberry  Island  about  2  miles,  and  from 
its  head  a  low  divide  extends  through  to  Shelikof  Strait.  The 
entrance  is  narrow,  and  just  inside  it  the  bay  is  blocked  by  shoals 
partly  bare  at  low  water,  between  which  are  narrow  channels  suita- 
ble only  for  small  craft.  Above  these  shoals  the  bay  has  depths  of 
15  to  21  fathoms.  The  tidal  currents  have  an  estimated  velocity 
of  3  to  5  knots  in  the  entrance.  Temporary  anchorage  can  be  had 
y%  to  y±  mile  off  the  entrance,  in  10  to  15  fathoms. 

Outlet  Cape  is  the  western  end  of  the  peninsula  included  between 
Kupreanof  Strait  and  Viekoda  Bay.  The  cape  has  a  steep  slope 
to  a  peak  1,620  feet  high,  eastward  of  which  is  a  low  divide  extending 
through.  A  cluster  of  bare  rocks  lies  350  yards  off  the  northwest 
end  of  the  cape.  Kupreanof  Mountain,  7J4  miles  eastward  of  Outlet 
Cape,  has  a  surface  of  broken,  gray  rock;  it  is  2,400  feet  high. 

Malina  Point,  2  miles  eastward  of  Raspberry  Cape,  is  projecting 
and  prominent.  It  has  a  grass-covered  knoll  at  its  end,  with  a  low 
neck  behind  it,  and  then  a  steep  slope  to  1,500  feet. 

Raspberry  Cape,  the  southwestern  end  of  Raspberry  Island,  is 
steep  and  high,  and  has  areas  of  bare  rock  for  one-third  its  height. 
There  are  some  bare  rocks  in  the  water  close  to  its  foot. 

Tides. — At  Onion  Bay  high  and  low  water  occur  about  26  minutes 
later  than  at  Kodiak,  and  the  mean  rise  and  fall  of  the  tides  is  11.8 
feet.  To  find  the  approximate  height  of  the  tide,  multiply  the  height 
of  the  corresponding  tide  at  Kodiak  by  the  ratio  of  ranges,  1.71. 
The  tides  meet  in  the  strait  a  little  westward  of  Dry  Spruce  Island. 
The  tidal  currents  in  Kupreanof  Strait  have  an  estimated  velocity 
of  2  to  3  knots  at  the  strength  of  the  large  tides. 

DIRECTIONS,  KODIAK  TO  SHELIKOF  STRAIT. 

Narrow  Strait. — Coming  from  Kodiak,  pass  400  yards  eastward 
of  Channel  Rock  and  steer  49°  true  (NNE  ^  E  mag.)  for  2  miles, 
passing  westward  of  the  horizontally  striped  buoy  marking  the 
12-foot  rock  and  over  J^  mile  eastward  of  Hutchinson  Reef  bell 
buoy.  When  Miller  Point  opens  northward  of  Hanin  Rocks,  bearing 
280°  true  (WSW  J£  W  mag.),  change  course  to  300°  true  (W  %  N 
mag.),  with  Uzinki  Point  just  open  From  the  southern  shore  of  Nar- 
row Strait  ahead,  and  pass  M  mu<e  northward  of  Hanin  Rocks. 
Steer  this  range  for  4^  miles  past  Hanin  Rocks  until  Nelson  Island 
is  ]/2  mile  on  the  starboard  beam.  Then  steer  304°  true  (W  %  N 
mag.),  pass  about  J£  mile  northward  of  Course  Point,  and  continue 
the  course  about  %  mile  past  the  point. 

When  Shakmanof  Point  shows  in  the  middle  of  the  passage  south- 
ward of  Prokoda  Island,  bearing  290°  true  (W  %  S  mag.),  steer  this 
course,  pass  75  to  100  y-ards  southward  of  the  rock  westward  of  the 
island,  and  give  Otmeloi  Point  on  the  south  shore  abreast  the  rock  a 
berth  of  150  yards.  Continue  the  course  until  Uzinki  Point  is  125 
to  not  over  150  yards  on  the  starboard  beam. 


124  KODIAK    TO    SHELIKOF    STRAIT. 

Then  steer  297°  true  (W  ^  N  mag.)  for  2}£  miles  with  the  tangent 
to  the  southern  shore  of  Narrow  Strait  astern,  and  pass  650  yards 
northward  of  Low  Island,  300  yards  southward  of  Three  Brothers, 
and  %  mile  northward  of  Shakmanof  Point. 

Whale  Passage. — From  a  position  l/±  mile  northward  of  Shak- 
manof Point  steer  263°  true  (SW  by  W  %  W  mag.)  for  6%  miles, 
passing  over  %  mile  northwestward  of  Kizhuyak  Point.  The  south- 
ern end  of  Whale  Island  will  show  as  a  small  wooded  head,  and  there 
is  a  rock  awash  at  high  water  close-to.  Keep  the  southern  end  of 
the  island  aboard  distant  about  350  yards  in  entering  Whale  Passage, 
and  pass  about  300  yards  southward  of  the  rock  awash  at  high 
water  and  J£  m^e  northward  of  Ilkognak  Rock.  Strict  attention 
to  the  steering  is  important  on  account  of  heavy  swirls. 

Then  steer  298°  true  (W  y$  N  mag.)  with  Gori  Point  in  range  with 
or  open  a  little  southward  of  the  south  end  of  Koniuji  Islet;  or  Ilkog- 
nak Rock  astern  and  Koniuji  Islet  ahead  will  also  lead  in  about  the 
best  water  southward  of  the  16-foot  rock.  When  about  %  mile 
from  the  islet  steer  317°  true  (WNW  mag.)  for  the  end  of  Whale 
Island  to  a  position  %  mile  northward  of  Koniuji  Islet. 

Kupreanof  Strait. — From  a  position  J4  m^e  northward  of  Koniuji 
Islet  steer  292°  true  (W  }/$  S  mag.)  for  7%  miles,  passing  %  mile 
northward  of  Chernof  Point,  to  a  position  %  to  Y2  mile  southward  of 
Gori  Point.  Then  steer  286°  true  (W  %  S  mag.)  with  the  summit  of 
Whale  Island  astern,  passing  %  mile  northward  of  Outlet  Cape  and 
Yi,  mile  southward  of  Malina  Point,  the  distance  from  Gori  Point  to 
Malina  Point  being  10*4  miles. 

If  bound  down  Shelikof  Strait,  from  a  position  Yi  mile  southward 
of  Malina  Point  make  good  a  244°  true  (SW  %  S  mag.)  course  for  18 
miles,  which  leads  1  Yi  miles  westward  of  Cape  Uganik  and  to  a  posi- 
tion 2  miles  westward  of  Cape  Ugat.  Then  a  230°  true  (SSW  y8  W 
mag.)  course  made  good  for  28  miles  will  lead  nearly  2^  miles  west- 
ward of  Cape  Uyak  and  to  a  position  2  miles  westward  of  Cape  Karluk 

SHELIKOF  STRAIT. 

The  triangulation  has  been  extended  southward  through  the  strait, 
to  Cape  Karluk  and  Cape  Kubugakli.  Only  the  outlying  islands  and 
rocks  are  located  from  the  northwest  end  of  Shuyak  Island  to  Black 
Cape,  but  from  the  latter  point  to  Cape  Karluk  most  of  the  points 
are  determined  by  triangulation.  From  Shaw  Island  to  Takli  Island 
most  of  the  principal  points  and  outlying  rocks  are  located. 

The  hydrography  of  the  main  part  of  the  strait  has  been  done  from 
Barren  Islands  southward  to  Raspberry  Island.  In  this  part  of  the 
strait  great  depth  is  not  generally  found  near  the  land,  and  depths 
suitable  for  temporary  anchorage  will  be  found  near  the  shore  in  most 
places.  In  thick  weather  or  when  uncertain  of  the  position  the  depth 
should  not  be  shoaled  to  less  than  50  fathoms. 

Currents. — Current  observations  were  made  for  short  periods  at 
the  anchorages  used  by  the  surveying  vessel  near  the  shore.  The 
currents  are  principally  tidal,  but  the  relation  of  the  current  to  the 
rise  and  fall  of  the  tide  is  not  in  all  cases  clear.  On  the  western  side 
of  the  strait  a  current  of  Yi  and  %  knot  is  recorded,  setting  along 
shore  in  either  direction.  It  is  believed  that  along  the  western  shore 
the  southerly  current  predominates. 


SHELIKOF    STRAIT.  125 

Between  Cape  Douglas  and  Shaw  Island  the  current  is  stronger,  a 
2-knot  current  being  recorded,  setting  along  shore  to  and  from  Kam- 
ishak  Bay.  The  current  seems  to  decrease  in  velocity  with  increase 
of  distance  from  shore.  Apparently  there  is  less  current  along  the 
west  coast  of  Afognak  Island  than  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  strait. 

Strong  tidal  currents  are  encountered  off  the  northwest  side  of 
Shuyak  Island,  and  heavy  tide  rips  variable  in  position  are  frequently 
seen  along  the  western  side  of  Dark  Island  and  Latax  Rocks.  The 
flood  sets  into  Shelikof  Strait  and  the  ebb  the  opposite  way.  The 
direction  of  the  set  is  dependent  upon  the  adjacent  land,  and  a  knowl- 
edge of  its  configuration  will  enable  one  to  estimate  closely  the  direc- 
tion of  the  set.  The  greatest  velocity  recorded  on  the  southwest 
side  of  Dark  Island  is  1.3  knots  on  the  flood,  but  this  probably  is  not 
the  maximum  velocity.  On  the  day  of  the  observations  slack  water 
occurred  near  the  time  of  low  water  at  Kodiak. 

Weather. — During  the  summer  of  1908  gales  and  rainy  conditions 
were  frequent.  June  was  the  be^t  month  and  July  perhaps  the  worst. 
Northeast  winds  invariably  bring  rain  and  thick  weather,  and  it  is 
from  this  direction  that  most  of  the  heavy  weather  comes.  During 
the  greater  part  of  the  season  the  wind  when  strong  from  this  quarter 
rarely  varied  much  in  direction  while  its  strength  lasted,  and  it  never 
backed.  In  the  latter  part  of  the  season  a  northeast  gale  almost 
invariably  backed  through  northwest  to  west  or  southwest,  blowing 
with  great  force. 

Southeast  winds  generally  bring  clouds,  but  may  be  accompanied 
by  either  rain  or  fair  weather. 

Southwest  and  west  winds  are  invariably  accompanied  by  fine 
clear  weather,  but  they  often  blow  with  great  force.  The  southwest 
gale  is  perhaps  the  most  to  be  dreaded  in  Shelikof  Strait,  as  it  raises 
a  short,  heavy  sea  that  is  trying  to  a  small  vessel. 

Southerly  winds  generally  bring  haze,  which  is  sometimes  so  thick 
as  to  resemble  fog. 

Northwest  winds  bring  fair  weather  and  a  clear  atmosphere. 

Gales  in  this  region  last  without  intermission  anywhere  from  a  day 
to  two  or  three  days. 

Northeast  winds  are  generally  accompanied  by  a  low  barometer 
and  southwest  winds  by  a  high  barometer,  but  the  rule  is  not  invaria- 
ble. The  barometer  is  of  little  or  no  value  in  foretelling  the  weather, 
as  it  accompanies  rather  than  precedes  corresponding  conditions. 
The  slope  of  the  barometric  curve  is  apt  to  change  suddenly,  the 
weather  changing  with  equal  suddenness.  A  sure  sign  of  rainy 
weather  and  wind  from  northeast  is  the  gathering  of  clouds  on  the 
northeast  side  of  the  mountains. 

Little  fog  was  encountered  during  the  season,  but  blinding  snow- 
storms were  frequent  early  in  spring. 

WEST  COAST  OF  SHUYAK  AND  AFOGNAK  ISLANDS. 

The  general  trend  of  the  western  coast  of  Shuyak  and  Afognak 
Islands  is  218°  true  (S  by  W  %  W  mag.),  and  the  distance  from  the 
northernmost  of  the  Latax  Rocks  to  Raspberry  Cape  is  48  miles. 
From  Raspberry  Cape  the  eastern  coast  of  Shelikof  Strait  trends 
230°  true  (SSW  %  W  mag.)  for  45^  miles  to  Cape  Karluk. 

Party  Cape  is  the  northwest  end  of  Shuyak  Island.  A  reef  bare  at 
low  water  lies  about  midway  between  the  cape  and  Dark  Island, 


126  SHUYAK   ISLAND  -  WEST   COAST. 


The  latter  lies  1J^  miles  northward  from  the  cape,  and  is  about  % 
mile  in  diameter,  about  200  feet  high,  and  grass-covered.  There  are 
several  large  black  rocks  off  the  southwest  end  of  Dark  Island. 

Latax  Rocks  are  a  chain  of  three  rocky  islets,  about  60,  50,  and  30 
feet  high,  respectively,  lying  1  J^  to  3  miles  northward  of  Dark  Island. 
Between  the  two  outer  ones  is  a  reef  bare  at  low  water,  and  a  rock  bare 
at  low  water  lies  about  y%  mile  northward  of  the  outer  rock.  Vessels 
should  not  attempt  to  pass  between  Party  Cape  and  the  outer  rock, 
534  miles  northward,  in  the  absence  of  a  survey. 

A  depth  of  7  fathoms,  with  a  probability  of  less,  was  found  1^ 
miles  westward  of  the  southernmost  Latax  Kock. 

The  western  side  of  Shuyak  Island  is  irregular  and  fringed  by  a 
chain  of  islets  and  rocks  1  to  2  miles  from  shore.  Between  them  and 
the  island  there  are  many  rocks  and  kelp  patches.  Some  of  the  outer 
ones  are  located,  and  these  only  are  mentioned.  They  lie  nearly  on 
a  line  from  the  rocks  westward  of  Party  Cape  to  Black  Cape,  bearing 
214°  true  (S  %  W  mag.). 

A  rock  a  few  feet  high  lies  %  mile  westward  of  Party  Cape.  Shag 
Islet,  rocky  and  about  50  feet  high,  lies  1  mile  southward  of  the  pre- 
ceding rock  and  about  ^  mile  from  a  point  on  Shuyak. 

Gull  Island,  the  highest  and  most  prominent  of  the  off-lying  islets, 
is  about  150  feet  high,  and  has  a  rounded,  grass-covered  summit.  It 
lies  2%  miles  south  westward  from  Party  Cape.  Some  rocks,  covered 
or  awash  at  high  water,  lie  off  the  south  side  of  Gull  Island,  and  kelp 
shows  between  it  and  Shuyak. 

Kocks  show  at  low  water  some  distance  off  the  southwest  point  of 
Shuyak  Island. 

A  rock  with  6  feet  over  it  is  reported  near  the  middle  of  the  bay  on 
the  west  side  of  Shuyak  Island,  eastward  of  Eagle  Cape. 

Shuyak  Strait  has  not  been  examined.  It  is  reported  to  have 
strong  tidal  currents. 

From  Shuyak  Strait  to  Black  Cape,  the  coast  of  Afognak  Island  is 
irregular,  rocky,  and  wooded.  Many  islets  lie  offshore,  especially 
near  Black  Cape.  Three  prominent  islets  lie  nearly  on  line  from  the 
cape  to  the  islets  off  the  western  side  of  Shuyak.  The  northern  one, 
lying  6  miles  from  Black  Cape,  is  a  large  black  rock.  The  second  one 
is  about  40  feet  high  and  lies  1J4  miles  southward  of  the  preceding 
rock.  The  third,  lying  2^  miles  from  Black  Cape,  is  about  40  feet 
high  and  broken  into  several  parts,  and  there  are  many  rocks  and 
islets  between  it  and  the  shore. 

Black  Cape  is  low  and  grassy  at  the  end,  and  rises  gradually  in  a 
narrow  heavily  wooded  ridge  to  a  prominent  bald  knob,  1,155  feet 
high.  Bare  and  sunken  rocks  extend  a  short  distance  off  the  cape, 
and  a  reef,  mostly  showing  above  water,  lies  on  its  south  side. 

The  bay  between  Black  Cape  and  Ban  Island  has  reefs,  which  do 
not  extend  westward  of  the  island. 

Ban  Island  is  mountainous,  its  highest  peak  being  found  near  its 
south  shore.  There  is  kelp  close  to  its  west  end. 

Paramanof  Bay,  between  Ban  Island  and  Cape  Paramanof,  is  not 
surveyed.  It  is  recommended  to  favor  Ban  Island  when  entering. 
The  Explorer  anchored  on  the  south  side,  3  miles  eastward  of  Cape 
Paramanof  and  about  J^  mile  off  a  rocky  shore,  in  22  fathoms,  soft 
bottom.  There  is  a  short  sand  beach  just  eastward  of  the  anchorage, 
and  a  rocky  islet  close  to  shore  3,  short  distance  westward.  The 


AFOGNAK   ISLAND — WEST    COAST.  127 

anchorage  is  exposed  to  westerly  and  northerly  winds.  There  is  said 
to  be  good  anchorage  farther  in,  but  no  definite  information  is 
available. 

Cape  Paramanof  is  the  northwest  end  of  the  peninsula  included 
between  Paramanof  and  Malina  Bays.  It  is  a  low  tongue  of  land 
projecting  J/£  mile  northward  from  the  mountains.  A  reef  lies  on 
the  north  side  of  the  cape  inside  Paramanof  Bay,  and  a  part  of  it, 
about  Yi  mile  from  shore,  is  bare  at  low  water. 

The  peninsula  between  Paramanof  and  Malina  Bays  is  marked  by 
two  mountain  ridges  trending  eastward,  with  a  small  stream  in  the 
valley  between  them.  The  land  is  grass  covered,  with  bare  rocks  in 
places,  and  there  is  no 'timber.  The  northern  ridge  rises  in  steep, 
grassy  slopes  to  an  elevation  of  1,842  feet,  with  a  saddle  behind  it 
and  then  extends  eastward  with  about  the  same  height.  Tanaak 
Cape  is  the  northern  point  at  the  entrance  of  Malina  Bay. 

Malina  Bay  is  described  below. 

Steep  Cape  is  a  cliff  1,600  feet  high,  with  a  deep  break  (saddle) 
behind  it,  and  then  a  gradual  rise  to  higher  land.  From  offshore  the 
top  of  the  cliff  shows  irregular,  but  from  northward  or  southward  the 
summit  is  sharp.  Lying  1  mile  northward  of  Steep  Cape  is  another 
cliff  1,060  feet  high,  which  is  on  the  south  side  at  the  entrance  to 
Malina  Bay. 

Raspberry  Strait,  between  Afognak  and  Raspberry  Islands,  is  not 
surveyed.  Its  southeast  end  is  bare  at  low  water. 

Raspberry  Island  is  mountainous  and  grass-covered  on  its  western 
side,  the  principal  points  being  three  high  cliffs,  between  which  are 
two  deep  valleys  trending  eastward.  The  southern  valley,  about  the 
middle  of  the  island,  is  especially  low,  and  extends  through  to  Onion 
Bay. 

MALINA    BAY 

lies  between  the  mountainous  peninsulas  terminating  westward  in 
Tanaak  and  Steep  Capes.  It  is  about  10  miles  long  and  is  a  secure 
harbor.  Water  can  be  obtained  from  numerous  small  streams. 
There  is  some  timber  near  the  head  of  the  bay  and  in  some  of  the 
valleys.  Steep  Cape  and  the  high  cliff  at  the  south  point  at  the  en- 
trance, and  the  rounded  grass-covered  mountains  on  the  northern 
side  of  the  bay,  mark  the  entrance. 

The  bay  is  2^  to  3  miles  wide  for  nearly  4  miles  and  then  contracts 
rapidly  to  a  neck  about  1  J^  miles  long  with  a  least  width  of  ^g  mile. 
From  the  south  side  of  the  neck  an  arm  extends  1^  miles  southeast- 
ward. Above  the  neck  is  a  basin  2  miles  long  with  a  greatest  width 
of  1J£  miles.  From  the  eastern  end  of  the  basin  an  arm  extends  2 
miles  eastward,  with  a  width  of  about  %  mile;  it  is  filled  by  a  flat 
nearly  to  its  mouth. 

The  outer  part  of  the  bay  is  clear,  with  the  exception  of  a  rock  bare 
at  low  water  lying  %  mile  from  shore  in  the  bight  on  the  south  side 
nearly  4  miles  inside  the  entrance.  Rocks  awash  at  high  water 
extend  300  yards  off  the  south  side  at  the  entrance  to  the  neck,  and 
lie  3/2  mile  westward  of  the  island  in  the  entrance  of  the  southeast  arm. 
The  depths  are  suitable  for  anchorage  }/±  to  %  mile  from  shore  nearly 
anywhere  in  the  outer  bay.  An  anchorage,  exposed  only  to  westerly 
winds,  can  be  had  on  the  north  side  of  its  eastern  end,  about  %  mile 
westward  of  an  islet,  and  the  same  distance  from  the  shore  north- 
westward, in  15  fathoms,  sticky  bottom, 


128  MALINA   BAY. 

In  the  neck  off  the  entrance  of  the  southeast  arm  is  an  island,  % 
mile  long  and  115  feet  high,  with  a  clump  of  trees  near  its  middle. 
There  is  no  safe  passage  between  it  and  the  shore  southeastward. 
An  islet  30  feet  high  lies  on  the  south  side  of  the  neck  %  mile  eastward 
of  the  island,  and  foul  ground  extends  225  yards  from  the  south  shore 
just  eastward  of  the  islet.  A  rock  15  feet  high,  with  a  small  one  close 
westward,  lies  400  yards  northeastward  of  the  islet,  the  best  channel 
being  between  them.  A  rock  bare  at  low  water  lies  400  yards  east- 
ward of  the  rock  15  feet  high  and  over  300  yards  from  the  northern 
shore. 

To  go  through  the  neck,  pass  200  yards  northward  of  the  island, 
steer  121°  true  (E  ^  S  mag.),  and  pass  100  yards  southward  of  the 
rock  15  feet  high  lying  in  the  middle  of  the  neck. 

The  basin  has  depths  of  30  to  47  fathoms  in  its  western  half  and 
shoals  gradually  eastward,  affording  secure  anchorage.  A  rock 
covered  at  high  water  lies  400  yards  westward  from  the  north  point 
at  the  entrance  to  the  narrow  arm  extending  eastward,  and  a  shoal 
extends  600  yards  southwestward  from  a  point  on  the  north  shore 
%  mile  northward  of  the  rock.  The  best  anchorage  is  about  %  mile 
off  the  bight  at  the  northern  end  of  the  basin,  with  the  entrance  (neck) 
just  closed,  in  15  to  18  fathoms,  sticky  bottom. 

The  southeast  arm  is  a  secure  anchorage  with  a  clear  width  of  nearly 
%  mile.  The  northwest  point  of  the  island  in  the  entrance  should  be 
given  a  berth  of  over  100  yards,  and  a  rock  bare  at  low  water  lies  100 
yards  from  the  shore  southwestward  of  the  same  point. 

To  enter  the  southeast  arm,  steer  163°  true  (SE  %  S  mag.),  pass  150 
yards  southwestward  of  the  northwest  point  of  the  island,  and  follow 
the  southwest  shore  of  the  arm  at  a  distance  of  about  250  yards. 
Anchor  in  the  broad  part  about  5^  mile  from  the  head,  in  about  10 
fathoms,  sticky  bottom.  A  flat  extends  nearly  %  mile  from  the  head. 

Tides. — High  and  low  water  occur  about  20  minutes  later  than  at 
Kodiak,  and  the  mean  rise  and  fall  of  the  tides  is  12  feet.  To  find 
the  height  of  the  tide  multiply  the  height  of  the  corresponding  tide 
at  Kodiak  by  the  ratio  of  ranges,  1.74. 

VIEKODA  BAY 

is  on  the  eastern  side  of  Shclikof  Strait  between  Outlet  Cape 
and  Uganik  Island.  It  extends  into  Kodiak  Island  in  a  131°  true 
(ESE  Yi  E  mag.)  direction,  and  has  a  length  of  13^  miles  from 
Outlet  Carje  and  17  miles  from  Cape  Uganik.  The  lower  part  of  the 
bay  is  3  miles  wide.  From  its  southern  side,  8  miles  below  the  head, 
Uganik  Passage  extends  southeastward.  Above  Uganik  Passage 
the  bay  is  2  miles  wide  and  narrows  to  Yi  mile  at  its  head. 

Foul  ground  exists  near  the  shore  in  places,  but  except  where 
mentioned  below  danger  will  be  avoided  by  giving  the  shore  a  berth 
of  Yt  mile. 

The  head  of  the  bay  is  shoal  for  1  mile  to  two  islets.  About  Yi 
mile  below  the  islets  there  are  two  islands  near  the  southern  shore. 
Good  anchorage  may  be  had  %  to  1  mile  below  the  islands  and 
about  2  miles  from  the  head  of  the  bay,  in  12  to  17  fathoms. 

Off  the  entrance,  2%  to  3%  miles  from  Outlet  Cape,  is  a  bank  on 
which  the  least  depth  found  is  6%  fathoms  at  its  northeast  end, 
lying  267°  true  (SW  by  W  YL  W  mag.)  from  the  north  end  of  Outlet 
Cape  and  166°  true  (SE  %  S  mag.)  from  Raspberry  Cape. 


VIEKODA    BAY.  129 

A  narrow  point,  its  end  detached,  extends  %  mile  from  Uganik 
Island  1  mile  eastward  from  its  northern  end.  Broken  ground,  with 
depths  of  4  and  5  fathoms,  extends  Y%  mile  10°  true  (N  by  W  % 
W'mag.)  from  the  point.  There  is  a  fair  anchorage  in  southerly 
weather  in  the  bight  on  the  east  side  of  the  point,  M  t°  /'s  mile 
from  shore,  in  10  to  15  fathoms. 

A  rock,  with  4 Y^  fathoms  on  it  and  which  should  be  avoided,  lies 
y%  mile  from  Uganik  Island  and  2J^  miles  westward  of  the  point 
dividing  Viekoda  Bay  and  Uganik  Passage. 

The  latter  point  has  an  islet  near  it,  and  a  rock  bare  at  low  water 
lies  y±  mile  above  the  islet  and  %  mile  from  the  south  shore  of 
Viekoda  Bay.  Depths  of  3  to  5  fathoms  extend  34  mile  northward 
of  the  rock. 

UGANIK  PASSAGE 

borders  the  northeast  and  south  sides  of  Uganik  Island  and  connects 
Viekoda  and  Uganik  Bays.  The  depths  in  the  passage  are  too  great 
for  anchorage  except  in  Terror  B-ay. 

The  part  of  Uganik  Passage  on  the  northeast  side  of  Uganik  Island 
is  clear  in  mid-channel  except  5  miles  from  Viekoda  Bay  and  1  mile 
from  the  southeastern  end  of  Uganik  Island.  At  this  point  a  flat 
makes  two-thirds  the  distance  across  the  passage  from  the  mouth 
of  a  stream  in  a  large  valley  on  the  northeastern  shore,  and  leaves  a 
clear  channel  350  yards  wide  close  to  a  point  of  Uganik  Island. 
There  is  an  islet  close  to  Uganik  Island  in  the  bight  southeastward 
of  this  point. 

Terror  Bay  extends  4  miles  190°  true  (S  by  E  J^  E  mag.)  from 
the  southeast  end  of  Uganik  Passage,  with  a  width  of  y%  to  %  mile. 
It  then  narrows  to  %  mile,  trends  154°  true  (SE  J^  E  mag.)  for 
nearly  2  miles,  and  is  filled  by  a  flat.  The  main  bay  is  clear  with 
the  exception  of  three  rocks  which  lie  300  yards  from  the  western 
shore;  the  first  two,  lying  %  and  1%  miles  inside  the  entrance,  have 
3  feet  over  them;  the  upper  one,  lying  1%  miles  inside  the  entrance, 
is  'bare  at  low  water.  There  is  secure  anchorage  for  vessels  of  any 
size  3  to  4  miles  above  the  entrance  and  about  2J^  miles  from  the 
head  of  the  bay,  in  7  to  15  fathoms. 

The  part  of  Uganik  Passage  south  of  Uganik  Island  is  9  miles 
long  from  the  southeastern  end  of  Uganik  Island  to  East  Point, 
where  it  joins  Uganik  Bay. 

A  rock  bare  at  low  water  lies  J4  mn*e  from  the  south  side  of  Uganik 
Island  ^g  mile  from  its  southeastern  end. 

A  high  peninsula  extends  southeastward  from  Uganik  Island  2 
miles  from  its  southeastern  end  and  narrows  the  passage  to  %  mile. 
From  the  point  on  the  south  shore  southeastward  of  the  peninsula 
a  ledge  bare  at  low  water  makes  nearly  halfway  across  the  passage 
where  narrowest,  and  the  southeast  end  of  the  peninsula  must  be 
kept  aboard  distant  100  to  150  yards  until  past  the  narrowest  place. 

Westward  of  the  peninsula  is  an  island  in  the  middle  of  the  passage, 
in  the  vicinity  and  westward  of  which  are  several  rocks,  sunken 
and  bare  at  various  stages  of  the  tide.  Vessels  from  eastward  may 
pass  northward  of  the  foul  ground  by  following  the  southwest  shore 
of  the  peninsula  at  a  distance  of  about  200  yards  until  the  island  is 
abaft  the  port  beam,  and  then  steer  300°  true  (W  y2  N  mag.)  for 
31056°— 16 9 


130  UGANIK    PASSAGE. 

the  southernmost  point  on  Uganik  Island  which  shows  ahead  with 
the  summit  of  the  peninsula  a  little  on  the  port  quarter.  When 
the  bare  rock  y$  mile  westward  of  the  island  is  abaft  the  port  beam 
the  dangers  will  be  passed.  These  are: 

A  rock  bare  at  low  water  lies  300  yards  northeastward  of  the  island. 

A  rock  bare  at  low  water  lies  250  yards  northward  of  the  bare 
rock  y%  mile  westward  of  the  island. 

Foul  ground  and  rocks  bare  at  low  water  extend  J^  mile  from 
Uganik  Island  y%  to  %  mile  westward  of  the  peninsula. 

The  channel  southward  of  the  island  is  narrower  than  that  north- 
ward. To  go  through  this  channel  from  eastward,  bring  the  south 
end  of  the  peninsula  barely  open  from  the  point  eastward  astern,  and 
steer  for  the  prominent  point  on  the  south  shore  %  mile  westward  of 
the  island,  course  281°  true  (WSW  %  W  mag.).  Keep  close  on  this 
line,  passing  midway  between  the  island  and  an  islet  near  the  south 
shore  ^t  mile  westward  of  the  island.  When  the  islet  is  passed,  haul 
northward  and  give  the  point  a  berth  of  over  200  yards.  The  princi- 
pal dangers  are: 

A  rock  bare  at  low  water  lies  200  yards  southwestward  of  the  island. 

A  rock  with  8  feet  over  it  lies  z/%  mile  westward  of  the  island  and  J£ 
mile  northwestward  of  the  islet. 

The  islet  should  be  given  a  berth  of  over  100  yards,  and  the  south 
shore  for  %  mile  eastward  of  the  islet  should  be  given  a  berth  of  250 
yards. 

Westward  of  these  dangers  Uganik  Passage  is  broad  and  free  from 
outlying  dangers.  In  the  large  bight  of  Uganik  Island  5  miles  east- 
ward of  East  Point  shoals  extend  ^  mile  from  its  northwest  shore 
for  a  distance  of  1  mile  from  its  head.  From  this  bight  a  broad,  low 
divide  extends  across  the  island. 

Rocks  bare  at  low  water  extend  y^  mile  from  the  south  shore  of  the 
passage  1%  miles  eastward  of  East  Point,  and  J^  mile  farther  east- 
ward rocks  make  out  600  yards  on  the  northwest  side  of  a  point  on 
the  south  shore. 

UGANIK  BAY 

is  on  the  eastern  side  of  Shelikof  Strait,  between  Uganik  Island  and 
the  mountainous  peninsula  terminating  westward  in  Cape  Ugat. 
Only  the  entrance  from  Noisy  Islands  to  East  Point  is  sounded. 
Anchorage  with  shelter  from  southerly  and  westerly  winds  can  be  had 
in  the  bight  2  miles  southeastward  of  Broken  Point,  and  there  is 
secure  anchorage  in  East  Arm.  Heavy  williwaws  occur  during 
southwest  gales,  which  are  worst  toward  the  head  of  the  bay  where 
the  mountains  are  highest.  The  shores  rise  abruptly  with  cliffs  in 
places,  and  are  generally  covered  with  grass  and  bushes. 

Cape  Uganik,  the  northwest  end  of  Uganik  Island,  is  low  for  about 
J4  rnile  back,  and  then  rises  quickly  to  elevations  of  1,200  to  1,500 
feet.  A  valley  extends  across  the  island  about  1  y^  miles  eastward  of 
the  cape,  and  the  gap  can  be  seen  from  southward.  For  a  distance 
of  \y<i  miles  southward  from  the  cape  shoals  extend  about  %  mn<e 
from  shore  in  places. 

Noisy  Islands  lie  J^  to  j^J  mile  from  Uganik  Island  and  2J^  miles 
southward  of  Cape  Uganik.  The  group  is  1  mile  long  and  is  two 
principal  islands — the  northwest  one  205  feet  high,  the  southeast  one 
low  and  flat.  Reefs  extend  about  y±  mile  northward  and  northwest- 


UGANIK    BAY.  131 

ward  from  the  northwest  island,  and  possibly  as  much  southeastward 
from  the  southeast  island.  The  passage  between  them  and  Uganik 
Island  has  a  depth  of  about  8  fathoms. 

Cape  TJgat  is  on  the  eastern  shore  of  Shelikof  Strait  12  miles  south- 
westward  from  Cape  Uganik.  It  is  a  high  ridge  sloping  to  a  low 
rocky  shelf  at  the  point  of  the  cape.  A  short  distance  off  the  cape  is 
a  rocky,  grass-covered  islet,  which  can  be  seen  about  15  miles  on  a 
clear  day  and  is  a  good  mark.  little  River  is  on  the  south  side  of 
Cape  Ugat. 

Miners  Point,  4  }^  miles  northeastward  from  Cape  Ugat,  terminates 
in  two  island-like  knobs,  the  inner  one  430  feet  high  and  conical,  the 
outer  one  lower  and  flatter. 

Broken  Point,  3%  miles  eastward  from  Miners  Point,  is  low  and 
flat  for  ^  mile  back,  its  end  being  detached,  and  then  rises  to  high 
land.  A  depth  of  3%  fathoms,  with  deep  water  close-to,  was  found 
400  yards  northward  of  the  point.  The  entrance  of  Uganik  Bay  is 
3  miles  wide  between  this  point  and  Noisy  Islands,  and  inside  the 
point  the  bay  widens  to  about  5"miles  until  up  with  East  Point. 

A  stream  empties  in  the  bight  1%  miles  southward  of  Broken 
Point.  There  is  good  anchorage  sheltered  from  southerly  and  west- 
erly winds  about  %  mile  southeastward  of  the  mouth  of  the  stream 
and  ^/g  to  ~j/2  mil°  from  shore,  in  8  to  15  fathoms. 

East  Point,  5  miles  eastward  of  Broken  Point,  is  the  northwestern 
extremity  of  the  high  peninsula  separating  Uganik  Bay  and  Passage. 
There  is  a  flat  rock  with  bluff  sides  close  to  the  point,  and  from  the 
latter  there  is  a  long,  gentle  slope  to  high  land. 

At  East  Point  Uganik  Bay  is  2J/£  miles  wide,  from  which  it  extends 
12*/2  miles  180°  true  (SSE  mag.),  narrowing  gradually,  to  the  head 
of  South  Arm.  Little  sounding  has  been  done,  but  the  bay  is  clear 
so  far  as  known. 

Northeast  Arm,  not  surveyed,  extends  eastward  from  Uganik  Bay 
iles  southward  of  East  Point.  Rock  Point,  the  south  point 


to  4  miles  southward  of  East  Point.  Rock  Point,  the  south  point 
at  the  entrance,  is  marked  by  several  bare  rocks  which  extend  off 
250  yards. 

Village  Islands  are  numerous  islands  and  rocks  extending  }£  to  % 
mile  from  the  western  shore  2  to  4  miles  southward  of  East  Point. 
In  the  cove  between  the.  south  end  of  the  islands  and  Village  Peninsula 
anchorage  is  reported  for  small  vessels.  There  is  a  native  village  at 
the  head  of  the  cove. 

East  Arm  extends  eastward  from  Uganik  Bay  7  miles  southward 
from  East  Point.  It  is  1  mile  wide  at  the  entrance  and  over  3  miles 
long,  but  a  flat  extends  1  J^  miles  from  its  head  or  J/2  mile  below  the 
island  in  the  bight  on  the  south  side  of  the  arm.  The  depths  range 
from  15  fathoms  at  the  entrance  to  6  fathoms  near  the  edge  of  the  flat. 
The  arm  is  clear  so  far  as  known  and  is  a  secure  anchorage  for  vessels 
of  any  size.  It  is  subject  to  heavy  williwaws  during  southwest  gales, 
but  these  are  not  dangerous  to  well-found  vessels.  The  north  point 
at  the  entrance  is  a  low  spit,  on  which  is  a  disused  cannery. 

South  Arm  extends  5J/2  miles  southward  from  the  south  point  of 
East  Arm.  No  sounding  has  been  done. 


132  UGANIK    BAY. 

DIRECTIONS,  UGANIK  BAY. 

From  northward,  round  Cape  Uganik  at  a  distance  of  1  mile  and 
steer  222°  true  (  S  by  W  %  W  mag.)  for  3  J^  miles  to  a  position  1  mile 
westward  of  Noisy  Islands.  Then  steer  164°  true  (SE  }/%  S  mag.), 
passing  about  %  mile  off  the  western  shore  from  West  Point  to 
Village  Islands,  and  ^  mile  eastward  of  the  islands.  This  course 
made  good  for  10  miles  should  lead  to  a  mid-channel  position  between 
the  southernmost  of  the  Village  Islands  and  Rock  Point.  Then  steer 
192°  true  (S  by  E  mag.)  for  2^  miles,  following  the  eastern  shore  at 
a  distance  of  about  }/£  mile,  to  the  entrance  of  East  Arm. 

From  southward,  give  Cape  Ugat  and  Miners  Point  a  berth  of  about 
\Y^  miles  and  Broken  Point  a  berth  of  about  %  mile.  Then  steer 
154°  true  (SE  %  E  mag.)  for  3%  miles  to  a  position  about  %  mile 
off  West  Point.  Then  steer  164°  true  (SE  ^  S  mag.)  for  4  miles  to 
a  mid-channel  position  between  the  southernmost  of  the  Village 
Islands  and  ROCK  Point  as  in  the  preceding  paragraph. 

UYAK  BAY 

is  on  the  eastern  side  of  Shelikof  Strait  southward  of  the  mountainous 
peninsula  terminating  westward  in  Cape  Ugat.  Uyak  Anchorage,  a 
secure  harbor  convenient  to  Shelikof  Strait,  is  on  the  southern  side 
of  the  bay,  16  miles  southward  of  Cape  Ugat  and  18  miles  northward 
of  Cape  Karluk.  Some  of  the  points  in  the  approach  to  the  bay  are 
determined  by  triangulation,  and  Uyak  Anchorage  and  Uyak  Bay 
above  Harvester  Island  are  surveyed.  The  principal  dangers  in  the 
surveyed  areas  are  mentioned  in  the  description  following. 

The  approach  between  Cape  Kuliuk  and  Rocky  Point  is  about  11 
miles  wide,  eastward  of  which  the  bay  converges  rapidly  to  Harvester 
Island.  It  extends  25  miles  in  a  southeasterly  direction  above 
Harvester  Island,  and  is  3  to  4  miles  wide  from  the  latter  to  Amook 
Island.  The  shores  of  the  bay  rise  in  steep  slopes  to  elevations  of 
2,000  to  over  4,000  feet,  and  there  are  numerous  mountain  streams. 

Cape  Kuliuk,  about  5  miles  southward  from  Cape  Ugat,  is  a  cliff 
at  the  end  of  a  ridge  about  2,000  feet  high. 

From  Cape  Uyak  high  cliffs  extend  about  5  miles  northeastward  to 
Rocky  Point.  Between  Rocky  Point  and  Bear  Island  the  coast  is 
low  bluffs,  and  a  wide  valley  extends  back  several  miles. 

Bear  Island,  about  5^  miles  east-northeastward  from  Rocky  Point, 
is  nearly  %  mile  in  diameter,  249  feet  high,  and  grass-covered.  It 
lies  J4  mile  from  shore,  with  which  it  is  connected  by  a  bowlder  spit, 
bare  at  half  tide. 

Harvester  Island,  %  mile  eastward  of  Bear  Island,  is  over  1  mile 
long,  844  feet  high,  steep-sided,  and  grass  covered.  The  20-fathom 
curve  is  about  %  mile  on?  the  northern  and  eastern  sides  of  the  island. 

Uyak  Anchorage  is  the  best  harbor  on  the  eastern  side  of  Shelikof 
Strait  southward  of  Uganik  Bay,  and  is  easily  entered.  It  lies  between 
Harvester  Island  and  the  shore,  the  passage  having  a  width  of  %  to 
^s  mile.  The  depths  range  from  about  7  fathoms  between  Harvester 
and  Bear  Islands  to  20  fathoms  %  P^6  northwestward  of  the  cannery. 
The  best  anchorage  is  about  J^  mile  northwest  of  the  cannery,  in  12 
to  14  fathoms.  There  is  also  good  anchorage,  except  with  heavy 
northeasterly  or  easterly  winds,  in  the  bight  %  to  ^  mile  southeast- 
ward of  the  cannery  and  J£  mile  from  shore,  in  12  to  14  fathoms. 


UYAK  BAY.  133 

The  better  and  safer  entrance  is  around  the  south  end  of  Harvester 
Island.  Cormorant  Rock,  bare  at  half  tide,  lies  over  Y%  mile  south- 
eastward of  Harvester  Island  and  300  yards  from  shore.  A  spit, 
bare  at  low  water  and  steep-to,  extends  425  yards  218°  true  (S  by 
W  Y%  W  mag.)  from  the  south  end  of  Harvester  Island.  This  spit, 
has  extended  45  yards  in  the  direction  of  its  axis  between  the  years 
1908  and  1915. 

The  northwest  entrance  is  %  mile  wide  between  two  reefs,  partly 
bare  at  half  tide  and  marked  by  kelp,  one  extending  400  yards 
westward  from  the  northwest  end  of  Harvester  Island,  and  the 
other  lying  250  to  550  yards  eastward  from  Bear  Island.  With 
care  this  entrance  is  not  difficult  in  the  daytime,  especially  at  low 
water  when  the  principal  dangers  show  above  water. 

Uyak  is  a  post  office  and  cannery  on  the  southwest  side  of  Uyak 
Anchorage  southwestward  from  the  south  end  of  Harvester  Island. 
There  is  a  depth  of  20  feet  at  the  end  of  the  north  wharf  and  9  feet 
at  the  south  wharf.  Water  can  be  obtained  through  pipe  and  hose. 
There  are  some  buildings  and  the  remains  of  a  wharf  in  the  bight 
y%  mile  southward  of  the  cannery. 

The  large  arm  on  the  eastern  side  of  Uyak  Bay  opposite  Harvester 
Island  is  not  surveyed. 

Zachar  Bay  is  on  the  eastern  side,  6  miles  124°  true  (E  by  S  mag.) 
from  Harvester  Island  and  2  y2  miles  northward  from  Amook  Island. 
It  is  6  miles  long  124°  true  (E  by  S  mag.)  and  %  to  1  mile  wide. 
No  sounding  has  been  done,  but  the  north  side  is  apparently  clear. 
The  south  point  at  the  entrance  is  surrounded  by  sunken  reefs,  and 
a  reef  bare  at  half  tide  lies  Y%  mile  northward  from  the  point.  A 
flat  extends  nearly  2  miles  from  the  head  of  the  bay. 

Larsen  Bay  is  on  the  western  side,  6  miles  southward  of  Harvester 
Island  and  262°  true  (SW  by  W  M  W  mag.)  from  the  north  end  of 
Amook  Island.  It  is  4  miles  long  259°  true  (SW  by  W  mag.),  about 
J^  mile  wide,  and  has  depths  of  30  to  40  fathoms  on  its  northwest 
side  and  less  on  the  opposite  side.  From  its  head  low  land  extends 
to  Karluk  River,  a  distance  of  about  2  miles.  A  cannery  is  main- 
tained by  the  Alaska  Packers'  Association  in  the  bight  just  south- 
ward of  the  inner  south  entrance  point. 

The  entrance  to  Larsen  Bay  is  through  a  crooked  channel  J^  mile 
long  and  200  yards  wide,  between  flats  partly  bare  at  low  water, 
one  extending  300  yards  southward  from  the  north  point  at  the 
entrance  and  the  other  filling  the  bight  on  the  south  side  opposite. 
A  rock  bare  at  low  water  lies  in  the  entrance  of  the  channel  200 
yards  northwestward  from  a  black  rock  about  20  feet  high,  which 
lies  100  yards  off  a  point  on  the  south  shore.  The  better  channel 
is  between  the  black  rock  and  the  rock  awash,  and  has  a  depth  of 
about  27  feet.  The  tidal  currents  in  the  entrance  have  an  estimated 
velocity  of  2  to  4  knots  at  strength. 

Strangers  should  enter  Larsen  Bay  at  low  water,  or  buoy  the 
rock  at  the  entrance  and  the  flat  on  the  north  side.  With  care 
small  vessels  can  enter  by  the  following  directions:  Pass  75  to  not 
over  100  yards  northward  of  the  black  rock  near  the  south  shore, 
ami  steer  260°  true  (SW  by  W  mag.)  for  the  mound  on  the  southern 
side  until  the  north  point  at  the  entrance  is  abeam  and  the  disused 
cannery  is  open  about  one-half  point  westward  of  it.  Then  haul 
northwestward  and  pass  about  200  yardtf  northward  of  the  mound. 


134  UYAK   BAY. 

Anchorage  can  be  had  in  mid-channel  southward  of  the  disused 
cannery  on  the  north  side  just  inside  the  entrance,  in  5  to  8  fathoms. 
Near  the  south  shore  of  Larsen  Bay  1  mile  southward  of  the  disused 
cannery  is  a  small  island.  There  is  good  anchorage  300  to  400  yards 
northward  or  northwestward  of  the  island,  in  6  to  10  fathoms,  but 
care  must  be  taken  to  avoid  the  flat  which  makes  out  %  mile  in  the 
bight  northeastward  of  the  island.  A  flat  extends  about  J4  mile 
from  the  head  of  the  bay;  anchorage  can  be  had  below  the  flat  in 
10  to  12  fathoms. 

Amook  Island,  7^  miles  long  and  1,686  feet  high,  divides  Uyak 
Bay  into  two  passages,  the  north  end  of  the  island  lying  6J^  miles 
southeastward  of  Harvester  Island.  Reefs  extend  %  mile  north- 
ward from  the  north  end  of  Amook  Island. 

The  passage  west  of  Amook  Island  is  the  principal  one.  It  is 
1  to  1%  miles  wide  and  generally  clear.  In  the  bight  of  Amook 
Island  2%  miles  from  its  north  end  there  is  anchorage  for  a  small 
vessel,  in  about  10  fathoms,  with  shelter  from  easterly  and  southerly 
winds.  The  bottom  is  uneven  and  there  is  a  possibility  of  dangers. 
The  entrance  is  between  the  south  point  of  the  bight  and  a  bare 
rock  lying  %  rnile  northward  from  the  point  and  y%  mile  from  Amook 
Island.  Between  this  rock  and  the  island  is  a  reef,  partly  bare  at 
low  water,  which  extends  J^  mile  southeastward  from  an  islet. 

A  rock,  bare  at  low  water  and  which  may  be  passed  on  either 
side,  lies  M  mu<e.  from  Amook  Island  and  y%  mile  253°  true  (SW  y^ 
W  mag.)  from  its  south  end. 

The  passage  east  of  Amook  Island  is  obstructed  at  points  2^ 
miles  from  the  north  end  of  the  island  and  3*4  miles  from  the  south 
end,  and  should  be  used  only  by  small  vessels  with  local  knowledge. 
For  a  distance  of  2J^  miles  the  north  end  of  the  passage  is  clear, 
with  depths  of  14  to  20  fathoms,  and  anchorage  can  be  had  here. 
At  the  southeast  end  of  this  anchorage  is  a  shallow  lagoon  at  the 
mouth  of  a  deep  valley.  Small  vessels  can  anchor  300  yards  off  the 
mouth  of  the  lagoon  in  5  to  6  fathoms. 

At  y^  mile  westward  of  the  lagoon  the  passage  narrows  to  300  yards, 
and  from  the  east  point  of  the  narrows  a  kelp-marked  reef  extends 
westward  and  northwestward  over  halfway  across,  leaving  a  narrow 
channel  between  it  and  the  west  shore.  Near  the  northwest  end  of 
the  reef  is  a  bare  rock.  There  is  a  good  anchorage  around  the  point 
on  the  west  side  at  the  south  end  of  the  narrows,  in  5  to  8  fathoms. 

Thence  for  a  distance  of  2  miles  the  passage  is  clear  to  the  second 
narrows.  At  this  point  a  spit  partly  bare  at  low  water  extends  half- 
way across  from  a  low  grassy  point  on  the  west  side,  and  leaves  a 
channel  125  yards  wide  between  the  southeast  end  of  the  spit  and  an 
island.  The  channel  is  westward  of  this  island  and  the  next  one  % 
mile  southward,  and  the  western  shore  should  be  favored  until  over 
34  mile  southward  of  the  southern  island.  Southward  of  this  point 
the  passage  is  clear.  Some  prospecting  has  been  done  on  the  east 
side  of  the  passage  2  miles  from  its  south  end. 

Lying  M  to  2j^  miles  southward  of  Amook  Island  is  a  chain  of 
islands  with  foul  ground  between  them  and  about  300  yards  off  the 
northwest  end  of  the  northern  one  called  Alf  Island.  There  is  deep 
water  between  the  islands  and  the  foul  ground  abreast  them  making 
out  from  the  western  shore,  but  the  safer  channel  is  eastward  of  the 
islands  and  is  clear.  Lying  1 J^  miles  southeastward  of  Amook  Island 


UYAK   BAY.  135 

is  a  bare  rock  at  the  end  of  a  reef  extending  200  yards  from  the  eastern 
shore. 

At  the  south  end  of  these  islands  there  is  an  inlet  in  the  west  shore 
about  %  mile  long  and  300  yards  wide,  affording  anchorage  in  about 
12  fathoms. 

Southward  of  the  islands  Uyak  Bay  is  1J^  miles  to  1  mile  wide, 
and  trends  158°  true  (SE  mag.)  for  7  miles  from  the  south  end  of 
Amook  Island.  In  the  last  3  miles  of  this  distance  the  depths  shoal 
gradually  from  20  to  7  fathoms,  and  anchorage  can  be  selected  in  any 
depth  desired.  The  bay  then  turns  to  119°  true  (E  ^  S  mag.)  for  5 
miles,  with  a  width  of  %  to  %  mile,  and  is  filled  by  a  flat. 

Tides. — At  Uyak  Anchorage  high  and  low  water  occur  about  18 
minutes  later  than  at  Kodiak,  and  the  mean  rise  and  fall  of  the  tides 
is  11.5  feet.  To  find  the  height  of  the  tide  multiply  the  height  of  the 
corresponding  tide  at  Kodiak  by  the  ratio  of  ranges,  1.67. 

DIRECTIONS,  UYAK  BAY. 

te 

From  northward,  round  Cape  Ugat  at  a  distance  of  about  1  %  miles 
and  steer  220°  true  (S  by  W  J^  W  mag.)  for  6  miles  to  a  position  2^ 
miles  off  Cape  Kuliuk,  bearing  102°  true  (E  by  N  mag.).  Then  steer 
172°  true  (SSE  %  E  mag.)  for  10  miles,  giving  the  eastern  shore  a 
berth  of  about  2  miles,  to  a  position  J^  mile  eastward  of  Harvester 
Island. 

Then  steer  237°  true  (SW  by  S  mag.),  passing  about  %  mile  south- 
eastward of  Harvester  Island  and  heading  for  an  old  wharf.  Anchor 
300  to  500  yards  northeastward  or  northward  of  the  old  wharf,  in  10 
to  14  fathoms. 

To  go  to  the  inner  harbor,  follow  the  preceding  directions,  and  then 
hauling  northwestward  keep  the  western  shore  aboard  distant  250  to 
350  yards  to  avoid  the  spit  extending  from  the  south  end  of  Harvester 
Island.  Then  steer  341°  true  (NW  J^  N  mag.)  for  the  northwest  end 
of  Harvester  Island,  pass  150  to  200  yards  off  the  cannery  wharf,  and 
continue  the  course  to  mid-channel. 

From  southward,  it  is  said  in  going  from  Karluk  to  Uyak  Anchorage 
that  there  are  no  dangers  1  mile  offshore.  The  following  are  the 
approximate  courses  and  distances:  From  a  position  1  mile  north- 
westward of  Cape  Uyak  68°  true  (NE  mag.)  for  4^  miles,  and  then 
93°  true  (ENE  %  E  mag.)  for  6  miles  passing  1  mile  off  Rocky  Point 
and  Bear  Island.  When  Bear  Island  bears  180°  true  (SSE  mag.) 
steer  about  124°  true  (E  by  S  mag.)  for  2  miles  to  a  position  J^  mile 
northeastward  of  Harvester  Island.  Follow  the  eastern  .shore  of 
Harvester  Island  at  a  distance  of  about  J/£  mile,  and  proceed  as 
directed  in  the  two  paragraphs  preceding. 

GAPE  UYAK  TO  CAPE  KARLUK. 

Cape  Uyak  is  a  precipitous,  high  headland  at  the  end  of  a  ridge. 
From  the  water  the  slope  is  rapid  to  an  elevation  of  647  feet.  There 
is  then  a  slight  fall  to  a  deep  notch  in  the  narrow  neck  back  of  the  cape, 
from  which  there  is  a  rise  in  steep,  grassy  slopes  to  higher  land. 

Northeast  Harbor  is  a  bight  about  1  mile  long,  with  a  beach  of  sand 
and  shingle,  on  the  south  side  of  Cape  Uyak.  It  affords  anchorage 
for  small  vessels  in  depths  of  9  to  15  fathoms,  bottom  sand  and  good 
holding  ground,  with  fair  shelter  in  northeasterly  weather. 


136  CAPE  UYAK  TO  CAPE  KARLUK. 

Between  Cape  Uyak  and  Karluk  there  are  two  long  cliffs  about 
1,300  feet  high,  the  southern  one  having  a  marked  slide  extending 
from  its  highest  point  almost  to  the  water.  In  the  valley  between 
the  cliffs  are  two  waterfalls.  There  is  a  house  on  the  bluff  near  the 
south  fall  and  a  fishermen's  camp  on  the  beach  near  the  north  one. 

Karluk  lies  5*/£  miles  southward  of  Cape  Uyak  and  \Y^  miles  east- 
ward of  Cape  Karluk.  A  hatchery  is  maintained  on  Karluk  River 
by  the  Alaska  Packers  Association.  The  entrance  to  Karluk  Lagoon 
is  through  a  narrow  channel  at  the  south  end  of  the  spit  and  is  only 
passable  for  boats  with  the  water  above  half  tide. 

The  anchorage  off  Karluk  is  an  open  roadstead,  sheltered  from 
easterly  winds  but  exposed  to  winds  from  southwest  through  west  to 
northeast.  It  should  not  be  used  by  vessels  without  power  to  get 
away  in  case  of  its  coming  on  to  blow.  Anchorage  may  be  had  y% 
mile  northward  of  the  entrance  to  the  lagoon,  in  depths  of  12  to  14 
fathoms.  The  3-fathom  curve  lies  about  300  yards  off  the  spit,  and 
there  are  no  dangers  so  far  as  known  in  the  approach.  Uyak  Anchor- 
age is  the  nearest  harbor  for  vessels  compelled  to  leave  Karluk  from 
stress  of  weather. 

There  is  a  cliff  820  feet  high  just  west  of  Karluk,  and  between  this 
cliff  and  Cape  Karluk  is  a  small  bight  called  Tanglefoot  Bay.  Low 
land  extends  through  back  of  Cape  Karluk  to  the  beach  south  of 
the  cape. 

Cape  Karluk  is  a  prominent,  projecting  head,  1,438  feet  high,  with 
bare  rock  cliffs  on  its  seaward  face  and  grassy  slopes  on  its  eastern 
side  to  low  land.  It  is  readily  identified  by  its  cone-shaped  appear- 
ance, a  notch  in  the  summit,  and  the  low  land  behind  it. 

KODIAK  ISLAND,  SOUTH  COAST. 

The  south  coast  of  Kodiak  Island  is  unsurveyed,  with  the  exception 
of  the  west  side  of  Alitak  Bay  and  part  of  the  shore  line  of  Sitkinak 
Island  and  the  north  end  of  Tugidak  Island.  The  following  notes 
are  from  reports  and  should  be  used  with  caution.  The  land  is 
partly  wooded  for  several  miles  southward  from  Cape  Chiniak  and 
otherwise  there  are  scattered  clumps  of  alders  in  places  in  the  valleys. 

TIgak  Island  is  about  1,200  feet  high,  with  fairly  steep  sides;  bare 
rocks  show  for  a  distance  of  possibly  y^  mile  off  its  eastern  side,  and 
breakers  at  high  water  were  seen  for  a  considerable  distance  off  its 
western  side.  There  is  a  low  spit  on  the  northwest  side  of  the  island; 
there  is  a  reported  anchorage  for  small  craft  under  the  lee  of  the  spit 
in  northeast  winds.  The  passage  between  Ugak  Island  and  Narrow 
Cape  is  about  3  miles  wide;  it  is  said  to  have  strong  currents  with 
heavy  rips  resembling  breakers.  The  best  water  is  reported  to  be 
near  Ugak,  but  it  is  not  recommended  for  strangers. 

Narrow  Cape  is  a  flat  headland  possibly  200  feet  high,  terminating 
southward  in  a  vertical  face  in  places.  From  northward  it  appears 
like  an  island. 

Ugak  Bay  is  reported  to  have  good  anchorages  for  small  craft  at 
least.  The  north  point  at  the  entrance  westward  of  Narrow  Cape 
is  a  prominent  cliff.  The  rocks  shown  on  the  chart  in  the  north  side 
of  the  bay  westward  of  the  cliff  are  said  to  show  above  water  mostly 
and  are  easily  avoided  in  clear  weather.  Small  craft  have  anchored 
in  two  coves  on  the  north  side  of  Ugak  Bay  westward  of  the  valley 


KODIAK   ISLAND — SOUTH    COAST.  137 

leading  to  Kalsin  Bay.  A  sketch  of  the  south  arm  shows  an  anchor- 
age for  small  craft  in  the  cove  which  has  7  fathoms  shown  in  its 
entrance  on  chart  8502 ;  the  depths  in  the  cove  are  shown  as  4  to  6 
fathoms,  and  its  west  side  is  shoal.  There  are  portages  to  Kalsin  Bay 
and  Kiliuda  Bay,  the  latter  from  the  native  village  of  Eagle  Harbor. 

Dangerous  Cape  is  said  to  be  a  continuous  line  of  bluffs,  which 
should  be  approached  with  caution  on  account  of  off-lying  rocks. 

Kiliuda  Bay,  reported  to  have  several  good  harbors,  is  about  17 
miles  long  and  has  two  arms.  On  the  south  shore  of  the  western  arm 
are  several  open  bays,  gome  of  which  may  afford  anchorage;  at  the 
head  is  an  extensive  shoal  flat.  Just  westward  of  Shearwater  Bay, 
there  is  an  open  bay  with  some  rocks,  the  western  one  about  70  feet 
high,  lying  about  J^  mile  from  shore.  About  4  miles  westward  of 
the  rock  there  is  a  sand  spit  on  the  north  side,  about  J£  mile  long, 
westward  of  which  anchorage  might  be  obtained  in  a  depth  of  10 
fathoms. 

About  1  mile  farther  westward  is  the  entrance,  %  mile  wide,  to  an 
inlet  which  extends  2  or  3  miles  north-northwestward  with  high 
mountains  on  both  sides,  their  lower  parts  covered  with  thick  scrub. 
At  the  head  the  inlet  shoals  abruptly  from  25  fathoms.  A  river 
empties  at  the  northwest  corner  and  a  small  creek  on  the  northeast 
side.  Anchorage  with  good  holding  ground  may  be  obtained  in  the 
middle  of  the  inlet  near  the  head,  in  24  fathoms;  also  in  a  depth  of 
15  fathoms  in  a  bay  on  the  south  side  of  the  western  arm,  southward 
of  the  entrance  to  this  inlet. 

Shearwater  Bay,  the  north  arm  of  Kiliuda  Bay,  extends  about  6  miles 
in  a  northerly  direction,  the  land  being  generally  low  except  on  the 
southeast  side,  where  there  are  grassy  slopes  up  to  high  hills.  A  flat 
extends  600  yards  from  the  head,  which  is  low  and  marshy.  Secure 
anchorage  may  be  had  in  5  to  6  fathoms,  J£  to  %  mile  from  the  head, 
after  passing  low  spits  which  extend  from  each  side.  Rocks  awash 
extend  some  distance  f  rOm  each  side  of  the  entrance,  so  a  mid-channel 
course  should  be  followed. 

Sitkalidak  Strait,  separating  Sitkalidak  Island  from  Kodiak  Island, 
is  wide  at  the  entrances,  but  the  through  passage  is  a  narrow,  tortuous 
channel  which  has  been  used  by  small  local  craft  of  8  feet  or  less  draft, 
but  is  not  available  for  strangers. 

Cape  Barnabas,  the  northeast  end  of  Sitkalidak  Island,  is  a  con- 
spicuous, bold,  rocky  bluff,  surrounded  by  rocks.  A  rock  on  which 
the  sea  breaks  lies  a  little  over  1  mile  northward  of  the  cape. 

Port  Hobron,  the  second  deep  bay  from  Cape  Barnabas  on  the  north 
side  of  Sitkalidak  Island,  is  a  good  harbor  for  any  vessel.  Water 
can  be  obtained  from  a  mountain  stream  on  the  west  side  near  the 
head. 

Newman  Bay,  on  the  west  side  of  Sitkalidak  Island,  is  the  one 
shown  on  chart  8502  with  27  fathoms  in  the  entrance.  A  sketch  of 
the  bay  shows  the  following:  A  reef  extends  southward  from  the  north 
point  at  the  entrance;  there  is  a  point,  or  possibly  a  spit,  on  the  south- 
east side  of  the  upper  part  of  the  bay;  a  reef  bare  at  low  water  lies  off 
the  southwest  side  of  the  point,  and  a  shoal  extends  a  short  distance 
off  its  northeast  side;  there  are  depths  of  8  to  10  fathoms  in  the  bay 
above  the  point,  and  secure  anchorage  for  small  craft  above  the  point 
in  the  angle  between  it  and  the  shore;  deep  water  is  indicated  up  the 
middle  of  the  bay. 


138  KODIAK    ISLAND — SOUTH    COAST. 

Three  Saints  Bay,  on  the  west  side  of  Sitkalidak  Strait,  is  reported 
to  afford  good  anchorage  for  vessels,  but  is  surrounded  by  hign  land 
and  is  subject  to  heavy  williwaws.  A  local  sketch  of  Inree  Saints 
Bay  shows  an  anchorage  for  small  craft  in  a  lagoon  inside  of  a  spit  on 
the  west  side  just  inside  the  entrance.  The  entrance  to  the  lagoon 
is  around  the  north  end  of  the  spit,  and  has  a  depth  of  6  fathoms; 
the  depths  inside  are  8  to  1 1  fathoms.  The  sketch  also  shows  a  shoal 
bordering  the  east  side  of  the  spit,  and  a  reef  of  apparently  bare  rocks 
extending  southward  from  the  north  point  at  the  entrance  of  the  bay. 

Old  Harbor  is  on  the  west  side  of  Sitkalidak  Strait  about  4  miles 
northward  of  Three  Saints  Bay.  The  Albatross  anchored  in  7  fath- 
oms in  Sitkalidak  Strait  off  the  native  village.  Entering  from  south- 
ward a  mid-channel  course  was  followed  to  the  anchorage,  the  strait 
being  free  from  hidden  dangers  except  near  the  shores.  Two  Headed 
Island  is  the  best  mark  for  the  approach.  The  country  around  Old 
Harbor  is  mountainous  with  a  narrow  belt  of  level  land  near  the  water 
where  the  village  stands. 

Black  Point,  the  south  end  of  Sitkalidak  Island,  shows  darker  than 
its  surroundings.  There  is  an  islet  200  yards  in  prolongation  of  the 
point,  and  J£  mile  farther  is  a  rock  just  above  water  which  marks  the 
end  of  a  ledge  extending  from  the  point. 

Two  Headed  Island  has  two  irregularly  rounded  peaks  and  is  easily 
recognized.  Old  sketches  indicate  some  high  rocks  near  the  shores. 
Both  sides  of  the  island  are  said  to  be  clear. 

Kaguyak  Bay  affords  anchorage  in  6  to  8  fathoms  for  all  winds 
except  from  north  to  east.  With  northeast  winds  small  craft  for- 
merly anchored  close  under  the  inner  bluff  on  the  east  side  of  the  bay. 
The  native  village  of  Kaguyak  is  at  the  head  of  the  bay.  The  land  is 
low,  except  westward  of  the  bay,  and  the  low  land  extends  to  Cape 
Trinity.  The  south  point  at  the  entrance  has  a  reef  of  bare  rocks 
making  off  in  prolongation  of  the  point,  and  there  is  said  to  be  a 
sunken  rock  about  one-third  the  distance  from  the  bare  rocks  to  Two 
Headed  Island,  the  island  side  being  clear. 

Cape  Trinity,  the  south  end  of  Kodiak  Island,  is  a  tableland  of 
moderate  elevation  which  increases  in  height  very  slowly  northward 
and  terminates  abruptly  in  rocky  cliffs.  The  shore  is  fringed  with 
reefs  and  pinnacle  rocks. 

Albatross  Bank. — While  engaged  in  sealing,  Indians  reported  to 
Mr.  S.  Applegate  that  they  saw  kelp  in  the  vicinity  of  the  15-fathom 
soundings  shown  on  the  chart.  From  bearings  on  the  east  end  of 
Sitkinak  while  at  anchor  in  the  vicinity  of  the  reported  kelp,  and  the 
run  of  his  vessel  from  that  island,  the  position  is  placed  approximately 
27  miles  116°  true  (E  J^  S  mag.)  from  the  east  end  of  Sitkinak  Island. 

Geese  Islands  are  flattened  in  appearance,  the  highest  possibly  200 
feet,  and  have  no  marked  feature.  Aiaktalik  Island  shows  as  two 
flattened  knolls,  the  eastern  one  the  sharper;  there  is  a  native  village 
with  a  Greek  church  at  the  southwest  end  of  the  bight  on  the  north 
side  of  the  island.  There  is  foul  ground  between  the  islands,  and 
possibly  as  much  as  2  miles  in  places  off  their  south  side.  The  strait 
between  the  islands  and  Kodiak  is  obstructed  by  reefs  and  is  unsafe. 
A  sunken  rock  has  been  reported  about  2  miles  north-northeastward 
of  the  northeasternmost  island. 

Russian  Harbor,  between  Aiaktalik  Island  and  Kodiak,  is  a  tem- 
porary anchorage  in  moderate  weather,  in  about  8  fathoms,  hard  sand 
bottom;  but  there  is  little  shelter,  and  with  strong  winds  there  are 


KODIAK    ISLAND SOUTH    COAST.  139 

heavy  tide  rips  on  account  of  the  strong  currents.  The  little  sounding 
that  has  been  done  indicates  a  broken  bottom,  and  the  harbor  is  not 
recommended  for  strangers. 

The  cove  in  Aiaktalik  Island  at  the  village  has  depths  of  2  to  4 
fathoms  with  bowlders  in  places.  It  has  been  used  by  small  craft, 
but  is  exposed  to  northeast  winds.  An  extensive  reef,  bare  at  half 
tide  and  marked  by  kelp,  extends  Y%  mile  northward  from  the  west 
point  of  the  cove.  There  is  a  narrow  channel  with  strong  currents 
between  the  reef  and  the  point.  With  northeast  or  northwest  winds 
small  craft  anchor  close  to  shore  in  the  bight  of  Kodiak  Island  north- 
ward of  Aiaktalik. 

Sitkinak  Strait  is  not  surveyed,  but  is  known  to  be  navigable  for 
vessels.  In  the  narrowest  part  of  the  strait  favor  Sitkinak  Island, 
taking  care,  however,  to  give  it  a  berth  of  over  1  mile ;  the  depths  are 
12  to  17  fathoms.  As  mentioned  above,  the  vicinity  of  Geese  Islands 
is  foul.  A  bank  of  considerable  extent,  on  which  the  least  depth 
found  is  5  fathoms,  lies  near  the  middle  of  the  strait  off  the  small 
island  southwestward  of  Aiakt&lik.  The  reef  on  which  the  Pavlof 
struck  is  reported  to  lie  2  miles  southeastward  of  the  southeast  end 
of  Aiaktalik  Island.  The  position  is  doubtful. 

The  currents  in  Sitkinak  Strait  set  westward  on  the  flood  and  east- 
ward on  the  ebb.  There  are  heavy  tide  rips  in  the  strait,  sometimes 
in  spots  southward  and  westward  of  Aiaktalik  Island,  and  at  times 
extending  in  a  double  line  of  breakers  across  to  Sitkinak.  So  far  as 
observed  they  are  heaviest  with  westerly  winds  and  a  flood  current. 
They  are  often  dangerous  for  small  craft,  and  may  at  times  trouble 
small  vessels. 

TRINITY  ISLANDS 

lie  off  the  south  end  of  Kodiak  Island.  There  are  two  principa 
islands,  called  Sitkinak  and  Tugidak,  which  are  again  divided  by 
lagoons  that  are  navigable  only  by  small  boats  at  high  water  and  have 
strong  currents.  The  shore  line  of  Sitkinak  Island,  except  for  about  6 
miles  on  its  southwest  side,  and  the  north  end  of  Tugidak  Island 
have  been  surveyed.  The  soundings  around  the  islands  are  from 
reports. 

Fresh  water  can  be  obtained  from  the  ravines  and  pools  on  the 
islands.  Landing  can  be  made  only  when  the  weather  is  unusually 
quiet,  and  the  sea  makes  rapidly.  The  beaches  are  generally  a  heavy 
shingle.  There  are  a  few  alder  bushes  and  there  is  driftwood  on  the 
beach.  There  are  no  inhabitants  except  occasionally  a  few  hunters 
and  fishermen  in  summer.  Some  prospecting  has  been  done  at  the 
southwest  end  of  Tugidak  Island. 

Sitkinak  Island  is  divided  by  a  lagoon.  The  eastern  part  has  hills 
separated  by  low  valleys.  A  reef  extends  northeastward  from  its 
east  end;  there  are  two  pairs  of  bare  rocks  on  the  reef,  the  outer  ones 
1  mile  from  shore,  and  at  low  water  extensive  reefs  show  around  them. 
The  south  shore  of  the  islands  is  believed  to  be  foul  and  should  be 
carefully  avoided. 

The  western  and  high  part  of  Sitkinak  Island  is  composed  of  two 
main  ridges  separated  by  a  high  valley,  the  easterly  ridge  having  an 
elevation  of  about  1,500  feet  and  the  westerly  one  about  1,200  feet. 
The  north  point  is  low  and  flat,  and  is  backed  by  high  land  which 
rises  steeply.  The  northwest  side  of  the  island  is  earth  cliffs  several 
hundred  feet  high,  broken  by  narrow  ravines,  and  is  foul  offshore. 


140  TRINITY   ISLANDS. 

The  passage  between  Sitkinak  and  Tugidak  Islands  has  very  strong 
tidal  currents,  and  its  south  approach  is  apparently  blocked  by  shoals. 

Tugidak  Island,  in  its  northern  part,  is  chiefly  sand  flats,  but  little 
above  high  water,  the  higher  parts  of  which  are  low,  grassy  sand  hills ; 
it  is  separated  from  the  southern  or  higher  part  of  the  island  by 
lagoons  of  some  depth  with  strong  currents.  The  western  and  higher 
part  of  the  island  is  earth  cliffs  from  200  to  400  feet  high,  from  the 
crest  of  which  the  surface  slopes  gradually  to  the  eastern  shore. 

In  1909,  Mr.  S.  Applegate  located  the  foul  and  broken  area  which 
extends  about  10  miles  southward  from  the  south  end  of  Tugidak 
Island,  as  shown  on  chart  8502,  by  compass  bearings  on  Tugidak 
Island  and  the  summit  of  Sitkinak  Island.  Until  a  survey  is  available 
it  is  considered  unsafe  for  vessels  to  cross  this  area.  The  bottom  is 
very  uneven,  the  depths  changing  abruptly  from  2  to  4  fathoms  in 
places,  and  bowlder  reefs  with  little  depth  may  be  expected.  There 
are  strong  currents  and  heavy  rips  and  overfalls. 

The  north  and  west  sides  of  Tugidak  Island  may  be  generally 
approached  as  close  as  1  mile  in  good  weather  by  a  careful  use  of  the 
lead.  Care  should  be  observed  near  the  middle  of  the  west  side  of 
Tugidak,  as  an  unsurveyed  bank  with  depths  probably  as  little  as  2 
fathoms  lies  some  distance  off,  possibly  2  or  3  miles. 

Alitak  Bay  is  described  under  a  separate  heading  following. 

Cape  Alitak  and  Low  Cape  are  determined  bytriangulation,  and  the 
position  of  the  salient  points  and  rocks  from  the  latter  to  Cape  Karluk 
have  been  approximately  determined,  so  that  fairly  good  courses  can 
be  given.  No  sounding  has  been  done,  and  it  is  advisable  to  give  the 
points  and  outer  rocks  a  berth  of  2  miles. 

The  following  are  approximate  courses  and  distances  along  the  coast ; 
allowance  should  be  made  for  the  tidal  currents,  which  have  an  esti- 
mated velocity  of  1  to  2  knots  at  strength,  setting  along  shore,  north- 
ward on  the  flood  and  southward  on  the  ebb: 

Passing  2  miles  off  Cape  Karluk,  steer  222°  true  (S  by  W  %  W 
mag.)  for  6  miles  to  a  position  2  miles  westward  of  a  high,  white  cliff. 
Then  change  to  213°  true  (S  %  W  mag.)  for  10.5  miles  to  a  position 
2  miles  westward  of  the  two  large  and  high  pinnacle  rocks  lying  % 
mile  westward  of  the  middle  ridge  northward  of  Cape  Ikolik.  Then 
haul  to  191°  true  (S  by  E  mag.)  for  4  miles  to  a  position  2  miles  west- 
southwestward  of  the  outer  Seal  Rocks  off  Cape  Ikolik.  Then  steer 
152°  true  (SE  ^  E  mag.)  for  23  miles  to  a  position  2  miles  south- 
westward  of  Low  Cape.  Then  a  143°  true  (SE  by  E  ^  E  mag.) 
course  for  11.5  miles  leads  to  a  position  2  miles  southwestward  of 
Cape  Alitak. 

Twin  Peaks,  described  under  Alitak  Bay,  are  prominent  along  the 
coast  as  far  as  Cape  Ikolik. 

Low  Cape,  lying  11.5  miles  323°  true  (NW  by  W  %  W  mag.)  from 
Cape  Alitak,  is  the  western  extremity  of  the  low  land  in  this  vicinity. 
A  spit  and  apparently  shoal  water  extend  a  considerable  distance 
off  the  cape,  and  it  should  be  given  a  berth  of  2  miles.  Kelp  extends 
2  or  3  miles  from  shore  in  places  in  the  bight  between  Cape  Alitak 
and  Low  Cape.  There  are  high  bluffs  about  4  miles  northward  of 
Low  Cape.  There  is  said  to  be  good  anchorage  in  northeasterly 
winds  along  the  shore  between  Low  Cape  and  Ayakulik  Island. 

Ayakulik  Island  is  small  and  about  350  feet  high.  Ayakulik 
River  makes  inland  a  little  southward  of  the  island.  Foul  ground 
is  reported  between  Ayakulik  Island  and  Cape  Ikolik. 


KODIAK    ISLAND SOUTH    END.  141 

The  west  end  of  Kodiak  Island  consists  of  three  headlands  which 
are  the  ends  of  three  high  ridges.  The  name  Cape  Ikolik  is  here 
applied  to  the  southerly  headland. 

Cape  Ikolik  is  marked  by  two  high  conical  islets  close-to,  and 
there  are  some  pinnacle  rocks  on  its  south  side.  Seal  Rocks  are 
two  principal  rocks  off  Cape  Ikolik.  The  inner  one,  lying  about  % 
mile  west-sou  thwestward  of  the  cape,  is  a  large,  steep-sided,  bare 
rock,  with  a  yellowish  tinge,  and  having  a  nub  on  top  which  gives 
it  the  appearance  of  a  lighthouse;  there  is  a  small,  low  rock  close 
to  its  southwest  side.  The  outer  Seal  Rocks,  lying  nearly  2  miles 
westward  of  the  cape,  is  a  pinnacle  which  at  a  distance  resembles 
a  sail;  foul  ground  which  does  not  break  is  reported  to  extend  about 
y%  mile  outside  the  rock. 

The  middle  headland  lies  about  3  miles  northward  of  Cape  Ikolik, 
and  there  is  a  large  bight  between  it  and  the  cape.  Two  large  and 
high  pinnacle  rocks,  one  twice  as  high  as  the  other,  lie  close  together 
and  about  J^  mile  westward  of  this  headland. 

The  northerly  headland,  lying  about  1%  miles  northward  of  the 
middle  one,  is  marked  by  a  high,  steep-sided,  rocky  islet,  and  a 
number  of  pinnacle  rocks  which  lie  close  to  shore. 

Halibut  Bay  is  the  local  name  of  the  bight  between  the  headland 
described  in  the  preceding  paragraph  and  Cape  Grant.  It  is  fre- 
quently used  as  an  anchorage  by  fishing  vessels  in  northeasterly 
winds.  The  officers  of  the  U.  S.  S.  Grant  examined  the  bay,  and 
report  that  it  is  sheltered  from  about  north  through  east  to  south. 
Except  the  reef  making  off  Cape  Grant,  local  pilots  report  that  no 
dangers  exist  in  the  bay.  Many  soundings  taken  in  the  examina- 
tion showed  regular  bottom  shoaling  gradually  toward  the  shore. 
There  is  a  sand  beach  at  the  head  of  the  bay,  and  a  prominent  red 
cliff  on  its  east  shore  which  opens  from  the  south  headland  of  the 
bay  on  a  bearing  of  about  northeast  (mag.).  The  following  are 
the  courses  recommended : 

Round  Cape  Grant  at  a  distance  of  1  mile,  and  stand  in  for  the 
prominent  conical  peak  at  the  head  of  the  bay.  When  the  red  cliff 
bears  43°  true  (N  by  E  %  E  mag.)  haul  up  for  it  parallel  to  the  sand 
beach,  and  anchor  about  %  mile  from  the  red  cliff  in  10  to  12  fathoms. 

Cape  Grant  lies  about  10  miles  southward  of  Cape  Karluk  and 
about  6  miles  northward  of  the  two  large  and  high  pinnacle  rocks, 
lying  off  the  middle  headland  previously  described.  The  cape  is  a 
rugged  headland  at  the  end  of  a  high  ridge,  the  summit  of  which  is 
marked  by  a  small  cluster  of  peculiar  pinnacle  rocks.  A  reef  which 
breaks  in  heavy  weather  extends  possibly  ^  mile  off  the  cape. 

A  headland  of  high,  white  cliffs  lies  about  4  miles  northward  of 
Cape  Grant  and  about  6  miles  southward  of  Cape  Karluk.  The 
cliffs  are  at  the  end  of  a  fairly  level  ridge  which  extends  some  distance 
back  with  an  estimated  elevation  of  1,200  feet. 

ALITAK  BAY, 

at  the  south  end  of  Kodiak  Island,  is  about  7  miles  wide  at  the  en- 
trance between  Cape  Alitak  and  Cape  Trinity,  and  in  its  length  of 
about  13  miles  in  a  north-northeasterly  direction  the  bay  narrows 
to  about  4  miles  at  the  entrance  to  its  northerly  arm,  called  Deadman 
Bay.  Lazy  Bay  is  a  good  anchorage  convenient  to  Cape  Alitak, 


142  ALITAK    BAY. 

and  there  is  a  cannery  in  Olga  Bay  at  the  head  of  the  northwest  arm 
of  Alitak  Bay. 

The  west  side  of  Alitak  Bay  from  Cape  Alitak  to  the  entrance  of 
the  narrows  leading  to  Olga  Bay  has  been  surveyed,  although  the 
soundings  are  not  sufficient  to  develop  all  dangers,  especially  in 
the  open  waters  of  Alitak  Bay. 

There  are  no  trees,  the  largest  growth  being  scattered  clumps  of 
alders.  Except  the  beaches  and  the  outcropping  ledges  of  bare  rock 
on  the  knolls  and  peaks,  the  land  is  covered  with  thick  moss  and 
grass;  there  are  lakes  in  places  and  numerous  streams.  The  promi- 
nent feature  in  the  approach  is  Twin  Peaks,  on  the  peninsula  between 
Lazy  Bay  and  Kempff  Bay,  which  can  be  seen  from  Cape  Ikolik  on 
a  clear  day.  The  peninsula  between  Kempff  Bay  and  Olga  Bay  is 
broken  by  mountain  masses  rising  to  a  height  of  about  2,000  feet. 

The  eastern  shore  of  Alitak  Bay  consists  of  high  bluffs,  terminat- 
ing in  Cape  Trinity.  No  sounding  has  been  done. 

Cape  Alitak  is  the  south  end  of  a  sloping  ridge  with  numerous 
knolls,  which  is  partly  grass  covered  but  has  much  bare  rock.  The 
cape  "slopes  upward  gradually  to  Tanner  Head,  a  rocky  knoll  about 
600  feet  nigh,  between  which  and  Twin  Peaks  there  is  a  break  formed 
by  Lazy  Bay. 

A  shoal,  apparently  of  sand  and  with  a  very  uniform  bottom, 
extends  from  trie  southeast  side  of  Cape  Alitak  toward  Cape  Trinity ; 
the  3-fathom  curve  on  the  shoal  is  about  J^  mile  from  shore  for  a 
distance  of  1)^  miles  northward  of  Cape  Alitak,  and  the  5-fathom 
curve  is  about  1%  miles  from  shore.  Heavy  tide  rips  are  frequent 
off  the  cape.  It  is  reported  that  this  shoal  extends  across  to  Cape 
Trinity;  a  depth  of  7  fathoms  was  found  on  it  at  the  limit  of  the  sur- 
vey, 2  miles  southeastward  from  Cape  Alitak,  and  a  depth  of  8 
fathoms  was  reported  by  U.  S.  S.  Ranger  about  3  miles  southeast- 
ward of  that  cape. 

Lazy  Bay,  lying  4  miles  northward  of  Cape  Alitak,  is  well  marked 
by  Twin  Peaks  and  Egg  Island  on  its  north  side,  and  there  is  a  bare, 
white,  flat  ledge  close  to  its  south  entrance  point.  The  shore  south- 
ward of  the  entrance  is  clear  if  given  a  berth  of  %  mile,  with  the 
exception  of  the  shoal  making  off  the  southeast  side  of  Cape  Alitak. 
Approaching  from  northward  in  Alitak  Bay,  vessels  can  haul  in  for 
the  entrance  when  Egg  Island  bears  270°  true  (WSW  mag.). 

Entering  in  mid-channel,  good  anchorage  for  vessels  can  be  had  J/£ 
to  %  mile  from  the  head  of  Lazy  Bay,  and  midway  between  the  sand- 
spit  on  the  north  shore  and  a  dark,  bare  rock  on  the  south  shore,  in 
7  to  9  fathoms,  sticky  bottom.  A  narrow  ridge  on  which  the  least 
depths  found  are  5  to  6  fathoms  extends  across  Lazy  Bay  in  a  north- 
northeasterly  (mag.)  direction  from  the  rock  (covered  at  three- 
quarters  flood),  on  the  east  side  at  the  entrance  to  Rodman  Reach. 
A  flat  extends  <^  mile  from  the  head  of  the  bay,  and  the  shores  at  the 
anchorage  should  not  be  approached  closely.  Water  can  be  obtained 
from  a  stream  on  the  north  shore  just  inside  the  spit. 

Rodman  Reach  is  a  narrow  arm  which  extends  southward  from 
Lazy  Bay  and  inside  of  Tanner  Head  to  Cape  Alitak,  where  it  forms 
a  shoal  basin  from  which  another  narrow  arm  extends  some  distance 
northwestward,  being  separated  from  the  sea  by  a  narrow  shingle 
spit.  The  depths  are  4  to  5  fathoms,  hard  bottom,  in  the  channel 
for  a  distance  of  J^  mile  from  the  entrance,  and  a  spit  projects  from 


ALITAK    BAY.  143 

its  west  side  just  inside  the  entrance;  the  channel  of  this  part  of  the 
reach  might  be  used  as  an  anchorage  for  small  craft.  No  further 
soundings  are  available. 

Egg  Island  is  a  small  rocky  island  about  15  feet  high  lying  on  the 
north  side  at  the  entrance  to  Lazy  Bay.  The  passage  inside  the 
island  is  foul,  and  foul  ground  with  rocks  bare  at  low  water  extends 
600  yards  northward  toward  the  rocky  islet  off  the  south  side  of 
Kempff  Bay. 

Twin  Peaks,  between  Lazy  Bay  and  Kempff  Bay,  are  about  1,000 
feet  high,  and  are  the  most  conspicuous  mark  from  westward  as  far 
north  as  Cape  Ikolik,  being  first  raised  as  an  island. 

Kempff  Bay,  on  the  north  side  of  Twin  Peaks,  has  too  deep  water 
for  convenient  anchorage,  and  its  north  shore  has  broken  ground 
which  should  be  avoided.  Favqring  somewhat  the  south  shore 
through  the  bay,  anchorage  can  be  selected  in  the  middle  about  % 
mile  from  the  head,  in  18  fathoms;  a  spit  with  deep  water  close-to 
extends  350  yards  from  the  north  shore  at  a  point  %  mile  from  the 
head.  For  the  purpose  probaKly  of  communicating  with  Akhiok, 
small  craft  have  used  an  anchorage  in  the  middle  of  the  first  large 
bight  on  the  north  side  of  Kempff  Bay  %  mile  above  the  small  island 
on  the  north  side  of  the  entrance;  there  is  broken  ground,  which  has 
not  been  fully  developed,  making  well  off  the  shores  of  the  bight. 

A  reef,  covered  at  high  water  and  with  a  rocky  islet  a  few  feet  high 
near  its  end,  extends  %  mile  from  the  shore  just  southward  of  Kempff 
Bay;  the  islet  should  be  given  a  berth  of  over  %  mile,  passing  east- 
ward of  it  in  Alitak  Bay,  and  northward  of  it  when  entering  Kempff 
Bay. 

Between  Kempff  Bay  and  Moser  Bay,  a  distance  of  4  miles,  the 
shore  is  fronted  by  islands  and  rocks  about  1  mile  wide,  the  shores  of 
which  are  fringed  with  reefs.  Akhiok  is  a  native  village  on  the  shore 
1J4  miles  north-northwestward  of  Round  Hill. 

Round  Hill,  about  180  feet  high,  is  on  the  east  end  of  the  large 
island  forming  the  north  side  of  Kempff  Bay.  It  is  a  small  symmetri- 
cal grassy  knoll,  and  is  quite  distinctive.  An  extensive  reef,  with  a 
few  heads,  which  always  show,  extends  J^  mile  off  the  east  side  of 
the  north  end  of  the  island  at  Round  Hill. 

The  principal  outlying  dangers,  so  far  as  known,  in  Alitak  Bay  lie 
eastward  of  the  islands  and  rocks  between  Kempff  Bay  and  Moser 
Bay.  They  are  in  the  form  of  long  ridges  trending  with  the  bay, 
the  two  on  the  west  side  lying  nearly  %  mile  and  1 J^  miles  from  the 
islands  and  rocks  on  the  west  side;  and  the  deepest  and  clearest  chan- 
nel in  the  bay  lies  between  the  second  ridge  and  Middle  Reef,  the 
latter  being  a  third  ridge. 

The  first  ridge  lies  on  a  33°  true  (N  %  E  mag.)  bearing  to  High 
Rock,  and  the  following  are  the  shoaler  places  determined  on  it;  it 
should  not  be  crossed  except  with  caution. 

A  12-fathom  sounding,  not  developed,  lies  95°  true  (ENE  %  E 
mag.)  from  the  south  Twin  Peak  and  1^  miles  179°  true  (SSE  }|  E 
mag.)  from  Round  Hill;  it  is  apparently  the  south  end  of  the  first 
ridge. 

A  reef,  covered  at  highest  tides,  lies  %  mile  136°  true  (ESE'mag.) 
from  Round  Hill,  with  foul  ground  between. 

A  reef,  J£  mile  long  on  the  line  of  the  ridge,  partly  bare  at  low  water 
and  marked  by  kelp,  lies  %  mile  off  the  island  northward  of  Round 


144  ALITAK    BAY. 

Hill,  with  foul  ground  between,  and  lies  between  the  bearings  93° 
true  (ENE  J£  E  mag.)  and  73°  true  (NE  %  E  mag.)  from  Round 
Hill. 

A  9-fathom  sounding,  not  developed,  lies  %  mile  northward  of  the 
preceding  reef,  about  the  same  distance  from  the  nearest  island  west- 
ward, and  bears  175°  true  (SSE  J^  E  mag.)  from  the  northeast  end 
of  the  island  on  the  south  side  of  the  entrance  to  Moser  Bay;  it  is 
apparently  the  north  end  of  the  first  ridge. 

The  least  depth  found  on  the  second  ridge  is  a  10-fathom  sounding 
which  lies  1%  miles  143°  true  (SE  by  E  %  E  mag.)  from  Round  Hill. 
Other  soundings  on  this  ridge  are  14  fathoms  J/£  mile  southward,  and 
16  fathoms  Y%  mile  northward,  of  the  10-fathom  sounding,  with  no 
development. 

Middle  Reef,  about  %  mile  long  and  covered  at  about  half  tide,  lies 
3^  miles  100°  true  (ENE  y%  E  mag.)  from  Round  Hill;  a  rock  bare 
at  low  water  lies  Y^  mile  eastward  of  Middle  Reef.  Broken  ground 
which  has  not  been  developed  extends  1  mile  northeastward  and  2 
miles  southward  from  Middle  Reef;  a  rock,  bare  at  a  good  low  water 
and  not  located,  was  seen  well  southward  of  Middle  Reef,  possibly  as 
much  as  1  mile. 

Deadman  Bay,  the  northerly  arm  of  Alitak  Bay  eastward  of  Moser 
Bay,  is  not  surveyed.  On  its  western  side  is  a  flat  island  about  40 
feet  high,  and  there  are  some  islets  and  rocks  between  it  and  the 
western  shore.  The  peninsula  between  Deadman  Bay  and  Moser  Bay 
is  a  high  grassy  ridge  with  a  number  of  summits,  and  it  slopes  gradually 
southward. 

High  Rock  is  a  steep-sided,  flat  islet,  with  grass  on  top  and  a  split 
in  the  middle,  which  lies  200  yards  off  the  southeast  end  of  the  penin- 
sula between  Deadman  and  Moser  Bays.  From  southward  it  shows 
as  a  small  bluff  against  the  low  shore  northward.  A  kelp-marked 
reef,  partly  bare  at  low  water,  extends  y%  mile  southward  from  High 
Rock.  Another  reef,  partly  bare  at  low  water,  lies  y%  mile  eastward 
of  High  Rock. 

Moser  Bay,  the  large  northwest  arm  of  Alitak  Bay,  has  depths  of 
10  to  14  fathoms,  soft  bottom,  and  is  a  secure  harbor.  The  entrance 
is  nearly  J/2  mile  wide  between  a  sand  spit  on  the  north  and  a  low 
rocky  island  on  the  south.  It  is  obstructed  by  a  rocky  shoal  which 
extends  northward  from  the  island,  the  northerly  end  of  the  shoal 
with  depths  of  3  to  4  fathoms,  lying  300  to  600  yards  westward  of  the 
sand  spit.  There  is  less  depth  on  the  shoal  for  one-half  the  width  of 
the  entrance  from  the  island,  and  little  depth  near  the  island.  The 
deepest  channel  (over  5  fathoms)  lies  100  to  250  yards  off  the  west 
side  of  the  sand  spit.  From  the  sand  spit  eastward  toward  High 
Rock  the  3-fathom  curve  is  about  250  yards  from  shore.  A  kelp- 
marked  reef  also  extends  J^  mile  eastward  from  the  island  on  the 
south  side  at  the  entrance  to  Moser  Bay. 

The  tidal  currents  are  strong  with  swirls  in  the  entrance  of  Moser 
Bay,  and  rips  occur  at  times  with  a  fresh  wind  opposing  the  current; 
but  these  rips  do  not  compare  in  magnitude  with  the  heavy  ones 
which  occur  in  Sitkinak  Strait  and  off  the  mouth  of  Alitak  Bay. 

About  one-half  the  distance  from  the  entrance  of  Moser  Bay  to 
Point  Fassett  there  is  a  shoal  or  reef  which  extends  halfway  across 
from  the  northeast  shore  of  Moser  Bay  toward  a  spit  on  the  southwest 


ALITAK    BAY.  145 

shore.  The  shoal  has  depths  of  4  to  9  feet  on  it  for  a  distance  of  y% 
mile  from  shore,  and  a  depth  of  3  fathoms  was  found  on  its  outer  part. 

A  shoal  bare  at  low  water  extends  J4  mil°  er-st-northeastward  from 
a  spit  on  the  southwest  shore  opposite  the  preceding  shoal. 

Point  Fassett,  a  low  grassy  head  with  lower  land  back  of  it,  is  the 
turning  point  on  the  northeast  side  of  Moser  Bay  nearly  2  miles  inside 
the  entrance.  A  shoal  makes  off  from  the  eastern  shore  between 
Point  Fassett  and  the  Narrows,  the  greatest  distance  being  J4  mile 
in  the  bight  between  them  and  extending  with  this  width  nearly  to 
the  Narrows. 

Snug  Harbor,  the  cove  southwestward  of  Point  Fassett,  has  a  depth 
of  about  12  fathoms  in  the  entrance  and  shoals  gradually  westward. 
It  is  clear  with  the  exception  of  a  flat  which  extends  nearly  J4  mile 
from  its  head.  A  valley  between  mountains  extends  through  from 
Snug  Harbor  to  the  sea. 

Chips  Cove,  on  the  west  shore  of  Moser  Bay  1 J^  miles  northward  of 
Point  Fassett,  has  a  depth  of  about  8  fathoms  in  its  entrance.  Shoals 
extend  from  the  shores  of  the  cove,  and  a  flat  extends  about  y%  mile 
from  its  head.  Vessels  can  anchor  off  the  entrance,  favoring  slightly 
the  western  shore  of  Moser  Bay,  and  a  small  vessel  and  small  craft  can 
select  anchorage  near  the  middle  of  the  cove. 

The  Narrows. — About  1  mile  northward  of  Chips  Cove  is  the  south 
entrance  to  the  Narrows  which  leads  to  Olga  Bay.  They  are  about  1 
mile  long  and  in  the  narrowest  part  about  300  feet  wide.  The  channel 
is  tortuous  with  many  rocks,  some  bare  at  low  water  and  others  which 
are  only  apparent  by  the  heavy  swirls  over  them  when  the  current  is 
running.  The  small  cannery  steamers  use  the  Narrows,  but  local 
knowledge  is  necessary  and  a  large  vessel  should  not  attempt  it. 
With  the  current  running  full  the  cannery  steamers  wait  for  slack 
water,  which  occurs  2  hours  after  high  and  low  water  at  Snug  Harbor. 
The  current  at  its  greatest  velocity  probably  reaches  8  knots.  It  is 
said  that  3J/2  fathoms  can  be  carried  through  the  channel  at  low  water, 
but  this  statement  should  be  received  with  caution. 

Olga  Bay  is  an  irregularly  shaped^  body  of  water,  17  to  18  miles  long 
and  1/2  mile  to  2  miles  wide.  The  western  end  is  the  largest  and  is 
separated  from  the  sea,  about  6  miles  northward  of  Low  Cape,  by  a 
strip  of  low  land  only  ^  mile  wide.  The  bay  has  the  appearance  of  a 
lake,  and  the  rise  and  fall  of  tide  varies  from  1  to  2  feet  at  the  cannery, 
which  is  at  the  entrance  of  the  stream  on  the  north  shore  about  10 
miles  northwestward  of  the  Narrows. 

DIRECTIONS,  ALITAK  BAY. 

Approaching  through  Sitkinak  Strait,  note  the  description  of  the 
strait  preceding.  Approaching  from  northwestward,  courses  are 
given  in  the  description  of  the  coast  preceding. 

From  southwestward. — U.  S.  S.  Hanger  passed  8  miles  off  the  north- 
west shore  of  Tugidak  Island  on  a  43°  true  (N  by  E  %  E  mag.)  course, 
with  soundings  of  15  to  20  fathoms  over  an  even  bottom  of  sand  and 
gravel.  When  the  north  end  of  the  higher  part  of  Tugidak  bore 
166°  true  (SE  %  S  mag.),  distant  9  miles,  27  fathoms  was  found, 
broken  shell  bottom.  The  course  was  then  changed  to  76°  true 
(NE  %  E  mag.),  and  the  water  suddenly  deepened  from  32  fathoms 
31056°— 16 10 


146  ALITAK    BAY. 

to  42  fathoms,  rocky  bottom.  This  depth  was  carried  with  the  same 
character  of  bottom  until  Cape  Alitak  bore  355°  true  (NNW  Y^  W 
mag.),  distant  3%  miles,  when  29  fathoms,  gray  sand  and  shell,  was 
found.  The  water  then  shoaled  quickly  and  the  ship  anchored  in  9 
fathoms,  with  Cape  Alitak  bearing  318°  true  (NW  by  W  %  W  mag.), 
distant  3  miles. 

The  shoal  across  the  entrance  to  Alitak  Bay  is  described  in  the 
paragraph  following  Cape  Alitak,  preceding.  Passing  2  miles  east- 
southeastward  of  the  cape  should  lead  across  the  shoal  in  a  least  depth 
of  6  to  7  fathoms.  The  principal  shoals,  so  far  as  known,  in  Alitak 
Bay  are  in  long  ridges  trending  with  the  bay  and  lie  abreast  the  islands 
and  rocks  between  Kempff  Bay  and  Moser  Bay,  as  described  in  the 
paragraphs  following  Round  Hill,  and  including  Middle  Reef.  The 
following  courses  lead  in  the  best  water,  as  determined  by  the  survey: 

With  Cape  Alitak  bearing  315°  true  (WNW  mag.),  distant  2  miles, 
steer  45°  true  (NNE  mag.)  for  7  miles  to  a  position  with  a  reef  covered 
at  high  water  in  range  with  Round  Hill,  bearing  on  the  port  beam,  the 
reef  distant  1J4  miles  and  the  hill  distant  2J^  miles. 

Then  steer  15°  true  (N  %  W  mag.)  for  3  miles,  heading  for  High 
Rock,  until  1  mile  from  it,  and  then  steer  338°  true  (NW  mag.)  and 
pass  200  to  300  yards  southwestward  of  the  sandspit  on  the  north 
side  at  the  entrance  to  Moser  Bay. 

When  the  sandspit  is  well  abaft  the  beam,  haul  westward  for  the 
south  side  of  Snug  Harbor,  which  will  lead  southward  of  the  shoal 
making  off  from  the  north  shore,  1  mile  westward  of  the  entrance ;  a 
320°  true  (NW  by  W  ^  W  mag.)  course,  with  the  south  point  at  the 
entrance  to  Moser  Bay  astern,  will  lead  midway  between  the  shoal 
and  the  end  of  the  spit  on  the  south  shore.  Above  the  shoal  there 
are  no  dangers,  but  the  west  shore  should  be  favored  somewhat  from 
Point  Fassett  to  the  entrance  of  Chips  Cove. 

CHIRIKOF  ISLAND  (CHARTS  8881,  9196), 

lies  about  60  miles  south-south  westward  of  the  Trinity  Islands.  The 
southern  part  of  the  island  has  bold,  high  peaks  and  bluffs,  from  which 
it  gradually  slopes  to  the  north  end,  terminating  in  a  low,  green,  un- 
dulating country.  There  is  an  islet  near  the  southeast  end.  The 
island  is  easily  recognized  at  night  unless  fog-covered. 

Anchorage  may  be  found  hi  the  bight  at  the  southwest  corner 
(Southwest  Anchorage,  chart  9196),  at  the  mouth  of  the  stream  and 
opposite  the  houses;  or  in  10  fathoms  on  the  west  side  off  the  bluff 
just  south  of  the  stream,  possibly  2  miles  from  the  northwest  point. 
There  is  foul  ground  between  Chirikof  Island  and  the  islets  west  of  it. 
These  islets  are  known  as  Nagai  Rocks;  the  largest,  Round  Rock, 
appears  like  a  haystack. 

A  shoal  is  reported  to  extend  from  the  east  side  near  the  middle  of 
the  island;  the  Albatross  reported  breakers  3  miles  114°  true  (E  % 
S  mag.)  from  the  middle  of  the  island.  A  breaker  is  reported  in  an 
estimated  position  4  miles  east-southeastward  from  the  southeast 
point  of  the  island.  A  shoal  with  kelp  is  reported  to  extend  about  1 
mile  westward  from  the  northwest  point  of  the  island. 


ALASKA    PENINSULA.  147 

SEMIDI  ISLANDS  (CHART  8881), 

consisting  of  two  large  and  seven  small  islands,  are  1,200  to  1,500 
feet  high  with  bold  shores  and  may  be  safely  approached  as  the  sound- 
ings are  deep.  There  are  strong  tidal  currents  among  the  islands, 
which  form  bad  tide  rips  in  the  channels  and  off  the  points.  The 
breaker  shown  southwestward  of  Chowiet  Island  is  reported  by  some 
navigators  to  lie  much  closer  in  than  charted. 

Small  sealing  schooners  formerly  anchored  in  the  coves  at  the 
southwest  end,  east  side,  and  in  both  coves  in  the  bight  on  the  north- 
west side  of  Chowiet  Island;  on  the  south  side  of  Kateekuk  Island, 
and  on  the  east  side,  near  the  north  end,  of  Aghiyuk  Island.  Vessels 
of  the  Coast  Guard  have  reported  that  the  anchorages  on  the  east 
side  near  the  north  end,  and  on  the  northwest  side  of  Chowiet  Island 
are  available  shelters  in  westerly  and  easterly  gales,  respectively. 

Lighthouse  Rocks,  lying  about  30  miles  southwestward  of  Chowiet 
Island,  consist  of  several  detached,  barren  rocks,  occupying  an  area 
about  J£  mile  in  diameter.  The'largest  rock  is  500  feet  long  and  90 
feet  high.  They  can  be  approached  as  close  as  %  mile  with  safety. 
There  is  a  large  sea-lion  rookery  on  the  rocks. 

Currents. — Between  Sitkinak  and  Chirikof  Islands  the  general  set 
of  the  current  is  reported  to  be  about  249°  true  (SW  J/g  W  mag.), 
0.5  knot.  There  is  a  current  between  Chirikof  Island  and  Lighthouse 
Rocks,  with  a  southerly  set,  less  than  0.5  knot.  From  Lighthouse 
Rocks  to  Kupreanof  Point  the  current  sets  generally  260°  true  (SW 
by  W  M  W  mag.)  and  varies  from  0.3  to  0.7  knot. 

ALASKA  PENINSULA. 

General  Remarks. — The  south  coast  of  the  Alaska  Peninsula,  from 
Cape  Douglas  to  Cape  Pankof,  has  a  length  of  about  425  miles.  It  is 
irregular  and  greatly  broken  by  numerous  indentations  affording 
anchorages.  Many  of  its  points  are  rugged  cliffs  of  great  height 
which  can  not  be  approached  too  closely  on  account  of  reefs  at  the 
bases  of  them,  while  others  are  lo\v  with  more  or  less  shoal  water  off 
them. 

The  mountains  on  the  peninsula  are  high,  irregular  and  bold,  and 
many  of  the  peaks  reach  heights  of  2,000  to  9,000  feet. 

Pavlof  Volcano,  the  most  prominent  of  several  on  the  peninsula,  is 
about  9,000  feet  high,  lies  on  the  west  side  of  Pavlof  Bay,  and  has 
three  peaks  lying  in  a  general  north  and  south  line,  the  middle  one 
being  the  highest.  These  peaks  are  very  symmetrical.  Smoke  is 
frequently  seen  issuing  from  the  central  one. 

Frosty  Peak,  a  noticeable  snow-capped  mountain  near  the  south- 
west end  of  the  peninsula,  is  5,800  feet  high;  it  is  not  very  regular 
in  outline  and  has  several  peaks,  one  of  which,  however,  rises  above 
the  others. 

Many  lakes  and  sizable  streams  are  found  inland  and  there  are 
several  portages  across  the  peninsula  and  between  the  adjacent  bays. 

Many  settlements,  canneries,  and  fishing  stations  are  scattered 
along  the  coast  and  among  the  off-lying  islands. 

There  are  numerous  off-lying  islands  and  groups  of  islands  with 
navigable  passages  between,  and  good  harbors  on  their  coasts. 


148  ALASKA    PENINSULA. 

The  weather  along  the  Alaska  Peninsula  is  moist  and  cool  through- 
out the  year.  Rain  and  snow  falls  are  excessive  and  there  are  long 
periods  of  rainy,  moist,  and  cloudy  weather.  Snow  may  fall  at  the 
water  level  until  June  and  on  the  peaks  until  late  in  the  summer. 
It  extends  far  down  the  slopes  at  the  close  of  September  and  may 
be  expected  at  the  water  level  early  in  October.  Fog  and  mist  may 
be  expected  at  any  time  from  spring  until  fall  and  often  last  for 
several  days. 

Fog. — No  really  thick  fog  was  met  with  in  1913  and  1914,  although 
the  surveying  vessel  was  moving  actively  about  in  all  parts  of  the 
region  during  both  seasons.  It  proved  possible  to  navigate  safely 
at  all  times,  although  misty  and  moderately  thick  weather  fre- 
quently prevailed.  Kupreanof  Point  and  Cape  Pankof  are  often 
enveloped  in  fog  banks,  and  occasionally  in  dense  fog. 

Winds. — There  are  no  prevailing  winds.  In  the  early  part  of  the 
summer  southerly  winds  are  more  frequent,  in  mid-summer  southeast 
winds,  and  in  October  and  November  northerly  winds.  All  winds 
bring  mist  and  rain  except  west-southwest  to  north,  an  on-shore 
wind  brings  mist  and  rain,  and  an  off-shore  wind  clearing  weather. 
The  mist  and  fog  are  thicker  on  the  weather  side  of  the  land,  and  lift 
to  leeward.  Thus  a  landfall  may  almost  always  be  made  on  the  lee 
side  of  the  land. 

The  tidal  currents  are  weak,  probably  never  exceeding  1  %  knots. 
There  is  a  continuous  current  westward  along  the  mainland,  which 
becomes  stronger  on  the  approach  of  a  northeast  storm,  and  is 
often  the  best  warning  of  such  a  storm.  Westerly  winds  weaken 
the  current.  The  barometer  indicates  that  some  storms  reach  this 
coast  from  the  south  or  southeast,  while  others  are  typical  cyclonic 
storms  approaching  from  the  west. 

Kelp. — The  navigator  can  not  rely  on  seeing  kelp  on  rocks  and 
shoals;  many  rocks  and  gravel  banks  bear  no  kelp,  especially  early 
or  late  in  the  summer.  Many  others  have  only  a  light  growth  of 
thin  ribbon  kelp  which  can  not  be  seen  until  the  vessel's  stem  enters 
it,  and  which  is  often  drawn  under  by  a  current  or  sea. 

Commerce. — There  is  only  one  small  steamer  which  makes  regular 
trips  along  this  coast.  Stops  are  made  regularly  at  the  post  offices 
at  Chignik,  Unga,  Sand  Point,  Belkofski,  and  Kings  Cove;  stops 
are  made  at  other  places  on  payment  of  a  bonus.  Many  other 
irregular  vessels  use  the  south  Alaska  Peninsula  passage,  however, 
in  voyages  between  southeast  Alaska  and  Bering  Sea. 

Local  attraction  has  been  reported  in  the  vicinity  of  Arch  Point, 
in  the  passage  between  Dolgoi  and  Goloi  Islands,  and  off  Kings  Cove. 

DIRECTIONS,  CAPE  IKTI  TO  CAPE  KALEKTA. 

For  a  vessel  bound  westward  along  the  south  coast  of  the  Alaska 
Peninsula  there  exists  an  inside  passage  from  Mitrofania  Island  to 
Cape  Pankof,  195  miles  in  length,  measured  along  the  usual  steamer 
tracks.  This  passage  is  used  entirely  or  in  part  by  the  majority 
of  vessels  navigating  between  these  points.  While  it  has  been  by 
no  means  completely  surveyed,  many  soundings  have  been  taken 
upon  it  and  the  points  of  departure  have  been  accurately  located. 
A  careful  navigator  may  safely  follow  it  except  with  a  vessel  of  the 
deepest  draft,  if  he  observes  the  directions  given.  However,  a 


ALASKA    PENINSULA — DIRECTIONS.  149 

large  vessel  of  good  power  would  undoubtedly  find  it  better  to  keep 
to  the  open  sea;  while  a  vessel  of  2,000  tons  or  less  would  probably 
be  favored  more  by  the  shelter  of  the  islands  and  numerous  harbors. 
The  passage  is  exposed  at  several  places  to  the  open  sea,  but  for 
the  greater  part  of  the  way  is  effectively  protected  by  islands  and 
reefs. 

The  channels  have  no  characteristic  formation  or  direction;  the 
depth  is  less  than  100  fathoms  at  all  points,  and  the  bottom  is 
extremely  irregular  and  rocky  in  most  places.  At  several  critical 
points  a  good  location  may  be  obtained  with  a  hand  lead.  Many 
of  the  points  of  departure  are  rugged  cliffs  of  great  height,  which 
can  not,  however,  be  approached  too  closely  on  account  of  reefs  at 
the  bases  of  them;  while  others  are  low  sand  points  with  more  or 
less  shoal  water  off  them.  The  passage  follows  the  mainland  coast 
almost  invariably,  passing  inside  of  almost  all  of  the  islands. 

The  islands  are  1,200  to  2,000  feet  high,  while  the  mainland  has 
peaks  near  the  sea  2,000  to  8,000  feet  high.  The  land  has  no  timber 
whatever  upon  it,  but  in  the  months  of  July  and  August  bears  a 
heavy  growth  of  grass.  The  snow  line  in  these  months  is  at  about 
2,500  feet  elevation. 

Cape  Ikti  to  Kupreanof  Point. — The  following  courses  are  recom- 
mended because  lines  of  soundings  have  beea  run  upon  them,  which 
would  indicate  that  they  are  safe. 

Pass  1.6  miles  off  Cape  Ikti  and  steer  252°  true  (SW  ^  W  mag.) 
for  6.5  miles,  with  the  north  end  of  Mitrofania  Island  ahead.  When 
the  southeastern  point  of  Mitrofania  Peninsula  is  abeam,  1.5  miles 
distant,  steer  285°  true  (W  %  S  mag.)  7.3  miles,  for  the  river  mouth, 
which  is  near  the  foot  of  the  hills  northeastward  of  Long  Beach. 
Run  %  mile  after  the  west  ends  of  Little  Brother  Island  and  Mitro- 
fania Island  are  in  range,  and  when  Long  Beach  is  0.9  miles  distant 
steer  195°  true  (S  %  E  mag.)  for  3.1  miles  and  pass  0.9  mile  off  the 
next  point,  passing  midway  between  Little  Brother  Island  and  the 
mainland,  and  heading  about  1  mile  to  westward  of  Mitrofania 
Island.  Then  steer  242°  true  (SW  Y±  S  mag.)  for  4.6  miles,  heading 
for  the  south  part  of  Chiachi  Island,  and  passing  1  mile  off  Coal 
Cape. 

With  Coal  Cape  bearing  0°  true  (N  by  W  %  Wmag.)  1  mile  distant, 
steer  301°  true  (W  by  N  mag.)  for  3.6  miles,  heading  for  Perry  village. 
When  the  west  tangent  of  Shapka  Island  is  abeam,  1  mile  distant, 
and  closed  on  Chiachi  Island,  steer  236°  true  (SW  %  S  mag.)  for  10.7 
miles,  passing  midway  between  Three  Star  Point  and  Chiachi  Island; 
on  this  course  pass  0.2  mile  off  Paul  Island,  nearer  to  it  than  to  Egg 
Island,  and  avoid  the  reef  which  extends  from  Egg  Island;  there  is 
7  fathoms,  gravel  bottom,  abreast  of  Egg  Island  on  this  course,  and 
the  tangent  of  Alexander  Point  is  right  ahead.  When  past  Paul 
Island,  with  the  west  tangent  of  it  abeam,  steer  204°  true  (S  ^  W 
mag.)  for  16.2  miles,  passing  0.7  mile  eastward  of  Leader  Island, 
1.2  miles  eastward  of  Fox  Cape,  and  1  mile  off  Kupreanof  Point. 

To  enter  Kupreanof  Harbor,  steer  90°  true  (ENE  ^  E  mag.) 
through  the  middle  of  the  westerly  entrance,  and  when  the  northern 
point  at  the  entrance  is  abeam  0.3  mile  distant  steer  45°  true  (NNE 
%  E  mag.),  with  the  peak  of  Paul  Island  ahead  and  Leader  Island  in 
range  with  the  tangent  of  Jacob  Island  astern.  When  the  east 
entrance  between  Paul  and  Jacob  Islands  is  about  to  open,  anchor  in 


150  ALASKA   PENINSULA DIRECTIONS. 

10  fathoms  with  the  two  points  of  this  eastern  entrance  in  range. 
This  is  the  best  harbor  in  this  part  of  the  peninsula. 

Kupreanof  Point  to  Unga  Strait. — From  a  position  1  mile  south- 
southeastward  of  Kupreanof  Point  steer  267°  true  (WSW  mag.)  for 
15.4  miles  to  a  position  1  mile  north-northwestward  of  Karpa  Island; 
then  steer  248°  true  (SW  %  W  mag.)  for  18.2  miles  to  Cape  Swedania, 
bearing  0°  true  (N  by  W  %  W  mag.),  distant  3  miles.  From  here 
steer  270°  true  (WSW  M  W  mag.)  for  6.7  miles,  passing  0.9  mile  off 
Gull  Island,  to  Unga  Strait,  with  the  low  sandy  point  on  Unga  Island 
abeam  0.9  mile  distant.  Soundings  were  made  upon  these  courses, 
and  they  appear  safe. 

A  rock  (E.  D.)  has  been  charted  northward  of  Karpa  Island,  and 
there  is  undoubtedly  broken  bottom  northward  of  Korovin  Island, 
although  of  greater  depth  than  pinnacles  are  generally  found  in. 
Therefore  most  vessels  steer  238°  true  (SW  y%  S  mag.)  for  22  miles 
from  Kupreanof  Point  abeam  to  the  middle  of  Gorman  Strait;  then 
round  Cape  Devine,  and  with  it  bearing  333°  true  (NW  ^  W  mag.), 
1.4  miles  distant,  steer  280°  true  (W  %  S  mag.)  for  6.5  miles  to 
Korovin  Strait;  then  with  High  Island  abeam,  0.9  mile  distant,  steer 
290°  true  (W  Y%  N  mag.)  for  8.2  miles  to  the  above  position  off  Cape 
Swedania,  and  follow  trie  directions  in  the  preceding  paragraph. 

A  portion  of  this  track  has  already  been  surveyed,  and  it  is  for  that 
reason  safer;  but  Gorman  Strait  is  a  poor  mark  in  bad  weather;  there 
are  dangerous  rocks  on  both  sides  of  it,  and  there  are  variable  currents 
across  the  course  from  Kupreanof  Point.  Therefore  some  navigators 
might  be  led  to  choose  the  shorter  and  easier  route,  hence  directions 
are  given  for  it. 

Gorman  Strait  to  Unga. — From  a  position  in  the  middle  of  Gorman 
Strait,  a  220°  true  (S  by  W  %  W  mag.)  course  for  10  miles  leads  1 
mile  east-southeastward  of  Popof  Head.  If  bound  to  Sand  Point, 
round  Popof  Head  at  a  distance  of  1  mile ;  then  follow  the  directions 
for  entering  Popof  Strait  from  eastward.  If  bound  to  Unga,  steer 
235°  true  (SW  %  S  mag.)  for  6.6  miles  to  Halfway  Rock  bearing  0° 
true  (N  by  W  %  W  mag.),  distant  %  mile;  then  follow  the  directions 
for  entering  Delarof  Harbor. 

With  Cape  Swedania  bearing  0°  true  (N  by  W  %  W  mag.),  distant 
3  miles,  steer  270°  true  (WSW  %  W  mag.)  for  6.7  miles,  passing  0.9 
mile  off  Gull  Island,  to  Unga  Strait,  with  the  low  sandy  point  on 
Unga  Island  abeam  0.9  mile  distant. 

To  pass  through  West  Nagai  Strait. — From  a  position  with  Kup- 
reanof Point  bearing  294°  true  (W  %  N  mag.),  distant  1  mile,  steer 
220°  true  (S  by  W  %  W  mag.)  for  24  miles  to  a  position  1  mile  130° 
true  (ESE  J/£  E  mag.)  from  the  south  point  of  the  southeast  island  of 
the  Haystacks.  If  bound  to  Unga,  change  to  251°  true  (SW  %  W 
mag.)  for  16.4  miles  to  a  position  %  mile  180°  true  (S.by  E  %  E  mag.) 
from  Halfway  Rock;  then  follow  directions  for  entering  Delarof 
Harbor. 

If  bound  to  Sand  Point. — From  the  position  1  mile  130°  true 
(ESE  J/g  E  mag.)  from  the  southeast  island  of  the  Haystacks,  steer 
261°  true  (SW  by  W  Y2  W  mag.)  for  11.4  miles  to  a  position  1  mile 
southward  of  Popof  Head;  then  follow  directions  for  entering  Popof 
Strait  from  the  eastward. 

Unga  Strait  to  Arch  Point. — From  the  position  in  Unga  Strait,  0.9 
mile  0°  true  (N  by  W  %  W  mag.)  from  the  low  sandy  point  on  Unga 


ALASKA    PENINSULA — DIRECTIONS.  151 

Island,  steer  246°  true  (SW  Y%  W  mag.)  for  15.8  miles,  with  Cape 
Swedania  astern,  to  Jude  Island  abeam,  distant  3.4  miles.  Then 
steer  270°  true  (WSW  M  W  mag.)  for  13  miles,  passing  1.8  miles  off 
the  point  east  of  Hair  Seal  Cape, -the  same  distance  off  Moses  Rock, 
to  a  position  with  the  west  tangent  of  Cape  Tolstoi  abeam  3.6  miles 
distant.  Then  steer  241°  true  (SW  %  S  mag.)  for  15.8  miles  to  pass 
1^2  miles  off  Ukolnoi  Island,  and  0.4  mile  off  and  1  mile  beyond 
Arch  Point. 

There  is  a  5%-fathom  shoal  0.8  mile  off  Arch  Point;  and  about 
halfway  between  Arch  Point  and  Dolgoi  Island  is  a  shoal  with  1 1  feet. 
Arch  Point  has  deep  water  close- to. 

If  desired,  one  may  leave  the  same  point  of  departure  in  Unga 
Strait  and  steer  253°  true  (SW  %  W  mag.)  for  33.9  miles  to  the  north- 
west point  of  Ukolnoi  Island  abeam,  0.8  mile  distant;  then  steer  245° 
true  (SW  >£  W  mag.)  for  8.9  miles  to  pass  the  same  distance  off  Arch 
Point.  This  course  passes  0.9  mile  off  shore  on  approaching  Hair 
Seal  Cape.  At  the  point  of  departure  in  Unga  Strait  the  depth  is 
24  fathoms,  increasing  to  60  fathoms  off  Beaver  Bay;  a  few  miles 
farther  the  depth  decreases  to  10  fathoms,  and  approaching  Hair 
Seal  Cape  it  increases  again  to  15  fathoms.  From  Cape  Tolstoi 
south  westward,  and  off  Ukolnoi  Island,  the  depth  is  50  to  60  fathoms. 

Arch  Point  to  Stag  Point. — From  a  position  1  mile  southwestward 
from  Arch  Point  steer  180°  true  (S  by  E  ^  E  mag.)  for  4  miles  with 
the  sand  spit  at  the  northwest  end  of  Goloi  Island  in  range  with  the 
middle  of  Iliasik  Strait,  until  the  sand  spit  at  the  easterly  end  of 
Moss  Cape  is  a  little  abaft  the  beam,  0.6  mile  distant.  Then  steer 
207°  true  (S  %  W  mag.)  for  0.9  mile,  heading  for  the  northwest  point 
of  Inner  Iliasik  Island,  avoiding  a  kelp-marked  shoal  which  extends 
about  0.4  mile  from  shore  on  the  south  side  of  the  sand  spit  at  the 
easterly  end  of  Moss  Cape,  and  passing  0.4  mile  westward  of  the 
sand  spit  at  the  northwest  end  of  Gploi  Island.  Rocks  extend  400 
yards  off  the  southwest  side  of  Goloi  Island  at  a  distance  of  ^  mile 
southeastward  of  the  spit. 

Then  steer  168°  true  (SSE  %  E  mag.)  for  4.4  miles  with  the  end  of 
the  sand  spit  at  the  east  end  of  Moss  Cape  astern  and  the  highest  point 
of  the  ridge  across  the  north  end  of  Outer  Iliasik  Island  ahead,  to  a 
point  opposite  the  middle  of  Iliasik  Strait.  Approaching  Iliasik 
Strait,  rocks  lying  0.3  mile  southwestward  of  the  northwest  part  of 
Outer  Iliasik  appear  to  be  in  mid-channel,  but  as  the  course  is  con- 
tinued the  channel  opens  out  north  of  them.  Open  out  the  channel 
well  before  passing  through  from  either  side.  The  best  course  is 
about  south-southwest  (mag.)  through  the  middle  of  the  strait,  with 
the  north  point  of  the  entrance  to  Dolgoi  Harbor  astern.  The  strait 
is  1.1  miles  wide  and  has  a  clear  width  of  nearly  ^  mile.  A  partly 
bare  reef  extends  0.3  mile  off  the  northwest  side  of  the  strait,  and  a 
shelving  shoal  extends  0.4  mile  off  the  sand  spit  at  the  northwest  end 
of  Outer  Iliasik  Island. 

From  Iliasik  Strait  steer  263°  true  (SW  by  W  %  W  mag.)  for  13.3 
miles,  passing  %  mile  south  of  Cape  Bold  and  %  mile  north  and  0.3 
mile  beyond  Stag  Point,  with  the  north  tangent  of  Outer  Iliasik 
astern.  From  Iliasik  Strait  to  Stag  Point  there  is  from  10  to  50 
fathoms. 

Stag  Point  to  Cape  Pankof.— Then  steer  244°  true  (SW  mag.)  for 
5.1  miles  to  a  point  y2  mile  off  the  northwest  point  of  Fox  Island  and 


152  ALASKA    PENINSULA DIRECTIONS. 

with  a  stern  range  on  a  large  rock  a  few  yards  off  Cape  Bold.  Then 
steer  229°  true  (SSW  %  W  mag.)  for  13 %  miles  to  Umga  Island  % 
mile  abeam  to  southward.  There  is  a  3-fathom  shoal  3  miles  247° 
true  (SW  ^g  W  mag.)  from  West  Cape,  Deer  Island;  the  course  passes 
J£  mile  northward  of  it.  After  passing  Fox  Island  the  bottom  shoals 
to  6  fathoms  over  the  bar  off  Thin  Point,  and  then  deepens  to  30 
fathoms  near  Umga  Island.  (See  the  description  of  the  shoal  extending 
from  Thin  Point  to  Deer  Island  on  p.  187.) 

Then  steer  226°  true  (SSW  ^  W  mag.)  for  14.2  miles,  which  should 
lead  to  a  position  \Y^  miles  136°  true  (SE  by  E  J^  E  mag.)  from  Cape 
Pankof.  On  this  course  Pankof  Breaker  should  be  left  2^  miles  on 
the  starboard  hand. 

Cape  Pankof  through  Unimak  Pass  to  Cape  Kalekta, — From  a  posi- 
tion \y<i  miles  136°  true  (SE  by  E  J^  E  mag.)  of  Cape  Pankof  make 
good  a  253°  true  (SW  %  W  mag.)  course.  The  southernmost  pinna- 
cle rock  at  Cape  Lazaref  should  be  left  about  3J4  miles  on  the  star- 
board hand,  and  the  coast  of  the  southern  end  of  Unimak  Island 
should  be  given  a  berth  of  about  2  miles.  This  course  made  good  for 
58  miles  should  lead  to  a  position  with  Seal  Cape  on  the  starboard 
beam  distant  2J^  miles. 

When  crossing  Unimak  Pass  the  tidal  current  with  a  maximum 
velocity  at  strength  of  about  4  knots  will  be  on  the  bow  or  quarter, 
and  allowance  must  be  made  for  it  to  make  the  course  good  (see 
p.  197). 

From  a  position  2J^  miles  southeastward  of  Seal  Cape  make  good 
a  268°  true  (WSW  J4  W  mag.)  course  for  36  miles,  which  should  lead 
to  a  position  2  miles  north-northwestward  from  Akun  Head.  The 
course  should  lead  2  miles  northward  of  the  eastern  headland  at  the 
north  end  of  Akun  Island  when  5  miles  from  Akun  Head. 

From  a  position  2  miles  north-northwestward  from  Akun  Head 
make  good  a  249°  true  (SW  %  W  mag.)  course  for  14  miles  to  a  posi- 
tion with  the  western  head  at  the  north  end  of  Akutan  Island  bearing 
141°  true  (SE  by  E  mag.)  distant  2  miles. 

From  this  position  make  good  a  224°  true  (SSW  %  W  mag.)  course 
for  18  y^  miles,  which  should  lead  to  a  position  about  1  mile  north- 
westward of  Cape  Kalekta.  In  crossing  from  Akutan  Island  to  Cape 
Kalekta  care  should  be  taken  not  to  be  set  off  the  course  by  the  tidal 
currents  setting  to  or  from  Akutan  and  Unalga  Passes. 

SHAW  ISLAND  TO  TAKLI  ISLAND. 

Shaw  Island  lies  10  miles  northwestward  from  Cape  Douglas  and 
1%  miles  from  shore.  It  is  %  mile  long,  about  50  feet  high,  flat 
and  grass  covered.  A  depth  of  12  fathoms  was  found  midway 
between  it  and  the  shore.  Ledges  extend  northwestward  from 
the  island  to  a  greatest  distance  of  %  mile  from  its  northern  end. 

The  two  bluff  points  1%  miles  southward  and  5  miles  southeast- 
ward of  Shaw  Island  are  the  ends  of  two  sharp,  rocky  ridges  extend- 
ing from  the  high  land  of  Mount  Douglas.  Anchorage  can  be  had 
in  the  bight  between  the  points  in  13  to  15  fathoms,  sandy  bottom, 
with  shelter  from  southerly  and  westerly  winds,  but  the  williwaws 
are  bad  during  westerly  gales.  At  the  head  of  the  bight  is  a  short 
valley  with  a  glacier.  Just  clear  of  the  bluff  point  at  the  southeast 


SHAW   ISLAND   TO    TAKLI   ISLAND.  153 

end  of  the  bight  is  a  pinnacle  rock  about  as  high  as  the  bluff.  The 
bight  southeastward  of  this  last  point  appears  shoal. 

Sukoi  Bay,  on  the  north  side  of  Cape  Douglas,  is  shoal  and  can 
be  used  only  by  small  craft  with  local  knowledge.  There  are  locks 
bare  at  low  water  in  the  middle  of  the  entrance,  and  a  ledge  bare 
at  low  water  between  the  rocks  and  the  south  shore. 

Cape  Douglas  is  a  grassy  peninsula  about  3  miles  long  and  190 
feet  high.  At  its  western  end  it  breaks  off  in  a  bluff  to  a  low,  nar- 
row neck  which  connects  it  to  the  mainland.  Rocks  bare  at  low 
water  extend  about  J/£  mile  eastward  from  the  cape. 

The  bight  south  of  the  neck  back  of  Cape  Douglas  is  an  anchorage 
sheltered  from  northerly  and  westerly  winds.  There  is  some  shelter 
from  northeasterly  winds,  but  if  heavy,  some  swell  rolls  around 
the  point.  A  stream  enters  the  northeast  end  of  the  bight  at  the 
foot  of  the  bluff,  and  this  part  of  the  bight  is  dry  at  low  water  nearly 
out  to  the  southwest  end  of  Cape  Douglas.  The  anchorage  is  in 
the  middle  of  the  bight,  with  the  two  points  on  the  south  side  of 
Cape  Douglas  in  range,  bearing  114°  true  (E  mag.),  in  6  fathoms, 
sandy  bottom. 

Douglas  Reef,  lying  5J^  miles  187°  true  (S  by  E  ^  E  mag.)  from 
Cape  Douglas,  is  about  2  miles  long  north  and  south.  The  reef  is 
partly  bare  at  low  water,  and  near  its  middle  is  a  rock  28  feet  high. 
A  sounding  of  6%  fathoms  with  40  to  60  fathoms  close- to  was  found 

1  mile  81°  true  (NE  by  E  mag.)  from  the  rock,  and  vessels  should 
not  approach  it  closer. 

Two  rocks,  close  together  and  awash  at  high  water,  lie  2%  miles 
southwestward  of  Douglas  Reef  and  \y%  miles  from  shore.  A  reef 
bare  at  low  water  extends  about  %  mile  southeastward  from  them. 

About  10  miles  southward  of  Cape  Douglas  is  a  point  marked 
by  a  hill  673  feet  high.  There  is  a  small  glacier  in  the  valley  south 
of  the  point.  Lying  1^  miles  from  the  point  and  168°  true  (SE  % 
S  mag.)  from  the  hifl  there  is  a  rock  awash  at  about  half  tide.  There 
is  no  kelp  on  the  rock,  and  the  sea  seldom  breaks  on  it  when  it  is 
covered. 

Two  kelp  patches  lie  about  1J^  miles  southward  of  the  preceding 
rock  and  the  same  distance  from  shore.  The  kelp  shows  well  at 
low  water  only,  and  the  sea  seldom  breaks  on  the  rocks.  The  eastern 
patch  lies  193°  true  (S  by  E  mag.)  from  the  hill  mentioned  in  the 
preceding  paragraph. 

Kiukpalik  Island  lies  17^  miles  southward  of  Cape  Douglas  and 

2  miles  from  shore.     It  is  1%  miles  long,  155  feet  high,  nearly  level 
and  grass  covered.     A  shoal  scantily  marked  by  kelp  lies  about  % 
mile  339°  true   (NW  mag.)  from  the  north  end  of  the  island,  and 
there  is  no  safe  channel  between  them.     A  temporary  anchorage 
with  shelter  from  easterly  winds  may  be  had  in  the  bight  on  the 
west  side  near  the  south  end  of  the  island,  in  8  or  9  fathoms,  muddy 
bottom.     The  shore  of  the  mainland   inside  the  island  should  be 
avoided,  as  there  is  a  possibility  of  shoals  on  that  side. 

Shakun  Rock,  a  prominent,  dark  pinnacle  50  feet  high,  lies  5 
miles  232°  true  (SSW  Y2  W  mag.)  from  Kiukpalik  Island.  From 
the  rock  a  semicircular  reef,  partly  bare  at  low  water,  extends  south- 
ward and  westward  to  the  south  end  of  a  chain  of  grass-covered 
islets.  There  is  foul  ground  between  Shakun  Rock  and  the  islets, 


154  ALASKA   PENINSULA. 

and  the  latter  are  apparently  connected  with  the  shore  northwest- 
ward by  a  reef. 

Swikshak  Bay  is  a  lagoon  which  is  practically  closed  at  all  stages 
of  the  tide.  The  entrance  lies  at  the  west  end  and  is  about  200 
feet  wide. 

Kaguyak  is  a  village  behind  a  large,  bare  rock  which  is  connected 
to  the  beach  at  low  water.  Approaching  from  southeastward,  a  ves- 
sel of  the  Coast  Guard  Service  anchored  in  about  7  fathoms,  hard 
sand  bottom,  with  Cape  Chiniak  bearing  205°  true  (S  y%  W  mag.), 
Shakun  Rock  86°  true  (NE  by  E  J^  E  mag.),  and  the  settlement  rock 
346°  true  (NW  %  N  mag.).  Between  Cape  Chiniak  and  Shakun 
Rock  the  bottom  was  found  to  be  uneven,  depths  10  to  20  fathoms, 
mud  and  hard  sand  at  intervals. 

Cape  Chiniak,  the  north  point  of  Hallo  Bay,  lies  7J^  miles  north- 
ward of  Cape  Nukshak.  There  is  a  high  hill  near  its  end. 

Hallo  Bay  has  not  been  examined  except  near  Cape  Nukshak. 
Ninagiak  Island,  in  Hallo  Bay,  has  a  knob  with  an  estimated  height 
of  200  feet.  A  rock  bare  at  low  water  lies  approximately  %  mile 
eastward  of  the  island. 

A  reef,  about  1 J^  miles  long  east  and  west,  lies  in  Hallo  Bay  approx- 
imately 13/2  miles  southeastward  of  Ninagiak  Island  and  1%  miles 
northward  of  Cape  Nukshak.  The  reef  is  bare  in  places  at  low  water, 
is  covered  at  high  water,  and  has  no  kelp. 

Cape  Nukshak  terminates  in  an  island  J^  mile  long  and  134  feet 
high,  with  two  knolls.  The  cape  is  flat  and  grass  covered  to  the  foot 
of  a  sharp,  prominent  peak,  but  there  is  a  break  through  the  flat  part 
of  the  cape  forming  a  second  island  at  high  water. 

Anchorage,  sheltered  from  southerly  and  westerly  winds,  may  be 
had  about  400  yards  off  the  north  side  of  Cape  Nukshak,  with  the 
foot  of  the  eastern  slope  of  the  peak  on  the  cape  bearing  203°  true 
(S  mag.),  in  22  fathoms,  muddy  bottom. 

From  Cape  Nukshak  to  the  entrance  of  Kukak  Bay  the  coast  is 
irregular  cliffs,  with  detached  rocks  showing  some  distance  off.  A 
reef,  partly  bare  at  low  water  and  marked  by  kelp,  extends  nearly  1 
mile  from  shore  1J^  miles  southward  of  Cape  Nukshak. 

Kukak  Bay  is  not  surveyed,  but  a  fair  general  idea  of  it  is  shown  on 
chart  8851  taken  from  Russian  charts.  It  is  clear  in  mid-channel 
and  easily  entered.  There  is  a  stream  in  the  valley  on  the  west  side 
about  halfway  up  the  bay,  and  a  flat  makes  out  possibly  300  yards 
from  its  mouth.  From  the  valley  at  the  southwest  end  of  the  head 
of  the  bay  a  flat  makes  out  to  an  estimated  distance  of  J^  mile,  with 
deep  water  close-to.  The  bay  has  great  depth,  there  are  numerous 
pinnacle  rocks  near  the  steep  shores,  and  the  anchorage  area  is  limited. 

On  the  east  side  of  the  bay  are  two  islands,  Aguligik  in  its  northern 

Eart  and  Aguchik  in  its  southern  part.     The  best  anchorage  in  the 
ay  is  apparently  in  the  bight  south  of  Aguchik  Island,  where  the 
depth  is  30  fathoms  in  the  middle,  shoaling  gradually  northeastward 
toward  its  head.     No  dangers  were  noted  in  the  bight,  but  it  was 
observed  at  high  water  only. 

Cape  Ugyak  lies  8  miles  southward  of  Cape  Nukshak  and  4  miles 
northward  of  Cape  Gull.  It  is  the  east  end  of  the  mountainous 
peninsula  south  and  east  of  Kukak  Bay.  There  are  some  bare  rocks 
close  to  the  cape,  and  a  breaker  was  seen  at  low  water  about  in  the 


SHAW   ISLAND    TO    TAKLl   ISLAND.  155 


position  of  the  sunken  rock  on  the  chart,  1%  miles  northwestward  of 
the  cape. 

Kaflia  Bay,  between  Capes  Ugyak  and  Gull,  has  a  narrow  entrance, 
reported  to  be  bare  at  low  water.  In  the  narrow  entrance  is  an  islet, 
The  channel  is  south  of  the  islet,  apparently  on  either  side  of  a  rock 
bare  at  low  water.  The  bay  has  two  small  basins,  with  20  to  35  fath- 
oms in  the  middle  of  each,  joined  by  a  very  narrow  channel.  It  is 
used  by  the  small  boats  of  the  canneries. 

Cape  Gull  is  a  bold  headland,  terminating  in  a  cliff  503  feet  high. 
Temporary  anchorage  can  be  had  in  the  middle  of  the  entrance  to  the 
cove  on  the  south  side  of  the  cape,  in  9  fathoms,  sandy  bottom.  The 
south  point  of  the  cove  is  marked  by  a  rocky  islet  about  15  feet  high. 

Cape  Kuliak  rises  gradually  from  a  crumbling  bluff  at  the  end  to 
high  mountains  inland  . 

Between  Capes  Kuliak  and  Atushagvik  is  an  open  bay  nearly  4 
miles  long,  which  has  not  been  sounded.  A  bare  rock  lies  300  yards 
off  a  prominent  point  on  the  north  shore.  A  rock  bare  at  low  water 
lies  600  yards  southeastward  from  the  point,  and  another  lies  Y^  mile 
westward  from  the  point,  and  %  mile  from  the  northern  shore. 

Cape  Atushagvik  lies  4*4  miles  225°  true  (SSW  mag.)  from  Cape 
Kuliak.  It  has  a  low  bluff  at  the  water,  and  rises  in  a  gentle  slope 
to  a  prominent  knoll,  900  feet  high,  with  a  decided  saddle  between  it 
and  the  higher  land  farther  back.  There  is  a  kelp  patch  nearly  % 
mile  southeastward  from  the  southern  end  of  the  cape. 

Between  Capes  Atushagvik  and  Ilktugitak  there  are  two  bays,  the 
southwestern  one  of  which  is  Amalik  Bay.  The  northeastern  bay  is 
8  miles  or  more  long,  344°  true  (NW  %  N  mag.),  and  nearly  3  miles 
wide  at  the  entrance.  It  is  clear  of  islands,  except  those  off  Amalik 
Bay  on  the  southwest  side  of  the  entrance.  On  the  northeast  side 
of  the  bay,  1  ^  miles  inside  Cape  Atushagvik,  is  a  low  peninsula  y% 
mile  long,  with  a  bluff  150  feet  high  near  its  end.  Russian  Harbor, 
the  cove  on  the  northwest  side  of  the  peninsula,  is  a  good  anchorage, 
300  to  500  yards  from  shore,  in  10  to  18  fathoms,  muddy  bottom. 
Fresh  water  may  be  obtained  by  boat.  The  entrance  of  the  bay  to 
the  anchorage  has  been  sounded,  and  the  only  directions  necessary 
are  to  give  Cape  Atushagvik  and  the  islands  on  the  southwest  side  of 
the  entrance  a  berth  of  about  1  mile. 

Amalik  Bay  lies  on  the  north  side  of  Cape  Ilktugitak,  and  is  sepa- 
rated from  the  bay  northeastward  by  a  high  peninsula.  No  sounding 
has  been  done,  but  there  is  secure  anchorage  at  its  head.  Takli  Island 
lies  in  its  mouth.  About  %  mile  northwestward  of  Takli  Island  there 
is  an  inner  chain  of  islands  which  extends  1  ^  miles  southwestward 
from  the  high  peninsula.  On  the  north  and  west  sides  of  this  chain 
of  islands  is  a  basin  %  to  %  mile  wide.  The  anchorage  is  at  the  north 
end  of  the  basin.  An  inlet  not  surveyed  makes  inland  from  the 
western  side  of  the  basin. 

The  entrance  to  Amalik  Bay  on  the  southwest  side  of  Takli  Island 
is  5^  mile  wide  and  apparently  clear.  Thence  the  channel  follows  the 
western  shore,  and  then  northward  through  the  basin  along  the 
western  side  of  the  inner  chain  of  islands. 

From  the  bay  northeastward  there  is  a  channel  along  the  shore  of 
the  high  peninsula,  passing  northward  of  all  the  outlying  islands,  and 
then  between  Takli  Island  and  the  inner  chain  of  islands. 


156  ALASKA   PENINSULA. 

Takli  Island  is  nearly  2  miles  long,  its  eastern  part  being  low, 
broken,  and  rocky.  At  its  extreme  western  end  is  a  hill  455  feet 
high,  from  which  there  is  a  sheer  clifT  to. the  water.  A  chain  of  rocky 
islands  extends  1J/2  miles  eastward  from  Takli  Island.  Reefs  extend 
about  J/2  mile  eastward  and  southward  from  these  islands,  and  the 
passage  between  them  and  the  group  of  islands  1  mile  northward  has 
dangers  and  should  be  avoided. 

TAKLI  ISLAND  TO  CAPE  IKTI. 

The  coast  from  Amalik  Harbor  to  Chignik  Bay  is  unsurveyed.  The 
following  notes  are  from  the  most  reliable  sources  available,  but 
should  be  used  with  caution. 

The  bay  east  of  Katmai  Bay  is  foul. 

Katmai  Bay  is  an  exposed  and  rocky  roadstead  which  can  only  be 
used  in  northerly  and  northwesterly  weather.  The  north  part  is  foul 
as  represented  on  the  chart.  A  shoal,  showing  kelp,  on  which  a 
depth  of  6  fathoms  was  obtained,  is  reported  to  lie  about  3  miles  off 
the  coast  and  9  miles  eastward  of  Katmai. 

Katmai  River,  previous  to  the  eruption  of  Katmai  Volcano  in  1912, 
could  be  navigated  by  launches  at  high  tide  as  far  as  the  village. 
The  bar  at  the  entrance  is  bad  and  has  heavy  rips,  except  at  slack 
water;  high-water  slack  is  the  time  to  enter.  The  inhabitants  of 
the  village  and  of  the  neighboring  villages  were  moved  from  their 
ash-covered  homes  to  Perry,  on  the  peninsula  north  of  Chiachi 
Island.  From  last  reports,  the  river  was  choked  with  pumice  which 
washes  down  from  the  higher  slopes  faster  than  the  stream  can  dis- 
pose of  it.  Steam  and  smoke  from  Katmai  Volcano  generally  hang 
over  the  vicinity,  obscuring  the  higher  ground  in  a  murky  haze. 

The  upper  part  of  Kashvik  Bay  is  foul;  there  is  no  shelter  in  the 
outer  part. 

The  southern  and  open  part  of  Alinchak  Bay  is  foul  to  the  head. 
Although  there  are  many  reefs  and  probably  pinnacles  around  the 
entrance  to  the  north  arm,  this  arm  is  reported  to  offer  good  anchorage 
and  protection,  after  it  has  been  entered;  but  it  should  not  be 
attempted  without  local  knowledge. 

Cold  Bay. — Good  anchorage  is  reported  in  the  north  end  of  Cold 
Bay,  the  depths  being  from  14  to  5  fathoms.  The  anchorage  is  well 
sheltered  with  winds  from  east,  through  north,  to  northwest;  but,  if 
the  wind  is  south  of  east  a  swell  soon  makes  in.  The  following  ap- 
proximate courses  were  steered  by  the  steamer  Dora: 

With  Cape  Karluk  1  mile  distant,  steer  270°  true  (WSW  mag.) 
to  a  position  1^  miles  off  the  outer  rocks  on  the  reef  extending  south- 
ward from  the  north  entrance  point  of  Cold  Bay;  then  change  to 
304°  true  (W  by  N  mag.),  passing  Cape  Aklek  at  4.8  miles  from  the 
point  of  change;  Aklek  Reef  2  mues  off  at  5.2  miles;  and  to  abreast 
of  the  inner  point  at  6.1  miles;  then  steer  276°  true  (WSW  l/2  W 
mag.)  for  0.4  mile  to  anchorage. 

Reefs  and  rocky  islets  extend  several  miles  southward  from  the 
north  point  at  the  entrance  of  Cold  Bay.  There  are  bad  tide  rips  off 
this  reef,  which  is  frequently  the  case  along  the  west  side  of  Shelikof 
Strait.  The  shore  northward  of  Cold  Bay  is  generally  foul.  The 
bay  is  open  southward  and  offers  poor  protection  from  the  frequent 
heavy  seas  from  that  direction. 


TAKLI   ISLAND   TO   CAPE   TKTI.  157 

Small  boats,  in  southeasterly  weather,  anchor  off  a  small  sand  beach 
in  a  shallow  bight  just  inside  the  north  entrance  point  and  are  partly 
sheltered  by  the  reef. 

Cape  Aklek,  the  southwest  entrance  point,  is  free  from  outlying 
dangers.  Just  inside  this  point  there  is  a  shingle  spit,  with  high  rocky 
bluffs  behind  it.  In  good  weather  a  vessel  can  anchor  off  this  spit, 
but  the  holding  ground  is  bad.  A  trader  lives  here,  and  when  the 
weather  permits  a  surf  landing,  the  mail  steamer  stops  regularly.  In 
winter,  the  mail  goes  from  this  point  over  the  trail  to  Nusnagak. 
Williwaws  are  frequent. 

Portage  Bay  is  clear  of  dangers  so  far  as  known.  On  entering, 
keep  about  mid-channel.  There  are  houses  at  the  extreme  upper 
end.  Anchor  in  5  fathoms  at  low  water  abreast  of  a  flat  promontory 
with  sheer  cliffs,  a  little  inside  of  a  small  gravel  spit  that  makes  off 
from  the  east  shore.  About  1J^  miles  from  the  house,  7  fathoms 
extend  for  about  a  mile  below  the  anchorage. 

Kialagvik  Bay  is  a  large  sheet  of  water  protected  from  the  sea  by 
a  long  chain  of  islets.  The  indication  on  the  general  chart  is  inac- 
curate; there  is  no  conspicuous  mountain  recognizable  as  the  one 
shown  on  the  chart.  The  bay  northeastward,  leading  toward  Be- 
charof  village,  is  clear  of  dangers  except  near  the  entrance  points, 
where  foul  ground  extends  weU  offshore,  and  near  the  village  where 
the  water  shoals  gradually  from  3  miles  off  the  beach.  The  entrance 
to  the  inner  bay  is  rather  close  to  the  outer  islets,  with  depths  of  2  or 
3  fathoms  over  a  bar.  Within,  there  are  no  hidden  dangers  and  the 
water  is  mostly  deep.  A  portage  to  the  Ugaguk  River  begins  in  a 
valley  near  the  western  end  of  the  inner  bay.  At  the  extreme  south- 
western end  rises  Mount  Alai,  from  which  a  large  glacier  descends  on 
its  eastern  side,  while  on  the  seaward  slope  two  others  come  down 
from  the  same  field. 

Agripina  Bay  has  been  used  to  some  extent  by  small  local  craft, 
and  is  reported  to  afford  good  shelter  from  all  winds.  A  group  of 
islands  lies  inside  the  bay,  and  a  passage  is  indicated  on  both  sides  of 
them.  Anchorages  for  small  craft  are  indicated  at  the  west  end  of 
the  largest  island,  on  the  south  side  of  the  smaller  island  above  it, 
and  in  the  cove  on  the  north  side  at  the  the  head  of  the  bay.  There 
is  a  glacier  on  the  north  side  of  the  bay. 

Port  Wrangell  is  shown  on  a  sketch  on  chart  8851 ;  otherwise  there 
is  no  information  available. 

No  accurate  information  is  at  hand  about  the  bays  between  Port 
Wrangell  and  Chignik  Bay. 

Sutwik  Island  is  low  and  rolling  and  its  southeast  point,  Foggy 
Cape,  is  low  and  sandy  with  dunes  upon  it.  The  passage  between  it 
and  the  mainland  is  rocky  and  should  not  be  attempted. 

CHIGNIK   BAY, 

in  its  southern  part,  is  deep  and  clear  so  far  as  known,  and  the  bottom 
is  irregular.  In  entering  or  leaving  the  bay,  the  passage  northward 
of  Nakchamik  Island  and  that  southward  of  Atkulik  and  Kak  Islands 
are  used.  From  the  hills  west  of  Chignik  Bay,  on  a  clear  day,  no 
rocks  were  seen,  except  those  within  half  a  mile  of  the  beach. 

Hook  Bay,  on  the  north  side  of  Chignik  Bay,  is  said  to  be  deep  and 
to  furnish  good  anchorage  a  short  distance  westward  of  the  end  of 


158  ALASKA   PENINSULA. 

the  gravel  spit.  As  observed  from  the  adjacent  hills  no  outlying 
dangers  were  seen  in  this  bay. 

Nakchamik  Island  is  grass  covered  and  mountainous,  the  south- 
eastern part  being  the  higher,  and  the  middle,  on  a  northeast  and 
southwest  line,  being  the  lower.  There  is  a  conical  peak  just  east  of 
the  center  of  the  island.  Cliffs  form  the  sides  in  general.  On  the 
northeast  side  is  the  opening  of  a  broad  valley  with  a  sand  beach,  in 
front  of  which,  it  is  reported,  anchorage  may  be  had  in  westerly 
weather.  A  reef  is  reported  to  extend  off  the  west  side  of  the  island 
for  some  distance. 

Kak  Islet  is  bold  and  high  and  generally  reddish  or  grayish  in 
color,  with  grassy  patches  on  the  less  steep  slopes.  The  southern 
bluffs  are  of  marked  columnar  structure. 

Atkulik  Island  resembles  Kak  Islet.  On  the  southeast  side  there 
is  a  high  haystack  rock  close-to. 

Tuliumnit  Point,  locally  known  as  Castle  Cape,  is  on  the  south 
side  at  the  entrance  to  Chignik  Bay.  The  point  is  narrow  and  the 
stratification  is  a  conspicuous  feature.  The  strata  are  of  many 
shades  of  light-colored  rocks  varied  by  bands  of  black.  The  sum- 
mit has  been  worn  into  many  curious  pinnacles  and  buttresses, 
which  suggest  its  name. 

Castle  Bay,  immediately  west  of  Tuliumnit  Point,  is  unsurveyed. 

West  of  Castle  Bay  are  four  projecting  ridges  ending  in  bluffs  at 
the  water's  edge ;  the  low  valleys  between  them  terminate  in  beaches 
which  inclose  lagoons. 

Anchorage  Bay,  chart  8822,  lies  west  of  the  fourth  ridge.  This 
ridge  terminates  in  vertical  bluffs  about  200  feet  high,  and  rises  to 
a  rounded  hill  which  is  covered  with  grass  and  alders  to  a  height  of 
about  1,000  feet.  The  ridge  west  of  Anchorage  Bay  is  irregular  in 
form,  with  bluffs  at  the  water.  Off  the  western  point  at  the 
entrance  is  a  large,  grass-covered  rock  82  feet  high,  connected  with 
the  shore  at  low  water,  and  having  a  lower  rock  100  yards  outside 
it.  A  reef  extends  about  200  yards  farther  out.  Westward  of  the 
rock  the  shore  is  foul  for  some  distance  and  should  not  be  approached 
too  closely.  At  the  entrance,  a  shingle  spit  projects  from  the  eastern 
shore  in  a  southwesterly  direction.  The  bay  is  easily  recognized 
by  the  bluff  headland  forming  the  west  entrance  point  with  the 
rock  off  it,  and  by  the  bluffs  on  the  east  side,  and  when  nearly  abreast 
of  it  the  smokestacks  of  the  cannery  show  over  the  shingle  spit. 
In  entering  give  the  outer  shore  of  the  shingle  spit  on  the  east  side 
a  fair  berth  and  do  not  approach  the  spit  too  closely. 

In  thick  weather  care  should  be  taken  to  avoid  entering  Mud 
Bay  by  mistake.  By  following  the  south  shore  of  Chignik  Bay, 
which  is  fairly  clear,  little  difficulty  should  be  experienced  under 
such  conditions. 

Chignik  is  on  the  east  side  near  the  head  of  Anchorage  Bay.  The 
wharf  is  fair,  with  a  good  depth  of  water  alongside. 

There  are  two  canneries  in  Anchorage  Bay,  one  in  the  southeast 
part  belonging  to  the  Northwestern  Fisheries  Company  and  the 
other  in  the  southwest  part  belonging  to  the  Columbia  River  Packer's 
Association.  Mail  steamers  call  here  regularly  and  cannery  ships 
are  anchored  in  the  bay  during  the  summer  months.  Chignik  post 
office  is  at  the  cannery  of  the  Northwestern  Fisheries  Company. 
The  best  anchorage  is  in  16  to  18  fathoms,  mud  bottom, 


CHIGNIK    BAY.  159 

west-southwestward  from  the  end  of  the  wharf  of  this  cannery. 
The  anchorage  closer  in  under  the  spit  is  bad  holding  ground.  Strong 
winds  from  northwestward,  although  infrequent  in  summer,  are 
sometimes  dangerous  and  cannery  ships  have  been  driven  ashore 
by  them.  Violent  williwaws  come  over  the  hills  which  rise  steeply 
from  the  southeast  part  of  the  bay.  There  are  no  dangers  if  the 
shores  be  given  a  berth  of  over  300  yards. 

West  of  the  high  ridge  on  the  west  side  of  Anchorage  Bay  is  Mud 
Bay,  known  also  as  Doris  Bay.  Vessels  may  anchor  in  the  middle 
of  the  entrance  in  7  to  8  fathoms,  but  the  upper  part  can  only  be 
entered  by  light-draft  boats.  A  reef  extends  about  300  yards  north- 
northwestward  from  the  eastern  point  of  entrance. 

The  extreme  southwest  corner  of  Chignik  Bay  is  marked  by  a 
high,  round-topped,  vertical  bluff,  at  the  foot  of  which  is  the  entrance 
to  Chignik  Lagoon,  protected  by  a  long  sand  spit,  with  a  channel 
between  it  and  the  bluff.  There  is  said  to  be  a  least  depth  of  2 
fathoms  on  the  bar  and  22  feet  ,at  high  tide.  The  channel  is  mod- 
erately wide  and  inside  the  entrance  offers  3  to  5  fathoms  over  sandy 
bottom  as  far  as  the  cannery.  However,  the  channel  is  not  con- 
sidered safe,  and  vessels  which  supply  the  cannery  anchor  in  Anchoi- 
age  Bay  or  Mud  Bay.  Only  vessels  with  local  knowledge  should 
enter.  The  Alaska  Packer's  Association  cannery  is  located  on  the 
east  side  of  the  lagoon  about  2%  miles  inside  the  entrance. 

Beyond  the  cannery  the  lagoon  is  shoal.  At  high  water  a  3  or 
4  foot  channel  leads  to  the  head  of  the  lagoon  where  the  river  enters. 
There  is  water  enough  for  a  light-draft  vessel  to  ascend  several  miles 
to  a  brown  seam  of  coal,  which  is  worked  for  local  use.  Two  or 
three  miles  above  the  coal  seam  the  river  issues  from  a  lake,  which 
is  5  miles  long,  and  is  connected  with  another  lake,  equally  large, 
by  a  stream  about  8  miles  long. 

The  following  approximate  courses  and  distances  were  steered  by 
the  Steamer  Dora. 

Cold  Bay  to  Chignik. — From  the  anchorage  in  Cold  Bay  steer  85° 
true  (NE  by  E  ^  E  mag.)  for  1.2  miles  to  Aklek  Reef  abeam;  then 
round  to  130°  true  (ESE  ]4  E  mag.)  for  K  rnile  to  Aklek  Reef  abeam 
a  second  time;  and  then  change  to  152°  true  (SE  J^  E  mag.)  for 
2  miles  to  Cape  Aklek  abeam,  2  miles  distant.  From  this  posi- 
tion steer  201°  true  (S  ys  E  mag.)  for  9  miles  to  Cape  Unalishagvak 
abeam,  2  miles  distant;  then  haul  to  216°  true  (S  by  W  J^  W  mag.) 
for  74.5  miles  to  Foggy  Cape  abeam,  3  miles  distant,  passing  4  miles 
off  Cape  Igvak  and  Poltava  Island,  3  miles  off  Aiugnak  Columns 
and  8  miles  off  Ugaiushak  Island. 

From  the  position  off  Foggy  Cape  steer  a  253°  true  (SW  ^  W  mag.) 
course  for  31.5  miles  to  a  point  1  mile  off  the  north  end  of  Nakchamik 
Island,  then  change  to  260°  true  (SW  by  W  %  W  mag.)  for  17.5  miles 
to  Chignik  Head  abeam,  J^  mile  distant.  From  the  position  off 
Chignik  Head,  steer  247°  true  (SW  ^  W  mag.)  for  1.9  miles  to  about 
a  mid-channel  position,  with  the  82-foot  rocky  islet  off  the  west  head- 
land bearing  317°  true  (NW  by  W  ^  W  mag.);  then  change  to  213° 
true  (S  by  W  ^  W  mag.)  for  0.7  mile  to  the  southwest  end  of  the 
shingle  spit  bearing  112°  true  (E  J/g  S  mag.),  distant  900  yards; 
thence  a  169°  true  (SSE  %  E  mag.)  course  for  0.8  mile  leads  to  an 
anchorage  in  16  to  18  fathoms,  soft,  muddy  bottom,  %  mile  west- 
southwestward  from  the  end  of  the  wharf  at  Chignik. 


160  ALASKA   PENINSULA. 

Chignik  to  Hook  Bay. — From  the  anchorage  J4  mile  west-south- 
westward  from  the  end  of  the  wharf  at  Chignik,  steer  349°  true 
(NNW  M  W  mag.)  for  0.8  mile  to  the  southwest  end  of  the  shingle 
spit  bearing  112°  true  (E  %  S.  mag.),  distant  900  yards;  then  change 
to  33°  true  (N  by  E  ys  E  mag.)  for  0.7  mile  to  about  a  mid-channel 
position  with  the  82-foot  rocky  islet  off  the  west  headland  bearing 
317°  true  (NW  by  W  5/8  W  mag.). 

Then  a  43°  true  (NNE  mag.)  course  for  12*4  miles  leads  to  a 
position  off  Hook  Point;  then  haul  to  26°  true  (N  ^/  E  mag.)  for  % 
mile  to  a  slide  abeam;  and  then  change  to  15°  true  (N  ^  W  mag.) 
for  1^  miles  to  a  mushroom  rock  abeam.  Round  this  rock  to  a  354° 
true  (NNW  %  W  mag.)  course  for  ^  mile  to  the  mushroom  rock 
abeam  a  second  time;  then  change  to  313°  true  (WNW  mag.)  for  1J^ 
miles  to  abreast  the  sand  spit;  thence  a  251°  true  (SW  }/%  W  mag.) 
course  for  J^  mile  leads  to  the  anchorage  in  Hook  Bay. 

Hook  Bay  to  Nakchamik  Island. — From  the  anchorage  in  Hook 
Bay,  steer  83°  true  (NE  by  E  J^  E  mag.)  for  Y2  mile  to  abreast  the 
sandspit;  then  steer  119°  true  (E  %  S  mag.)  for  1^  miles  to  the 
mushroom  rock  abeam;  then  change  course  to  168°  true  (SSE  y%  E 
mag.)  for  2%  miles  to  abreast  Hook  Point.  From  this  position,  a 
129°  true  (ESE  %  E  mag.)  course  for  10  miles,  leads  to  the  northern 
end  of  Nakchamik  Island,  1  mile  distant. 

Chankliut  Island,  as  it  opens  out  from  Tuliumnit  Point,  appears  as 
three  separate  islands  tangent  to  each  other.  The  parts  are  connected 
by  low  necks  of  land;  the  eastern  and  central  ones  appear  generally 
flat  while  the  western  part  is  conical.  The  slopes  are  grassy.  There 
are  six  pinnacle  rocks  off  the  west  point  of  the  island,  and  a  small 
bare  rock  lies  at  least  y±  mile  off  this  point. 

The  channel  between  Chankliut  Island  and  the  mainland  is  con- 
sidered free  from  dangers.  It  is  commonly  used  by  vessels  going 
west  from  Chignik.  It  has  not  been  surveyed.  It  is  reported  that 
on  rounding  Tuliumnit  Point  at  a  distance  of  about  1  mile,  a  course 
213°  true  (S  by  W  J/s  W  mag.)  leads  in  mid-channel  inside  the  island. 
A  prominent  point,  about  12  miles  beyond  the  island,  is  right  ahead 
on  this  course. 

The  land  inside  of  Chankliut  Island,  from  Tuliumnit  Point  to  Cape 
Ikti,  curves  inward,  instead  of  outward  as  shown  on  the  chart. 

Between  Tuliumnit  Point  and  the  easterly  head  of  Cape  Ikti  there 
are  three  anchorages,  called  by  Capt.  McMullen,  Necessity  Cove, 
Warner  or  Prospect  Bay,  and  Bess  Cove,  and  the  following  informa- 
tion is  furnished  by  him : 

Necessity  Cove,  about  halfway  between  Tuliumnit  Point  and  Cape 
Ikti,  affords  good  anchorage  with  winds  from  southwest,  through 
west,  to  north.  It  is  easily  found  by  white  strata  which  run  along 
the  high  cliffs. 

From  the  easterly  head  of  Cape  Ikti  the  shore  trends  north- 
northwestward  about  6  miles  to  the  entrance  of  Warner  Bay,  which 
is  often  called  Prospect  Bay  on  account  of  a  copper  prospect  there. 
The  entrance  is  about  6  or  7  miles  west-southwestward  of  the  south 
end  of  Chankliut  Island.  The  bay  runs  inland  about  3  miles  to  a 
shingle  spit  which  has  plenty  of  water  inside  it.  This  bay  is  protected 
from  the  ocean,  and  is  a  safe  anchorage  in  any  wind.  Passing  inside 
of  Chankliut  Island  until  abreast  its  south  end,  the  steamer  Dora 


ALASKA   PENINSULA.  161 

steered  the  following  approximate  courses  and  distances  to  the 
anchorage  in  Warner  Bay: 

From  the  south  end  of  Chankliut  Island  abeam,  steer  234°  true 
(SW  by  S  mag.)  for  5  miles  to  a  white  cape  abeam;  then  steer  257° 
true  (SW  by  W  mag.)  for  2  miles  to  Prospect  Head  abeam.  From 
this  position,  steer  293°  true  (W  J4  N  mag.)  for  \y^  miles  to  breaker 
rock  abeam;  then  round  to  323°  true  (NW  by  W  J^  W  mag.)  for  0.3 
mile  to  the  breaker  rock  abeam  a  second  time;  then  change  to  4°  true 
(N  by  W  y%  W  mag.)  for  2^  miles  to  the  sandspit  abeam,  and  thence 
steer  various  courses  for  0.7  mile  to  an  anchorage. 

Leaving  Warner  Bay  bound  westward, — From  the  sandspit  abeam, 
steer  186°  true  (S  by  E  J£  E  mag.)  for  2^  miles  to  breaker  rock 
abeam;  then  change  to  168°  true  (SSE  J^  E  mag.)  for  5.2  miles; 
thence  a  205°  true  (S  %  W  mag.)  course  for  2.3  miles  leads  to  a 
position  about  1  mile  off  the  headland  eastward  of  Cape  Ikti,  locally 
known  as  Seal  Cape. 

Ross  Cove  is  a  left  arm  of  Warner  Bay.  It  can  be  used  only  by 
small  craft,  and  can  not  be  seen  until  well  up  to  the  high  bluffs. 
There  is  a  shingle  spit  about  J^  mile  long;  the  entrance  at  the  end  of 
this  spit  is  200  feet  wide  and  a  right-angle  turn  has  to  be  made  to 
enter  the  cove.  There  is  about  12  fathoms  inside. 

CAPE  IKTI  TO  KUPREANOF  POINT. 

Kuiukta  Bay. — The  entrance  to  Kuiukta  Bay  is  4.5  miles  wide, 
and  the  bay  extends  14  miles  inland  in  a  northwesterly,  changing  to 
northerly,  direction.  At  its  head  is  a  valley  with  an  easy  portage 
leading  to  Chignik.  The  bay  has  an  average  width  of  1.4  miles,  and 
has  several  smaller  bays  and  bights  opening  from  it.  The  shores  are 
extremely  precipitous,  and  consist  of  bare  cliffs  of  great  height, 
strongly  colored  in  shades  of  gray,  red,  and  black.  The  rocks  appear 
to  be  well  mineralized,  and  there  is  a  prominent  outcrop  of  iron  ore, 
resembling  a  lava  flow,  on  the  eastern  side  4.7  miles  northwestward 
from  Cape  Ikti.  The  water  is  deep  and  it  is  difficult  to  find  anchorage 
except  close  to  shore  in  the  heaas  of  the  smaller  bays.  There  is  a 
small,  low  islet,  on  the  east  side,  at  the  elbow  of  the  bay  9  miles  inside 
Cape  Ikti,  and  a  higher  sugarloaf  islet  near  the  northern  end.  About 
1  mile  above  the  sugarloaf  the  water  shoals. 

Cape  Ikti  lies  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  entrance  of  Kuiukta  Bay, 
and  the  unnamed  point  near  Mitrofania  village  lies  on  the  west  side; 
both  are  about  1,500  feet  high,  and  present  an  extremely  rugged  sky- 
line of  rocky  spires,  towers,  and  buttresses. 

Foot  Bay  and  Windy  Bay  are  the  only  2  which  have  names  among  the 
12  which  indent  the  shores  of  Kuiukta  Bay.  All  of  them  are  swept 
by  strong  squalls  in  bad  weather.  The  anchorage  in  Foot  Bay  is  in  20 
fathoms,  with  scant  swinging  room  toward  the  beach. 

Mitrofania  village  is  a  small  settlement  of  half-breeds;  it  can  not 
be  seen  from  seaward  from  any  direction,  except  the  flagpole  stand- 
ing on  a  small  hill.  It  should  be  approached  from  westward,  and  an 
excellent  anchorage  is  found  in  the  small  inlet  leading  toward  the 
village  flagpole.  Anchor  in  19  fathoms,  sticky  bottom,  with  the  flag- 
pole bearing  76°  true  (NE  by  Emag.),  about  0.5  mile  distant;  there 
is  good  shelter  here  from  all  winds.  Small  craft  can  find  secure  shel- 
31056°— 16 11 


162  ALASKA  PENINSULA. 

ter  in  the  lagoon  behind  the  village,  the  entrance  to  which  has  a  depth 
of  about  4  feet  at  low  water.  A  narrow  spit  separates  the  lagoon 
from  an  arm  of  Kuiukta  Bay.  About  2.5  miles  northward  from 
Mitrofania  village  there  is  a  portage  across  the  peninsula  to  Kuiukta 
Bay. 

Mitrofania  Bay  includes  all  the  sheet  of  water  north  of  Mitrofania 
Island;  in  its  northern  part  are  two  unnamed  bays  near  Mitrofania 
village,  and  farther  westward  is  Ivan  Bay.  These  bays  are  surrounded 
by  precipices  and  sharp  peaks;  but  westward  of  Ivan  Bay  there  is  a 
flat  river  valley,  and  the  coast  stretches  south-southwestward  in  a 
straight  line  forming  Long  Beach.  In  Ivan  Bay  and  abreast  of  Long 
Beach  the  water  is  deep  and  there  is  no  anchorage. 

long  Beach  is  a  steep  black  sand  beach,  which  extends  in  a  crescent 
form  about  3  miles  northeast  and  southwest.  It  is  flanked  on  the 
northern  end  by  a  vertical  cliff  600  to  800  feet  high,  made  conspicu- 
ous by  many  strata  of  different  colored  rocks,  and  on  its  southern 
extremity  by  a  precipitous  mountain  covered  with  a  dense  growth  of 
alder  bushes.  An  isolated  rock  lies  near  the  base  of  the  mountain 
about  300  yards  back  from  the  beach,  nearly  rectangular  in  form, 
the  sides  being  vertical,  about  100  feet  broad  by  60  feet  in  height,  and 
the  top  slightly  rounded  and  covered  with  grass,  ferns,  and  small 
bushes.  Seen  from  a  distance  it  has  the  appearance  of  a  huge,  native 
sod  house,  with  the  roof  overgrown  with  grass.  An  extensive  valley 
lies  back  of  the  beach  in  which  are  several  ponds  of  fresh  or  brackish 
water. 

Temporary  anchorage  with  offshore  winds  can  be  had  near  the 
southwest  extremity  of  Long  Beach,  on  the  west  side  of  Ivan  Bay, 
but  a  heavy  swell  rolls  in  with  southerly  and  southeasterly  winds. 
Give  due  attention  to  the  lead  as  the  bank  is  steep. 

Mitrofania  Island  is  6.5  miles  long  and  4.5  miles  wide,  and  consists 
of  many  sharp  peaks  of  nearly  the  same  height;  the  highest  is  about 
2,000  feet.  There  is  a  secure  harbor,  except  for  northwesterly  winds, 
in  the  bight  on  the  west  side  of  the  north  point  of  Mitrofania  Island. 
Spitz  Island  and  reef  lie  1  to  2  miles  southward  of  the  southwest 
point;  it  is  a  small  sugarloaf  islet  about  1,075  feet  high,  with  a  reef 
extending  0.6  miles  southward  from  it. 

little  Brother  and  Big  Brother  Islands  lie  in  Mitrofania  Bay, 
nearer  to  Mitrofania  Island  than  the  mainland;  they  are  similar  in 
size  and  shape,  about  0.4  mile  in  extent  and  390  feet  high,  with  a  flat 
profile.  There  are  rocks  awash  and  broken  ground  between  them 
and  Mitrofania  Island,  but  toward  the  mainland  the  channel  appears 
to  be  clear.  The  Dora  has  used  the  passage  between  the  islands  and 
the  north  end  of  Mitrofania,  passing  close  to  the  latter  on  a  251°  true 
(SW  Y%  W  mag.)  course. 

Veniaminof  Volcano  sends  out  a  spur  in  this  direction,  which  is 
flanked  both  east  and  west  by  extensive  plains,  and  this  spur  reaches 
the  sea  at  Coal  Cape.  The  cape  is  about  1,200  feet  high,  but  soon 
reaches  an  elevation  of  2,100  feet;  its  skyline  is  extremely  broken 
and  serrated. 

Chiachi  Island  (chart  8881)  is  3  miles  in  extent,  and  lies  1  mile  from 
the  nearest  point  of  the  coast;  it  has  several  rugged  peaks,  the  highest 
of  which  is  about  1,675  feet.  The  anchorage  shown  on  the  chart  is 
not  recommended.  Four  islands  lie  near  its  northeast  shore;  the 


CAPE   IKTI   TO    KTJPREANOF   POINT.  163 

southeasternmost  is  unnamed;  Pinusuk  Island  is  a  long  ridge  with  a 
reef  and  a  tower  rock  eastward  of  it;  Shapka  Island  is  a  sugarloaf 
700  feet  high;  and  Petrel  Island  is  a  small  flat  rock  mass.  In  this 
locality  the  navigator  should  follow  the  mainland  and  leave  all  islands 
to  seaward. 

Perry,  an  Indian  village,  was  established  to  provide  for  the  people 
who  were  driven  away  from  the  vicinity  of  Katmai  Volcano  by  the 
eruption  of  1912.  It  consists  of  a  number  of  wooden  houses  and 
a  small  store  standing  on  the  flat  beach  4.5  miles  westward  of  Coal 
Cape.  The  landing  is  exposed,  especially  in  southeasterly  weather. 

Three  Star  Point  is  formed  by  a  low  rocky  outcrop  in  the  flat 
plain;  it  is  1.6  miles  south  westward  of  Perry  and  4  miles  from  the  foot 
of  Coal  Cape  mountain  range.  Westward  of  it  there  is  a  long  beach. 
Coal  Point  marks  the  end  of  this  beach,  and  the  eastern  side  of 
another  mountain  range.  Humpback  Bay  lies  west  of  Coal  Point 
between  Egg  Island  and  the  mainland;  there  is  a  portage  from 
Humpback  Bay  to  Ivanof  Bay.  * 

Egg  Island  is  1.2  miles  long  by  0.5  mile  wide,  and  consists  of 
rounded  hills,  the  highest  of  which  is  478  feet.  A  reef  extends  from 
Egg  Island  almost  half  way  across  the  channel  toward  Paul  Island. 

Alexander  Point  lies  on  the  west  side  of  the  channel  westward  of 
Paul  Island.  It  is  the  extremity  of  a  range  of  hills  and  is  about 
1,500  feet  high. 

Paul  Island  is  a  crescent-shaped  range  of  hills,  reaching  an  eleva- 
tion of  1,568  feet  in  the  northern  portion  of  the  island.  Jacob  Island 
is  shaped  like  a  leg  of  mutton,  and  is  1,666  feet  high  near  the  northern 
end;  from  the  summit  a  sharp  ridge  extends  southward  to  Noon  Point, 
meeting  the  sea  in  an  overhanging  precipice. 

Kupreanpf  Harbor  (chart  8881)  is  inclosed  by  Paul  and  Jacob 
Islands;  it  is  circular  in  shape,  1.1  miles  across,  and  free  from  dangers. 
It  is  sheltered  from  the  sea  and  from  all  winds.  The  western  entrance 
is  0.7  mile  wide  and  free  from  danger;  vessels  have  used  the  eastern 
entrance  also;  it  is  0.4  mile  wide.  This  harbor  is  the  most  accessi- 
ble safe  harbor  in  a  wide  region.  For  directions,  see  page  149.  There 
is  a  cattle  ranch  here.  Both  islands  were  formerly  stocked  with 
foxes,  which  have  now  almost  disappeared.  There  are  goats  on 
Jacob  Island. 

Ivanof  Bay  lies  between  Alexander  Point  and  Kupreanof  Penin- 
sula; it  is  1.5  to  1.1  miles  wide  and  7  miles  long.  There  is  an  island 
in  the  middle  of  it  0.7  mile  long,  0.2  mile  wide  and  350  feet  high. 
Westward  of  the  island  the  channel  appears  to  be  clear,  but  east- 
ward of  it  there  is  a  low-tide  rock  0.3  mile  off  the  island  and  another 
rock  0.2  mile  off  the  east  shore;  between  the  rocks  a  careful  mid- 
channel  course  leads  through  deep  water.  Ivanof  Bay  is  a  safe 
harbor  in  bad  weather,  and  one  may  anchor  anywhere  above  the 
island,  avoiding  the  mud  flats  in  the  northeastern  part  and  those 
near  the  lagoon. 

Westward  of  the  north  end  of  Ivanof  Bay  is  a  large  lagoon,  and 
Granville  Portage  leads  across  flat  land  to  Stepovak  Bay.  The 
portage  is  an  important  one  because  it  is  easy,  and  because  it  avoids 
the  danger  of  rounding  Kupreanof  Point. 


164  ALASKA   PENINSULA. 

KUPREANOF  POINT  TO  CAPE  ALIAKSIN. 

Kupreanof  Point  is  a  cluster  of  confused  ridges  and  pinnacle  peaks 
1,600  feet  high;  its  southern  face  extends  in  an  east  and  west  line 
for  4.8  miles.  The  ridge  of  the  peninsula  presents  a  series  of  peaks 
all  the  way  between  it  and  Granville  Portage.  On  the  western 
side  is  Boulder  Bay,  which  offers  good  anchorage;  and  Fox  Bay, 
which  is  said  to  be  an  excellent  harbor  for  light  craft.  Farther 
north  is  Island  Bay,  and  northward  of  this  is  a  low  flat  islet  near 
the  coast.  The  shores  all  around  Kupreanof  Peninsula  appear  to 
be  reasonably  clear  at  a  short  distance  offshore;  the  reef  which 
appears  on  chart  8802  off  Kupreanof  Point  consists  of  a  few  broken 
rocks  in  the  surf  at  the  foot  of  the  cliffs. 

Stepovak  Bay  is  inclosed  on  the  east  by  Kupreanof  Peninsula. 
Several  widely  spaced  lines  of  soundings  were  run  in  the  bay,  which 
would  indicate  that  the  east  central  part  of  the  bay  is  safe;  and 
that  the  western  part  and  the  northwest  shore  from  Bales  Landing 
to  Cape  Swedania  are  more  broken  and  may  develop  dangerous  shoals. 

Gull  Rock  lies  0.6  mile  off  the  northern  shore  of  the  bay,  and  is  a 
bare  ledge  about  40  feet  high.  From  Gull  Rock  to  Granville  Portage 
there  is  flat  alluvial  land,  through  which  flows  Big  River,  discharg- 
ing drainage  from  this  part  of  the  snow  fields  and  glaciers  of  the 
Veniaminof  range.  Westward  and  southwestward  from  Gull  Rock 
the  coast  is  backed  by  a  high  snowy  range  of  peaks  and  spires  cut 
by  narrow  glacier-filled  ravines.  A  spur  of  this  range  forms  Cape 
Swedania,  and  the  main  range  is  cut  by  the  portage  leading  from 
Balboa  Bay  to  Port  Moller. 

Ramsey  Bay  is  3.5  miles  west-southwestward  of  Gull  Rock,  and 
is  reported  to  be  filled  with  low-tide  rocks,  upon  which  one  cannery 
ship  has  been  lost.  Bales  Landing  is  close  to  Ramsey  Bay,  toward 
Gull  Rock,  and  2.6  miles  westward  of  Gull  Rock.  There  is  anchorage 
off  the  house  which  stands  here,  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  valley; 
the  locality  is  called  Louies  Corner.  The  house  is  occupied  by  the 
owner  of  a  sulphur  mine  in  the  valley.  Two  small  glaciers  end 
about  4  miles  up  the  valley  from  the  beach,  with  ice-falls  down  the 
cliffs  upon  the  flat  land. 

When  approaching  Bales  Landing  anchorage,  care  should  be  taken 
to  avoid  a  sand  spit  shoal  which  runs  out  about  ^  mile  a  little 
westward  of  the  flagpole.  It  is  best  to  keep  Lookout  Hill  (which 
is  very  prominent)  a  little  on  the  port  bow  until  close  up  to  the  land, 
then  follow  the  shore  and  anchor  in  7  fathoms  about  %  mile  east- 
ward of  the  flagpole. 

The  coast  is  foul  from  Ramsey  Bay  around  the  point  as  far  as 
Grub  Gulch ;  there  are  several  low- tide  rocks  and  some  kelp.  A  ves- 
sel should  keep  1  mile  off  the  beach.  The  point  westward  of  Grub 
Gulch  is  a  sharp  red  mountain  about  2,000  feet  high;  the  soundings 
indicate  a  reef  1.5  miles  long  extending  on  the  line  of  the  ridge  from 
the  end  of  this  point.  There  are  2  low  grassy  islets  and  some  rocks 
in  the  entrance  of  Grub  Gulch;  but  there  may  be  a  channel  leading 
in  westward  of  these. 

Clark  Bay  is  a  large  open  bight  backed  by  two  valleys ;  the  southern 
part  is  called  Little  Norway. 

Orzinski  Bay  is  marked  on  the  northeast  side  by  Waterfall  Point ; 
it  is  2  miles  long  and  1  mile  wide.  The  waterfall  on  Waterfall  Point 


KUPREANOF    POINT    TO    CAPE   ALIAKSIN.  165 

is  on  the  extremity  of  the  point,  in  a  most  unnatural  position,  and 
shows  on  the  tangent  in  profile;  the  peak  back  of  it  is  1,895  feet  high. 

Elephant  Point  is  a  sharp  ridge  655  feet  high,  with  inclined  strata 
breaking  off  in  sheer  cliffs  on  the  southwest  face ;  off  the  end  of  the 
point  are  reefs  0.4  mile  long  eastward  and  southeastward,  partly  dry 
at  low  water.  A  vessel  should  keep  more  than  a  mile  off  it. 

There  is  a  reef  almost  in  the  middle  of  Orzinski  Bay,  slightly  nearer 
to  the  north  shore,  abreast  of 'the  peak  on  Waterfall  Point.  There  is 
a  fishing  station  in  the  southwestern  corner  of  the  bay,  called  Orzenoy, 
standing  on  the  shore  of  the  stream  which  drains  the  lagoon  up  the 
valley.  The  warehouse  may  be  used  as  a  leading  mark  for  entering; 
steer  for  it  bearing  295°  true  (W  J£  N  mag.),  in  range  with  a  notch 
in  the  mountains  behind  it  and  a  rocky  peak  appearing  through  the 
notch  on  this  bearing;  beware  of  the  reef  off  Elephant  Point  and 
favor  Waterfall  Point  if  in  doubt.  When  abreast  of  the  peak  on 
Waterfall  Point,  beware  of  the  reef  on  that  side,  and  favor  the  other 
shore  if  in  doubt;  when  past  this  reef,  steer  332°  true  (NW  J4  W 
mag.)  for  the  right-hand  or  northern  part  of  the  gravel  beach  at  the 
head  of  the  bay  and  anchor  in  deep  water  off  the  low  rock  cliffs 
adjoining  the  beach  at  its  northeastern  end,  at  the  opposite  corner 
from  the  fishing  station. 

American  Bay  or  Mobile  Bay  is  a  narrow  fiord  between  steep  rocky 
mountain  walls.  The  wind  squalls  are  extremely  severe  in  bad 
weather.  The  entrance  is  a  hole  in  the  wall,  %  mile  wide,  between 
two  gravel  spits.  Parts  of  the  inner  bay  are  almost  landlocked; 
there  is  a  small  rocky  shelf  projecting  under  water  for  a  short  distance 
at  the  head  of  the  bay.  It  is  necessary  to  anchor  near  the  middle  of 
the  inner  bay;  otherwise  there  is  no  swinging  room. 

Between  American  Bay  and  Guillemot  Island  are  Windbound  Bay, 
Chichagof  Bay  (commonly  called  Chicago  Bay),  Dorenoi  Bay,  and 
San  Diego  Bay.  These  were  not  thoroughly  reconnoitered. 

Guillemot  Island  is'locally  called  San  Diego  Island.  It  is  crescent 
shaped,  about  400  feet  high,  fairly  level  on  top,  and  surrounded  by 
almost  impassable  cliffs.  Between  it  and  the  mainland  there  is  a 
chain  of  oddly  shaped  rocks,  islets,  and  reefs.  There  appears  to  be 
a  partly  protected  anchorage  in  the  bight  on  the  southwest  side  of  the 
island,  inside  the  crescent.  From  here  to  Cape  Swedania  the  shore 
has  a  narrow  fringing  line  of  rocks,  but  appears  safe  at  a  reasonable 
distance. 

Lumber  Bay,  or  Rough  Beach  as  it  is  called  locally,  lies  on  the 
eastern  face  of  Cape  Swedania,  2  miles  northeastward  of  its  south  end, 
and  consists  of  a  shallow  bight  at  the  entrance  of  a  valley;  the  beach 
is  a  dike  of  cobbles  thrown  up  by  the  sea,  and  is  capped  by  a  great 
windrow  of  driftwood. 

Cape  Swedania  is  the  seaward  end  of  a  ridge  1,200  feet  high;  there 
are  rugged  cliffs  at  the  extremity,  and  on  the  southwestern  side  there 
is  a  gravel  spit  at  the  foot  of  the  cliffs.  The  profile  and  end  slope  of 
Cape  Swedania  are  striking  and  unusual,  resembling  in  magnified 
outline  the  end  of  an  artificial  earthwork  or  bunker,  back  of  which 
the  mountain  rises  steeply.  There  are  strong  williwaws  in  the  lee 
of  it. 

Balboa  Bay  offers  good  shelter  on  the  eastern  side  about  5  miles 
from  Cape  Swedania;  there  is  a  small  bight  here  with  a  low  gravel 
point  south  of  it  at  the  mouth  of  a  large  ravine  containing  a  stream. 


166  ALASKA  PENINSULA. 

The  inid-channel  into  the  north  arm  is  deep.  When  the  coal  mine  at 
Herendeen  Bay  was  in  operation  supplies  were  landed  here  and  carried 
across  the  trail  by  pack  train,  a  distance  of  about  15  miles.  The 
highest  point  on  the  trail,  less  than  600  feet,  is  near  the  south  side  of 
the  peninsula. 

Albatross  Anchorage  (chart  8851)  is  a  secure  harbor  near  the  head 
of  the  north  arm  of  Balboa  Bay.  The  best  anchorage  is  in  mid- 
channel  abreast  of  Ballast  Island  (close  to  east  shore)  and  has  a  clear 
width  of  0.4  mile,  with  depths  of  5  to  8  fathoms.  A  reef  extends  well 
off  from  Reef  Point,  on  the  east  side  0.6  mile  southward  of  Ballast 
Island.  Small  craft  may  anchor  in  the  bight  on  the  west  side  oppo- 
site Ballast  Island  and  secure  better  protection  from  the  sea  by 
keeping  well  over  on  the  southern  side  to  avoid  a  ledge  which  uncovers 
at  half  tide  and  extends  300  yards  southeastward  from  Bassett 
Island.  The  depths  are  8  to  12  feet. 

Temporary  anchorage  for  small  vessels  may  be  had  in  Left  Hand 
Bay  on  the  west  side  of  Balboa  Bay.  A  shoal  extends  200  or  300 
yards  off  shore,  then  drops  rather  steeply.  Low,  marshy  ground, 
known  as  Kagayan  Flats,  leads  from  the  head  of  the  bay  to  Beaver 
Bay. 

Cape  Aliaksin  has  no  distinctive  form;  it  is  of  a  rounded  outline 
and  a  low  rounded  profile;  there  is  low  land  for  some  distance  from 
the  shore  all  round.  The  summit  is  broad  and  flat,  and  about  1,700 
feet  high.  There  is  shoal  water  near  shore  all  round,  and  a  rock 
awash  at  high  water  about  J£  mile  off  the  southwest  side.  The 
eastern  part  of  Cape  Aliaksin,  rounding  into  Balboa  Bay  and  Left 
Hand  Bay,  is  called  Cape  Kagayan.  Cape  Aliaksin  is  distinguished 
with  difficulty  from  westward,  but  it  comes  out  clearly  from  eastward. 

SHUMAGIN  ISLANDS. 

The  surveys  include  Unga  Island,  except  the  west  coast;  the  coasts 
of  Nagai  Island  from  Wedge  Cape  to  Eagle  Harbor  on  the  west  side 
and  from  Wedge  Cape  to  the  bight  south  of  East  Bight  on  the  east 
side;  the  islands  between  Unga  and  Nagai  Islands;  the  four  islands 
in  East  Nagai  Strait ;  and  the  west  coast  of  Big  Koniuji  Island  from 
abreast  of  Peninsula  Island  to  abreast  of  Bendel  Island.  The  availa- 
ble information  for  the  other  islands  is  similar  in  character  to  other 
unsurveyed  areas. 

This  group,  lying  southwestward  of  the  Semidi  Islands  and  sepa- 
rated from  the  mainland  by  Unga  Strait,  consists  of  fifteen  islands 
and  many  islets  and  rocks  extending  in  an  east-southeasterly  direc- 
tion. In  general,  the  islands  are  bold  and  mountainous  and  the 
coasts  are  greatly  broken  by  inlets  that  afford  good  anchorages.  The 
shores  are  rock-bound  close-to. 

There  are  fishing  stations  and  camps  scattered  throughout  the 
group,  and  good  fishing  banks  off  the  islands.  Fox  and  cattle  raising 
are  carried  on  to  some  extent. 

SIMEONOF  ISLAND  (CHART  8881), 

the  most  easterly  of  the  group,  is  about  4  miles  long  and  3}^  miles 
wide.  It  is  composed  of  two  clusters  of  hills,  the  southeastern  and 
higher  ones  being  about  1,600  feet  high.  These  hills  are  separated 
by  a  low  plateau  which  is  nearly  cut  in  two  by  a  very  irregularly 
shaped  harbor. 


SHUMAGIN   ISLANDS.  167 

The  coast  of  the  island  is  fringed  with  reefs  and  shoals.  Those  on 
the  south  and  southwest  sides  are  variously  reported  to  extend  from 
3  to  7  miles  offshore;  those  on  the  east  side,  3  miles;  and  those  off 
the  other  shores,  j/2  mile. 

A  rock  on  which  the  sea  breaks  at  low  water  has  been  reported  half 
way  between  Simeonof  and  Chernabura  Islands. 

Simeonof  Harbor  is  on  the  western  side  of  the' island.  A  reef  ex- 
tends about  y%  mile  westward  from  the  north  point  of  the  entrance 
to  the  harbor.  Off  the  south  point  of  the  entrance  is  a  low,  flat, 
rocky  island  fringed  with  reefs.  The  harbor  is  protected  from  all 
winds;  the  entrance  is  tortuous,  with  reefs  on  either  side;  the  shores 
are  rocky  and  the  water  very  shoal.  The  inner  anchorage  is  in  2  y^ 
fathoms,  with  not  over  2  fathoms  at  the  lowest  tide;  the  bottom  is 
smooth  gravel.  Anchorage,  exposed  to  westerly  winds,  may  be  had 
in  the  outer  part  of  the  harbor,  in  about  4  fathoms,  about  ^  mile 
inside  the  entrance. 

Twelve  Fathom  Strait  separates  Simeonof  and  Little  Koniuji 
Islands.  The  strait  is  about  2^  miles  wide,  with  depths  of  12  to  16 
fathoms.  With  the  exception  of  a  few  kelp  patches  on  the  Simeonof 
side,  no  dangers  are  known. 

LITTLE  KONIUJI  ISLAND 

is  very  irregular  in  shape,  consisting  of  three  parts,  1,200  to  1,500 
feet  high,  connected  by  raised  sand  beaches.  The  southern  end  ter- 
minates in  a  high,  rocky,  pointed  cape,  with  a  reef,  marked  by  a 
breaker,  extending  about  J^  mile  southwestward  from  it.  The  east- 
ern coast  is  indented  by  two  coves,  and  there  is  a  large  harbor  on  the 
western  side. 

Sandy  Cove  (chart  8851)  is  on  the  eastern  side  of  Little  Koniuji 
Island.  It  is  about  1  mile  wide  at  the  entrance,  and  \y%  miles  long. 
There  are  prominent  granite  cliffs  on  its  western  shore.  The  cove 
affords  good  anchorage  in  its  southerly  bight  in  about  10  fathoms, 
sheltered  from  all  but  southeasterly  weather. 

Atkins  Island  is  about  1  ^  miles  long  and  about  y%  mile  wide,  and 
is  connected  to  the  northeast  headland  of  Little  Koniuji  Island  by  a 
shoal.  The  island  rises  to  a  height  of  800  feet  at  its  southeastern  end. 
Anchorage  is  reported  southward  of  the  island. 

Northwest  Harbor  (chart  8881),  a  bight  in  the  northern  side  of  Lit- 
tle Koniuji  Island,  southward  of  Herendeen  Island,  may  be  entered 
from  either  side.  It  affords  fair  anchorage  and  protection  from  all 
but  northeast  winds  in  5  to  10  fathoms.  The  harbor  is  about  y%  mile 
wide.  There  is  an  abandoned  fishing  station  here. 

Herendeen  Island  is  triangular  shaped,  about  %  mile  long  and  % 
mile  wide.  There  is  an  islet  off  the  western  end. 

Northeast  Harbor  (chart  8881),  the  large  bay  in  the  western  side  of 
Little  Koniuji  Island,  has  two  bights  and  is  approximately  4J^  miles 
long.  The  east  bight  of  the  harbor  is  somewhat  open  to  westerly 
winds  and  the  holding  ground  is  rocky  and  poor.  The  extreme 
southeast  end  of  the  harbor  is  more  protected  and  is  a  favorite  refuge 
for  fishermen,  though  the  bottom,  being  alternately  patches  of  rock 
and  sand,  is  not  good  holding  ground.  There  is  a  small,  well  pro- 
tected boat  harbor  here,  at  the  head  of  which  are  several  houses 
belonging  to  a  fox  farm. 


168  SHUMAGIN   ISLANDS. 

CHERNABURA  ISLAND 

lies  about  8  miles  southwestward  of  Simeonof  Island,  and  is  the  most 
southerly  of  the  group.  The  -entire  island  is  high  and  mountainous 
and  there  are  few  breaks  in  its  profile,  the  highest  part  being  at  the 
east  end.  A  rocky  islet,  apparently  connected  with  the  main  island 
by  a  bar,  lies  off  its  northern  end.  On  the  east  side  are  three  small 
bays,  the  middle  one  of  which  is  reported  to  afford  anchorage  in 
westerly  winds. 

BIRD  ISLAND 

lies  about  4  miles  westward  of  Chernabura  and  is  more  irregular  than 
that  island,  but  several  of  its  peaks  are  nearly  as  high.  Passing  well 
southward  of  Bird  Island  it  appears  as  four  principal  peaks  connected 
by  low  valleys.  Almost  its  entire  southeast  side  is  a  series  of  cliffs. 
A  rock  above  water  lies  a  short  distance  off  its  southern  end. 

An  anchorage  is  reported  in  the  bight  on  the  east  side  of  Bird 
Island,  just  inside  of  Point  Welcome,  in  5  to  12  fathoms.  The 
wreck  of  a  schooner  is  at  the  head  of  the  bight.  Temporary  anchor- 
age, exposed  to  all  but  winds  from  the  southeast  quadrant,  may  be 
had  in  the  bight  in  the  northwestern  side  of  the  island  in  about  12 
fathoms,  sand  bottom,  southwestward  of  the  reef  making  about  1 
mile  in  a  northwesterly  direction  off  the  northwest  point  of  the 
island.  There  are  rocks  about  Y^  mile  offshore  in  a  westerly  direction 
from  the  southerly  point  of  this  bight  and  a  shoal  about  1  mile  in  a 
northwesterly  direction  off  the  southwest  point  of  the  island.  Sunken 
rocks  are  found  lying  about  J^  mile  off  the  northern  shore  of  the  large 
bight  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  island. 

Otter  Strait,  between  Bird  Island  and  Chernabura,  is  said  to  have 
depths  between  20  and  35  fathoms,  sandy  bottom. 

BIG  KONIUJI  ISLAND 

lies  west-northwestward  of  Little  Koniuji  Island,  from  which  it  is 
separated  by  Koniuji  Strait.  It  is  about  11  miles  in  length  and  about 
6  miles  in  width  at  its  widest  or  southern  end.  It  is  rugged  and  very 
mountainous,  with  a  well-defined  central  ridge  and  spurs  projecting 
toward  the  points.  The  coast  is  broken  by  many  inlets  and  the 
points  are  rockbound  close  inshore.  The  highest  peaks  are  frequently 
mist  covered.  Its  northern  point  is  comparatively  low  and  its  south- 
western end  terminates  in  a  long  narrow  point  with  a  high  connecting 
ridge,  which  resembles  an  island  from  some  points  of  view;  it  has 
been  called  Kungiugan. 

Flying  Eagle  Harbor,  on  the  east  side  of  the  island,  about  5^  miles 
southward  of  Cape  Thompson,  offers  well  protected  anchorage  for 
small  vessels,  especially  in  southerly  gales,  in  7  to  10  fathoms. 

Hall  Island,  about  %  rnile  long  and  y%  mile  wide,  lies  about  1  mile 
off  the  eastern  shore.  There  are  two  rocks  above  water  close  to  the 
southeast  face  of  the  east  end  of  the  island,  and  a  reef  extends  about 
J4  mile  southwestward  from  the  southwest  point. 

Murre  Rocks  are  a  group  of  three  islets  about  y%  mile  northwestward 
from  Hall  Island.  A  rocky  ledge  extends  about  J4  mile  southwest- 
ward  from  the  southern  islet. 

Yukon  Harbor  (chart  8881)  lies  southwestward  of  Hall  Island.  It 
has  a  rocky  ledge  covered  with  kelp  lying  close  around  the  eastern 


SHUMAGIN   ISLANDS.  169 

entrance  point,  and  rocks  close  to  the  western  point.     Anchorage, 

Erotected  from  westerly  weather,  may  be  had  in  the  center  of  the 
arbor,  in  about  7  fathoms,  but  the  bottom  is  poor  holding  ground. 

There  is  a  bay  eastward  of  the  southwestern  point  of  Big  Koniuji 
Island,  but  the  depth  is  reported  to  be  too  great  to  afford  anchorage. 
East  of  the  bay  is  another  one,  larger  and  wider,  in  which  vessels  have 
anchored  in  16  fathoms,  hard  bottom,  with  protection  from  northerly 
and  westerly  winds.  The  holding  ground  is  poor.  East  of  this  is  a 
high  headland  on  Koniuji  Strait.  A  3-fathom  shoal  extends  from  the 
south  end  of  the  island. 

There  are  four  prominent  bights  on  the  west  side  of  the  island. 
They  are  open  and  easy  of  access  and  their  shores  are  clear,  except 
close-to. 

Anchorage  in  24  to  26  fathoms  may  be  had  near  the  head  of  the 
bight  146°  true  (SE  J^  E  mag.)  from  Peninsula  Island.  In  approach- 
ing the  anchorage  it  is  necessary  to  keep  northward  of  mid-channel 
to  avoid  a  shoal  extending  300  yards  off  the  south  shore  about  y^  mile 
from  the  head  of  the  bight. 

The  other  bights  do  not  offer  anchorage  on  account  of  the  great 
depth  of  water.  Anchorage  for  very  small  craft  may  be  found  in  any 
of  these  bights,  close  in  shore,  and  in  the  numerous  indentations  and 
small  coves.  The  winds  draw  through  the  divides  into  the  bights  and 
the  williwaws  are  very  strong. 

Koniuji  Strait  is  about  1J^  'miles  wide.  Soundings  of  16  to  28 
fathoms  are  reported. 

Castle  Rock,  lying  about  1 J^  miles  northward  of  the  north  point  of 
Big  Koniuji  Island,  is  rugged  and  serrated,  and  its  highest  peak  has 
an  elevation  of  825  feet.  It  makes  an  excellent  landmark.  A 
3-fathom  shoal  extends  about  %  mile  off  its  southern  end. 

The  bottom  between  Big  Koniuji  and  Castle  Rock  is  said  to  be  even, 
averaging  28  fathoms. 

EAST  NAGAI  STRAIT 

separates  Nagai  and  Big  Koniuji  Islands  and  has  an  average  width  of 
about  6  miles. 

Peninsula,  Spectacle,  Bendel,  and  Turner  Islands  lie  in  a  general 
north-northeasterly  and  south-southwesterly  direction  in  this  passage, 
and  the  waters  between  this  chain  of  islands  and  Nagai  on  one  side 
and  Big  Koniuji  on  the  other  are  deep  and  clear  and  mid-channel 
courses  may  be  safely  steered. 

Peninsula  Island,  the  most  northerly  of  this  group,  has  a  length  of 
\Y^  miles  and  a  width  of  j^  mile.  It  has  a  central  peak  1,190  feet 
high.  The  shore  is  rugged,  steep,  and  rockbound.  A  long  bowlder 
spit  extends  off  the  southeast  end.  The  northeast  end  should  not  be 
approached  closer  than  %  mile  and  the  southeast  end  not  closer  than 
y%  mile.  Exposed  anchorage  may  be  found  on  the  tail  of  the  shoal 
extending  off  the  southeast  point,  in  7  to  12  fathoms,  a  short  y%  mile 
from  the  narrow  point. 

Spectacle  Island,  lying  3^  miles  southward  of  Peninsula  Island,  is 
2^  miles  long  and  1J^  miles  wide  at  its  southern  part.  It  is  rock- 
bound  and  has  steep  cliffs  on  the  north,  east,  and  south  sides.  The 
northern  part  is  distinguished  by  two  peaks  about  900  feet  high  and 
the  southern  part  reaches  an  elevation  of  1,240  feet.  In  general,  the 
island  may  be  approached  within  ys  mile. 


170  SHUMAGIN    ISLANDS. 

There  are  anchorages,  under  favorable  conditions,  for  small  craft 
in  the  large  bight  on  the  east  side  of  Spectacle  Island  in  6  to  9  fathoms, 
in  the  bight  on  the  west  side  in  4  to  5  fathoms,  and  in  the  small  cove 
in  the  south  side  in  3  fathoms.  The  bights  on  the  eastern  and  west- 
ern sides  are  open  and  easy  of  access.  The  entrance  to  the  small 
cove  on  the  southern  side  is  about  70  yards  across  with  foul  ground 
on  either  side  for  a  distance  of  about  J^  mile  inside  the  entrance. 

The  passage  between  Peninsula  and  Spectacle  Islands  is  about  3J^ 
miles  wide  and  is  deep  and  free  from  dangers. 

Bendel  Island  lies  in  a  southwesterly  direction  from  Spectacle 
Island  and  is  separated  from  it  by  a  passage  %  mile  wide.  It  is 
about  2  miles  in  diameter  and  1,250  feet  high.  The  eastern  end 
terminates  in  a  narrow  neck.  There  are  high  bluffs  on  the  southern 
side  and  sloping  valleys  on  the  others.  The  coast  line  is  rocky,  with 
kelp,  and  the  depths  around  the  island  are  irregular. 

A  flat  extends  off  the  southwest  side  for  a  distance  of  about  1  mile 
with  depths  of  5  to  10  fathoms  and  with  several  shoaler  spots.  Depths 
of  7  to  8  fathoms  are  also  found  off  the  northwest  and  southeast  sides. 
Exposed  anchorages  for  small  boats  may  be  found  in  the  bights  and 
on  the  flats. 

The  passage  between  Spectacle  and  Bendel  Islands  is  %  mile  wide 
and  a  mid-channel  course  leads  through  21  to  11  fathoms. 

Turner  Island  is  separated  from  Bendel  Island  by  a  passage  from 
J4  to  1^2  miles  wide.  It  is  2%  miles  long  and  about  %  mile  wide, 
with  a  greatest  elevation  of  1,180  feet.  Its  shore  is  rock-bound  and 
the  southeast  coast  is  very  foul  for  a  distance  of  about  J^  mile  off- 
shore. There  is  a  low  flat  on  the  northwest  end  with  a  400-foot  knoll 
on  the  point.  The  bluffs  on  the  north,  southeast,  and  south  sides 
vary  in  height  from  400  to  800  feet. 

The  passage  between  Bendel  and  Turner  Islands  is  deep  at  both 
entrances  and  shoals  gradually  to  4  fathoms,  in  its  narrowest  part, 
about  mid-channel  off  the  southwest  point  of  Bendel  Island.  Dense 
kelp  grows  on  this  shoal  and  small  craft  find  difficulty  in  passing 
through.  The  use  of  this  passage  is  not  recommended  for  large 
vessels. 

The  Twins  consist  of  three  small  islands,  the  highest  of  which  has 
an  elevation  of  about  200  feet.  Their  sides  are  precipitous  and  bare. 
As  no  breakers  were  seen  about  them  in  heavy  weather,  it  is  presumed 
there  are  no  outlying  dangers. 

Near  Island  is  about  2  miles  long  and  600  feet  high,  with  precipi- 
tous, rocky  sides.  The  island  is  easily  recognized  by  a  regular  serra- 
tion, which  cuts  its  crest  into  five  little  peaks.  There  are  rocks  close 
to  the  shore. 

NAGAI  ISLAND 

is  approximately  29  miles  long  and  9  miles  wide.  Its  coast  is  irregular 
and  indented  by  numerous  inlets,  several  of  which  extend  nearly 
through  the  island  and  have  low  narrow  isthmuses  at  the  head.  The 
island  is  mountainous  and  its  shores  rock-bound;  near  the  center  it 
reaches  an  elevation  of  1,837  feet  in  a  group  of  confused  ridges. 

Wedge  Cape,  the  northern  end  of  the  island,  is  a  narrow  headland 
with  a  rounded,  sloping  hill  749  feet  high.  The  north  end  of  the  cape 
terminates  in  a  double  point,  with  elevations  of  262  and  316  feet  and 
a  rocky  bluff  150  feet  high  between.  Its  shores  are  rocky  and  for- 


SHUMAGIN   ISLANDS.  171 

bidding,  but  may  be  approached  within  J4  mile  with  depths  of  14  to 
25  fathoms;  closer  in  a  vessel  would  be  in  danger.  In  general,  how- 
ever, a  vessel  should  keep  1  mile  offshore. 

Mountain  Cape,  the  southerly  end  of  the  island,  is  narrow  and  about 
500  feet  in  height.  There  are  rocks  surrounding  the  point  at  a  dis- 
tance of  about  }/%  mile  and  a  sunken  rock  about  1  mile  offshore  in  a 
south-southwesterly  direction. 

Pirate  Shake  is  a  local  name  for  the  low  neck,  about  65  yards  wide, 
of  Nagai  Island,  4  miles  southward  of  Wedge  Cape.  The  cove  on 
the  east  side  of  the  neck  is  a  good  anchorage  for  vessels,  but  is  exposed 
to  winds  from  about  east-northeast  to  east-southeast.  The  outer 
points  at  the  entrance  are  surrounded  by  reefs,  and  a  reef,  bare  about 
8  feet  in  places  at  low  water,  lies  in  the  middle  of  the  entrance.  The 
better  entrance  is  northward  of  the  reef,  heading  for  an  islet  on  the 
north  side  of  the  cove  on  a  286°  true  (W  %  S  mag.)  course.  Pass 
300  to  500  yards  southward  of  the  islet,  and  anchor  in  the  middle  of 
the  cove  west-southwestward  of  ihe  islet,  in  about  8  to  9  fathoms, 
bottom  soft  in  places.  Anchorage  can  also  be  selected  in  the 
entrance  of  the  cove  just  eastward  of  the  islet,  in  7  to  8  fathoms,  bot- 
tom generally  rocky,  taking  care,  however,  to  avoid  the  reef  which 
extends  about  y%  mile  from  the  northeasterly  shore  of  the  cove.  The 
flat  islet  (40  feet  high)  on  the  north  side  of  the  cove,  and  a  wreck 
just  inside  the  outer  point  on  the  south  side  of  the  cove  are  good 
marks  for  the  entrance. 

Northeast  Bight,  on  the  east  side  of  Nagai  Island,  about  6  miles 
southward  of  Wedge  Cape,  is  about  4  miles  long  and  1J^  miles  wide. 
It  is  open,  deep,  and  free  from  dangers  except  close  to  shore.  The 
main  body  of  the  bight  is  too  deep  for  anchorage,  but  a  vessel  may 
anchor  in  the  two  coves  at  the  head  in  about  20  fathoms. 

Mist  Harbor  is  a  landlocked  basin  about  1  mile  long  and  %  mile 
wide,  lying  on  the  east  side  of  Nagai  Island,  about  12  miles  south- 
ward of  Wedge  Cape,  and  314°  true  (NW  by  W  %  W  mag.)  from  the 
northeast  end  of  Bendel  Island.  The  depths  in  the  middle  of  the 
basin  are  27  to  35  fathoms,  but  small  craft  can  find  a  secure  anchorage 
in  the  cove  on  the  south  side  of  the  west  end  of  the  harbor,  in  6  to  7 
fathoms.  The  south  side  of  the  harbor  is  formed  by  a  long  spit;  the 
entrance  is  around  the  west  end  of  the  spit  and  is  about  250  yards 
wide,  and  necessitates  a  sharp  turn  in  entering.  A  mid-channel 
course  should  be  followed  through  the  entrance,  and  in  entering  the 
cove  at  the  west  end  of  the  harbor  to  the  anchorage.  A  flat  fills  the 
easterly  end  of  the  harbor,  and  otherwise  there  are  no  dangers  away 
from  the  shores. 

A  fishing  camp  is  usually  located  on  the  cove  at  the  west  end  of 
Mist  Harbor,  and  small  temporary  wharves  may  be  found.  Water 
may  be  had  from  small  streams  on  the  northeasterly  side  of  the 
harbor.  Strong  williwaws  draw  down  from  the  high  mountains  at 
times.  A  low  neck  of  land,  about  150  yards  wide,  separates  the 
west  end  of  the  harbor  from  the  head  of  Northeast  Bight. 

East  Bight,  on  the  east  coast  about  3  miles  southward  of  the 
entrance  to  Mist  Harbor,  is  about  3J4  miles  long  and  2  miles  wide. 
It  is  deep,  open  southeastward,  and  the  shores  are  clear  except 
close-to.  Anchorage  for  moderate-sized  vessels  may  be  found  on 
the  shelf  on  the  northeast  side  in  15  to  20  fathoms,  about  1  mile 
inside  the  north  entrance  point  and  &bout  %  mile  offshore. 


172  SHUMAGIN"    ISLANDS. 

The  two  west  arms  do  not  afford  good  anchorage  on  account  of  the 
depth,  about  29  fathoms.  There  is  a  7-fathom  spot,  surrounded  by 
deep  water,  in  the  northern  of  the  two  arms,  lying  650  yards  off  the 
west  shore  and  about  %  mile  from  the  head  of  the  arm. 

The  entrance  to  the  south  arm  is  restricted  to  about  450  yards 
by  a  shoal  extending  about  650  yards  in  an  easterly,  and  900  yards 
in  a  northerly  direction  off  its  south  entrance  point.  In  entering 
favor  the  north  shore  at  a  distance  of  J^  to  34  mile.  Small  boats 
may  find  protected  anchorage  behind  the  hook  at  the  south  entrance 
point,  in  9  to  15  fathoms.  After  passing  well  through  the  entrance 
to  the  arm,  head  180°  true  (S  by  E  %  E  mag.)  to  pass  about  100 
yards  westward  of  the  west  end  of  the  hook  spit.  When  abreast 
of  the  end  of  the  hook,  round  into  the  cove  and  select  anchorage 
about  in  its  center. 

A  bight  about  3  miles  southwestward  of  East  Bight,  locally  known 
as  Pete  Larssen  Bay,  affords  good  anchorage  in  4  to  10  fathoms, 
sandy  bottom.  The  bight  is  open  and  easy  of  access  but  is  exposed 
to  easterly  winds.  The  western  shore  is  low  and  is  distinguished 
by  white  sand  dunes.  There  is  a  bold  headland  about  100  feet 
high  projecting  from  the  south  side. 

There  are  several  open  bights  on  the  east  coast  of  the  island  be- 
tween Pete  Larssen  Bay  and  Mountain  Cape. 

John  Island,  in  the  large  bay  in  the  southwest  part  of  Nagai  Island, 
is  300  or  400  feet  high. 

South  of  John  Island,  Nagai  Island  consists  of  two  clusters  of 
rocky  hills,  about  1,000  feet  high,  united  by  low  isthmuses. 

The  southerly  isthmus  is  called  Saddlers  Mistake,  due  to  a  vessel 
attempting  at  night  to  pass  through  between  the  adjacent  high  parts 
of  the  island. 

Falmouth  Harbor  (chart  8881),  on  the  west  coast  of  Nagai  Island, 
about  6  miles  northward  of  John  Island,  affords  a  secure,  though 
limited,  anchorage  for  a  small  vessel  in  the  basin  behind  the  spit 
at  its  head,  in  7  to  8  fathoms,  sandy  bottom.  The  entrance  to  the 
basin  is  not  over  300  yards  wide,  has  a  depth  of  6  fathoms,  and  con- 
tains no  known  dangers.  The  basin  is  ^  mile  wide,  and  its  north 
side  is  a  broad  sand  flat  which  drops  suddenly  to  4  fathoms. 

A  reef  extends  M  mile  southwestward  from  the  south  head  of 
Falmouth  Harbor;  and  a  rock,  bare  at  low  water  and  marked  by  a 
breaker  and  kelp,  lies  %  mile  from  that  head  in  the  same  direction. 

The  south  shore  of  Falmouth  Harbor  is  low  at  the  water's  edge  but 
slopes  rather  steeply.  The  northern  headland  rises  some  500  feet 
in  a  perpendicular  cliff.  The  shore  is  rocky  and  bold.  A  rock,  5 
feet  above  water,  stands  J£  mile  from  shore  and  1 J4  miles  northwest- 
ward from  this  headland.  Halfway  up  the  bay  on  the  south  side 
is  a  low  point,  with  a  rock  close-to,  known  as  Cape  Horn. 

Wooly  Head,  between  Falmouth  and  Eagle  Harbors,  is  a  promon- 
tory 1,200  feet  high;  there  are  rocks  0.2  mile  from  shore  all  around 
its  face,  some  of  them  awash  and  others  forming  towers  and  pinna- 
cles 50  feet  high.  A  vessel  may  pass  %  mile  off  in  20  fathoms. 
Violent  williwaws  are  frequent  here. 

Eagle  Harbor  (chart  8881),  northward  of  Wooly  Head,  is  about 
4^  miles  long  in  a  southeasterly  direction  and  1%  to  J^  mile  wide, 
and  has  a  depth  of  15  to  20  fathoms,  with  no  outlying  dangers  until 
approaching  the  spits  which  lie  1 J^  miles  from  the  head  of  the  harbor. 


SHUMAGIN   ISLANDS.  173 

In  passing  between  the  spits,  favor  the  one  on  the  southwest  shore. 
There  is  good  anchorage  anywhere  in  the  head  of  the  harbor  above 
the  spits  in  14  to  18  fathoms,  soft  bottom.  Small  craft  can  anchor 
in  the  lagoon  behind  the  north  spit  in  depths  of  5  to  7  fathoms. 

There  is  a  fishing  station,  with  a  large  warehouse  and  a  boat  wharf, 
on  the  southern  side  of  Eagle  Harbor,  1.3  miles  inside  the  entrance, 
and  a  small  abandoned  fish  station  and  boat  wharf  on  the  north 
shore  1.8  miles  inside  the  entrance. 

Sanborn  Harbor  (chart  8891)  lies  about  3^  miles  northward  of 
Eagle  Harbor.  The  pinnacle  rock  103  feet  high  off  East  Head,  the 
northern  entrance  point,  and  the  two  waterfalls  on  the  west  face  of 
the  south  entrance  point,  are  conspicuous  landmarks. 

The  harbor  is  5  miles  long  and  has  good  anchorage  at  its  head.  To 
secure  good  shelter  in  Sanborn  Harbor,  a  vessel  should  pass  between 
Macks  Head  and  Granite  Point,  and  then  anchor  as  desired,  avoiding 
only  the  upper  half  of  the  northeast  arm,  which  is  shoal.  There  are 
no  outlying  dangers  anywhere  in  Sanborn  Harlor. 

There  is  a  fishing  station  in  a" small  exposed  bay  on  the  north  side 
of  Sanborn  Harbor,  2 ^  miles  southeastward  of  East  Head;  it  has  a 
warehouse  and  a  boat  wharf  dry  at  low  water. 

Catons  Cove  lies  on  the  north  side  of  Sanborn  Harbor,  3J/2  miles 
southeastward  of  East  Head;  there  is  shelter,  in  the  Kitchen,  for 
light  craft,  back  of  the  sand  spit.  The  channel,  close  to  the  spit  until 
through  the  narrowest  part  of  the  entrance,  has  a  least  width  of  100 
feet  and  a  least  depth  of  10  feet. 

Porpoise  Harbor,  about  3  miles  northward  of  Sanborn  Harbor, 
affords  no  useful  anchorage  on  account  of  great  depth. 

The  bight  about  2J^  miles  northward  of  Porpoise  Harbor  has  tem- 
porary anchorage  in  8  to  15  fathoms,  giving  the  shore  a  berth  of  over 
300  yards.  Porpoise  Rocks  are  a  small  cluster  10  feet  high,  with  deep 
water  close-to,  lying  0.8  mile  from  the  north  shore  in  the  approach  to 
the  bay. 

The  narrow  bight  west  of  Pirate  Shake  affords  anchorage  for  small 
craft  about  ^  mile  inside  the  entrance  and  about  on  the  middle  line 
of  the  cove,  in  4  to  6  fathoms,  rocky  bottom.  The  bight  is  exposed 
to  westerly  winds  and  its  eastern  half  is  foul  and  shoal  to  the  head. 

WEST  NAGAI  STRAIT, 

between  Nagai  and  Andronica  Islands,  is  3.3  miles  wide  at  its  nar- 
rowest point  between  Porpoise  Kocks  and  the  Haystacks,  with  depths 
from  25  to  45  fathoms  and  no  outlying  dangers.  A  vessel  should 
pass  eastward  and  southward  of  the  Haystacks  and  on  these  sides 
may  approach  as  close  as  0.3  mile  in  25  fathoms. 

The  currents  in  West  Nagai  Strait  set  with  the  wind,  and  reach  a 
velocity  of  1^  to  2  knots  in  strong  winds.  Under  ordinary  condi- 
tions the  prevailing  set  of  the  current  is  said  to  be  southwestward  in 
this  vicinity. 

The  Haystacks  are  a  formidable  appearing  group  of  four  islets  265 
to  293  feet  high,  and  there  is  a  broken  chain  of  rocks  running  through 
them.  Broken  ground  on  which  the  least  depth  found  is  9  fathoms 
lies  1 M  miles  southwestward  from  the  southwesterly  bare  rocks.  A 
rock  called  The  Whaleback,  1  mile  west  of  the  Haystacks,  is  22  feet 
high,  and  300  yards  south-southwestward  of  it  is  a  sunken  rock. 


174  SHUMAGIN    ISLANDS. 

Temporary  anchorage  in  20  fathoms  or  less  can  be  had  in  the  bight 
eastward  of  the  Haystacks.  A  landing  can  be  made  on  the  bowlder 
beach. 

The  soundings  indicate  clear  passages  between  Andronica  and  the 
Haystacks,  between  The  Whaleback  and  the  Haystacks,  and  between 
the  north  Haystack  and  the  rest  of  the  group,  but  none  of  these  pas- 
sages are  recommended. 

ANDRONICA  ISLAND 

is  2  by  3  miles  in  extent  and  1,175  feet  high.  It  is  bordered  by 
rocks  all  around  to  a  distance  of  0.2  mile  from  the  shore,  and  vessels 
should  give  the  shore  of  the  island  a  berth  of  %  mile.  There  is  a  flat 
islet  22  feet  high  extending  0.4  mile  off  the  southeast  point  toward 
the  Haystacks. 

The  northern  point  of  Andronica  is  a  detached  wedge  of  rock  280 
feet  high.  There  is  a  rock  awash  at  low  water  0.7  mile  westward  of 
the  north  point  and  0.4  mile  offshore,  and  this  is  the  farthest  outlying 
danger  in  the  approach  to  Gorman  Strait.  There  is  another  rock  5 
feet  high,  and  0.2  mile  off  the  western  point  of  Andronica  Island. 

Temporary  anchorage  may  be  found  J^  mile  from  shore  in  the 
bight  on  the  northeast  side  of  Andronica,  off  the  sand  beach  near  the 
northern  point,  in  20  fathoms.  Small  vessels  can  anchor  closer  to 
shore  in  this  bight,  and  also  in  the  bight  on  the  southwest  side  of  the 
island,  and  landing  can  usually  be  made  in  one  of  these  bights. 

GORMAN  STRAIT, 

between  Andronica  and  Korovin  Islands,  has  a  least  width  of  2% 
miles,  and  is  clear  if  the  shores  be  given  a  berth  of  %  mile.  In  round- 
ing Cape  Devine  it  is  well  to  avoid  the  broken  ground  which  sur- 
rounds this  point  to  a  distance  of  about  1  ^  miles  in  a  northeasterly 
direction  and  about  1  mile  in  a  southerly  direction,  until  a  more 
detailed  development  is  made. 

The  currents  in  Gorman  Strait  set  with  the  wind,  and  reach  a 
velocity  of  1^2  to  2  knots  in  strong  winds.  Under  ordinary  condi- 
tions the  prevailing  set  of  the  current  is  said  to  be  southwestwai  d  in 
this  vicinity. 

KOROVIN  ISLAND 

has  two  summits;  low  land  and  marsh  occupies  the  middle  portion; 
the  eastern  end  is  a  rocky  cliff  1,200  feet  high,  and  the  western  end  is 
1,816  feet  high. 

Sounding  has  been  completed  on  the  south  side  of  Korovin  Island 
from  Cape  Devine  to  a  point  2  miles  southeastward  of  Henderson 
Island,  and  otherwise  a  few  reconnoissance  lines  only  have  been  run 
around  the  island. 

Cape  Devine,  marking  the  northwest  side  of  Gorman  Strait,  is  a 
gray  headland  855  feet  high  joined  to  the  southeasterly  part  of 
Korovin  Island  by  a  low  neck.  The  shore  is  fringed  with  rocks  and 
a  rock  awash  at  low  water  lies  400  yards  off  the  south  side  of  the  cape. 
A  bank  on  which  the  least  depth  found  is  11  fathoms  extends  % 
mile  southward  from  the  cape. 


SHUMAGIN  ISLANDS.  175 

Scotland  Point,  the  north  end  of  Korovin  Island,  has  shallow 
water  off  it.  Scotland  Rock,  awash  at  low  water,  exists  in  this 
locality  and  is  supposed  to  lie  about  1  mile  northward  of  the  point, 
but  it  has  not  been  located. 

Grosvold  Bay,  2  miles  southwestward  of  Scotland  Point,  may  be 
used  as  an  anchorage.  The  entrance  is  foul  on  both  sides  but  safe 
in  the  middle,  and  there  is  foul  ground  inside  off  both  the  east  and 
west  shores.  The  steamer  Patterson  anchored  in  the  center  of  the 
bay,  in  8  fathoms,  sand  and  rock  bottom. 

The  bay  between  Scotland  Point  and  Grosvold  Bay  is  not  recom- 
mended. 

Henderson  Island  is  J£  mile  long,  58  feet  high,  and  lies  %  mile  °ff 
the  west  end  of  Korovin  Island.  When  approaching  from  westward 
it  is  hard  to  distinguish  Henderson  Island  from  Korovin  until  close-to. 
There  is  shallow  water  between  the  two  islands,  and  rocks  off  the 
western  end  of  Henderson ;  it  should  be  given  a  berth  of  over  J^  mile. 

There  is  anchorage  either  northward  or  southward  of  Henderson 
Island.  The  southerly  anchorage  is  eastward  of  a  bare  rock  about 
5  feet  high,  and  the  anchorage  should  be  approached  from  the  south- 
ward. 

The  southern  bight  of  Korovin  Island  has  reefs  extending  0.3  mile 
from  shore,  but  affords  anchorage  0.6  mile  offshore.  There  is  a 
small  settlement  in  this  bight. 

Korovin  Strait,  between  Korovin  and  Popof  Islands,  has  a  least 
width  of  about  2  miles,  and  is  deep  and  clear. 

KARPA  ISLAND 

is  0.7  mile  by  1.3  miles  in  extent  and  1,373  feet  high.  It  is  grass- 
covered,  with  a  smooth  profile,  and  has  a  remarkable  cliff  900  feet 
high  at  the  northeast  point.  The  island  may  be  ascended  only 
from  the  southwest  point;  70  yards  off  this  point  is  a  tower  rock  50 
feet  high,  and  a  reef  above  water  extends  140  yards  off  the  southeast 
point.  There  is  a  narrow  kelp  field  along  the  south  and  southeast 
sides  of  the  island,  and  otherwise  there  are  no  known  outlying  dan- 
gers. A  few  reconnaissance  lines  of  soundings  have  been  run  in 
the  vicinity  of  the  island. 

POPOF  ISLAND 

is  irregular  and  rough  in  shape,  with  hills  ranging  approximately 
1,000  and  1,500  feet  nigh.  The  highest  point,  1,550  feet,  is  a  short 
distance  northeast  of  the  center  of  the  island.  The  shores  are  gen- 
erally rocky  and  steep  and  have  many  ledges,  covered  with  kelp, 
extending  200  to  300  yards  offshore. 

The  north  and  east  shores  of  Popof  Island  have  no  outlying  dan- 
gers, but  the  shore  should  be  given  a  berth  of  about  %  mile.  Be- 
tween Andronica  and  Popof  Islands  the  water  is  deep  and  clear. 
Temporary  anchorage  may  be  found  %  mile  off  the  north  shore  of 
Popof  Island  anywhere  west  of  Pirate  Cove,  in  10  fathoms. 

Fox  Hole,  also  called  Little  Harbor,  is  on  the  east  side  of  the  north 
end  of  Popof  Island,  and  is  about  1J4  miles  long  in  a  south-south- 
westerly direction.  It  affords  a  well-sheltered  anchorage  for  a 
small  vessel,  the  depths  ranging  from  about  15  fathoms  at  the  en- 
trance to  6  fathoms  near  the  edge  of  the  flat  which  extends  0.3  mile 


176  SHUMAGIN    ISLANDS. 

from  the  head.  The  harbor  has  a  clear  width  of  about  400  yards; 
foul  ground  extends  over  100  yards  in  places  from  the  shores,  and 
a  reef  extends  about  250  yards  northward  from  the  point  on  the 
south  side  of  the  entrance  of  the  narrow  part  of  the  harbor.  The 
north  point  of  entrance  is  a  sheer  cliff,  about  150  feet  high.  The 
only  directions  necessary  are  to  keep  in  mid-harbor. 

Popof  Head,  980  feet  high,  is  connected  to  the  southeast  part  of 
Popof  Island  by  an  isthmus.  It»is  a  high  precipitous  headland  with 
a  steep  slope  of  talus.  There  is  20  fathoms  200  yards  south  of  it 
and  the  depths  increase  southward;  the  100-fathom  curve  is  2  miles 
off.  Vessels  should  give  it  a  berth  of  y%  mile,  although  in  fog  it 
might  be  approached  more  closely. 

There  are  two  large  bights,  with  sand  beaches,  the  westerly  one 
known  as  Red  Cove,  on  the  south  side  of  Popof  Island  halfway 
between  Egg  Island  and  Popof  Head.  Both  of  the  bights  furnish 
anchorage  in  northerly  weather,  in  8  to  10  fathoms,  sandy  bottom. 
Landing  with  keel  boats  is  difficult  on  account  of  considerable  surf 
and  shoal  water  near  the  shore.  The  point  separating  the  bights 
is  a  narrow,  rocky  projection  fringed  with  foul  ground  to  a  distance 
of  about  300  yards;  rocks  awash  at  low  water  lie  600  yards  from 
shore  and  0.4  and  0.7  mile  westward  of  the  point. 

POPOF  STRAIT  (CHART  8891), 

between  Popof  and  Unga  Islands,  is  wide  and  deep  at  its  southern 
end  but  is  narrow  and  contains  several  ledges  in  its  northern  part. 
The  principal  outlying  dangers  are  as  follows: 

There  is  8  feet  on  a  dangerous  pinnacle  rock  which  lies  1.1  miles 
207°  true  (S  %  W  mag.)  from  the  point  east  of  Red  Cove;  3  miles 
109°  true  (E  mag.)  from  Egg  Island;  and  3.6  miles  291°  true  (W  J/g 
N  mag.)  from  Popof  Head.  It  is  on  a  line  from  the  north  tangent 
of  Egg  Island  to  the  tangent  to  Popof  Head,  bearing  111°  true 
(E  y?  S  mag.).  Kelp  seldom  grows  sufficiently  long  to  be  seen  at 
thr  surface. 

There  is  about  39  feet  on  a  rocky  shoal  1,000  yards  110°  true 
(E  y%  S  mag.)  from  the  first  pinnacle  rock  on  the  beach  south  of 
the  entrance  to  Squaw  Harbor;  there  may  be  less. 

The  bottom  of  the  southern  part  of  the  strait  is  broken  and  irregu- 
lar, but  no  other  hidden  dangers  were  found.  A  vessel  should  keep 
0.4  mile  off  either  shore.  There  are  a  few  settlers  along  the  Unga 
Island  shore. 

DIRECTIONS,  POPOF  STRAIT. 

From  eastward  pass  1  mile  southward  of  Popof  Head  and  steer 
288°  true  (W  }/£  S  mag.)  for  about  5  miles  for  Hardscratch  Point, 
which  leads  1 . 1  miles  southward  of  the  8-foot  rock.  When  Egg  Island 
bears  323°  true  (NW  by  W  mag.)  steer  337°  true  (NW  M  N  mag.)  for 
4.2  miles,  passing  700  yards  eastward  of  Egg  Island  and  round  Sand 
Point  0.2  mile  off. 

Entering  from  southwestward. — From  a  position  ^  mile  off  Kellys 
Rock  steer  337°  true  (NW  M  N  mag.)  for  8  miles,  passing  700  yards 
eastward  of  Egg  Island  and  round  Sand  Point  0.2  mile  off,  as  before. 

After  rounding  Sand  Point  at  a  distance  of  0.2  mile  steer  52°  true 
(NNE  %  E  mag.)  for  Sand  Point  Wharf  for  about  Y2  mile,  until  Egg 
Island  begins  to  close  on  the  bottom  of  the  hillside  at  Sand  Point, 


SHUMAGIN   ISLANDS.  177 


Then  steer  0°  true  (N  by  W  %  W  mag.)  for  about  1  J4  miles  with  West 
Head  shut  in  and  the  point  south  of  it  ahead,  and  Egg  Island  almost 
shut  in  astern,  passing  midway  between  Unga  Reef  and  Popof  Reef, 
where  the  channel  has  a  least  width  of  400  yards. 

When  a  33°  true  (N  by  E  %  E  mag.)  course  will  clear  Range 
Island  by  300  yards,  steer  that  course;  the  rock  150  yards  off  the 
point  of  Unga  Island  near  Unga  Reef  will  then  be  right  astern  and  in 
range  with  the  eastern  shoulder  of  a  saw-toothed  peak  in  the  Unga 
range  of  mountains. 

Pass  300  yards  off  Range  Island  and  when  its  northwest  point  bears 
180°  true  (S  by  E  %  E  mag.)  and  is  in  range  with  the  point  where 
Sand  Point  Wharf  is  located,  bring  this  range  astern  and  steer  0°  true 
(N  by  W  %  W  mag.);  the  change  of  course  is  200  yards  east  of  a 
4-fathom  shoal. 

Bound  westward.  —  After  passing  West  Head,  at  the  north  end  of 
Popof  Strait,  0.4  mile  distant,  on  a  0°  true  (N  by  W  %  Wmag.)  course, 
run  1.1  miles,  and  change  course  to  289°  true  (W  mag.)  with  High 
Island  astern  and  the  tangent  to  Cape  Aliaksin  ahead;  run  4.7  miles 
to  a  position  0.9  mile  northward  of  Gull  Island.  Then  follow  direc- 
tions on  page  150. 

Bound  eastward.  —  After  passing  through  the  strait  as  above 
directed,  pass  about  j^j  mile  off  East  Head  and  steer  86°  true  (NE  by 
E  %  E  mag.)  to  pass  0.9  mile  northward  of  High  Island. 

It  is  difficult  to  enter  Popof  Strait  from  northward  at  night  as  there 
are  no  prominent  landmarks  and  the  entrance  is  hard  to  distinguish 
on  account  of  higher  land  in  the  background. 

Egg  Island  lies  in  the  middle  of  Popof  Strait  2*/£  miles  southward 
of  Sand  Point.  It  is  160  feet  high,  600  yards  across,  and  grassy  on 
top.  Little  Egg  Island,  close  westward  of  it,  is  grassy-  topped,  25 
feet  high,  and  130  yards  across.  There  are  a  few  detached  rocks 
about  these  islands.  A  vessel  should  not  approach  closer  than  400 
yards,  where  15  fathoms  or  more  will  be  found. 

"Sand  Point  is  a  flat  sand  spit  0.4  mile  long.  Its  south  shore  is 
fringed  close-to  by  rocky  ledges  and  its  north  shore  has  sandy  bottom. 
A  shoal  shelves  off  about  150  yards  westward  from  the  point,  and  then 
drops  off  abruptly  to  deep  water. 

Humboldt  Harbor  (chart  8891)  furnishes  excellent  shelter  and  good 
holding  ground.  Occasional  strong  southwesterly  winds  necessitate 
the  use  of  a  second  anchor  to  prevent  dragging  in  this  harbor.  Passing 
0.2  mile  off  Sand  Point  steer  for  Sand  Point  wharf  on  a  52°  true 
(NNE  J£  E  mag.)  course;  anchor  in  about  10  fathoms  about  J^  mile 
from  the  shore  northward  and  eastward,  with  the  end  of  Sand  Point 
bearing  220°  true  (S  by  W  %  W  mag.),  and  Range  Island  30  yards 
open  from  the  land. 

Sand  Point  wharf,  at  the  head  of  Humboldt  Harbor,  is  1.3  miles 
northeastward  of  Sand  Point.  It  has  a  frontage  of  42  feet  and  a 
depth  of  14  feet  at  low  water  at  the  end.  A  vessel  can  berth  only  at 
the  end  as  there  are  loose  rocks,  almost  bare  at  low  water,  which 
form  a  support  for  the  wharf  all  the  way  to  its  outer  face.  The 
wharf  is  not  strong.  There  is  a  store  here,  but  no  settlement. 

Popof  Reef  lies  in  Popof  Strait,  westward  and  southwestward  of 
Sand  Point  wharf.  Its  northern  part  has  a  least  depth  of  8  feet,  lies 
300  to  700  yards  westward  of  the  point  just  northwestward  of  Sand 
31056°—  16  -  12 


178  SHUMAGIN    ISLANDS. 

Point  wharf,  and  is  marked  at  its  southwest  end  by  a  black  buoy.  A 
vessel  may  cross  the  reef  in  not  less  than  4  fathoms  by  passing  100 
yards  south  of  the  buoy;  250  .yards  south  of  the  buoy  there  is  a  small 
patch  on  the  reef  with  2  fathoms  over  it. 

Unga  Reef  is  described  with  Unga  Island. 

A  small  rocky  shoal  with  17  feet  over  it  lies  in  the  middle  of  Popof 
Strait  ]/2  mile  southward  of  Range  Island. 

Range  Island  is  30  feet  high  and  300  yards  across;  it  is  round  and 
grassy  over  the  summit.  There  is  8  fathoms  100  yards  from  the 
northwest  end.  There  is  no  passage  between  it  and  Popof  Island. 

East  Head,  on  the  east  side  at  the  north  entrance  to  Popof  Strait, 
has  foul  ground  and  kelp  for  a  distance  of  %  mu*e  on°  its  west  side  and 
extending  southward  to  Range  Island. 

Pirate  Cove,  4J  miles  east-northeastward  of  East  Head,  is  an  im- 
portant cod-fishing  station,  with  a  wharf  and  an  extensive  plant; 
there  is  a  berth  at  the  wharf  100  feet  long  with  5  to  10  feet  at  low 
water.  The  cove  is  properly  only  a  boat  harbor  and  it  is  necessary 
to  warp  a  vessel  in  and  out.  At  low  tide  vessels  of  a  greater  draft 
than  10  feet  lie  in  the  mud.  Vessels  of  250  tons  load  cargo  here 
regularly. 

High  Island,  ^  mile  off  the  northeast  part  of  Popof  Island,  is  % 
mile  long  and  310  feet  high,  with  its  greatest  height  near  its  north 
end.  It  is  grass  covered  but  has  reddish  cliffs  showing  westward  and 
grassy  slopes  on  the  other  sides.  There  are  30  fathoms  and  more  200 
yards  from  it  all  around  and  the  passage  between  it  and  Popof  is 
clear.  The  island  can  be  passed  fairly  close  to  and  is  a  useful  mark 
for  making  Gorman  Strait  in  thick  weather. 

UNGA  ISLAND, 

the  largest  and  most  important  of  the  Shumagin  group,  has  several 
large  indentations,  among  which  are  Zachary  Bay,  on  the  north  side, 
and  Delarof  Harbor  and  Baralof  Bay  (Squaw  Harbor)  on  the  east. 
It  is  quite  mountainous,  especially  the  eastern  half.  The  western 
half  is  comparatively  low,  that  part  west  of  Zachary  Bay  having 
somewhat  rolling  topography.  The  highest  mountains  are  just  south 
of  Zachary  Bay,  where  a  maximum  elevation  of  2,270  feet  is  found. 
In  general,  the  shore  line  is  rocky  and  precipitous.  The  south  and 
west  coasts  are  particularly  foul.  Near  the  west  end  of  the  north 
shore  is  a  sand  beach  3  miles  long,  with  sand  dunes  immediately  back 
of  it.  The  west  shore  of  the  island  is  not  surveyed. 

A  vessel  should  avoid  approaching  the  south  coast  of  Unga  Island, 
except  in  fine  weather.  There  is  no  shelter  or  protection,  and  often 
a  southeast  storm  comes  on  suddenly,  making  it  a  bad  lee  shore.  It 
is  a  bad  landfall  when  approaching  from  seaward  in  bad  weather, 
and  the  currents  can  not  be  foreseen.  However,  all  dangers  on  this 
side  are  within  ^  mile  of  the  shore. 

West  Head,  the  point  of  Unga  Island  at  the  north  entrance  of  Popof 
Strait,  is  a  black  cliff  40  feet  Jugh,  and  y^  mile  south  of  it  are  cliffs 
300  feet  high.  Westward  from  West  Head  the  cliffs  are  higher,  bro- 
ken, however,  by  numerous  valleys.  There  is  10  fathoms  300  yards 
off  West  Head. 

Unga  Reef  extends  0.7  mile  south-southeastward  from  the  western 
shore  of  Popof  Strait,  in  the  narrowest  part  opposite  Sand  Point 
wharf.  A  small  patch  lying  about  J£  mile  off  the  point  is  bare  about 


SHUMAGIN  ISLANDS.  179 

2  feet  at  low  water,  and  has  ribbon  kelp  around  it.  The  south  end 
of  the  shoal,  with  depths  of  3  to  4  fathoms,  lies  about  ^  mile  north- 
westward from  the  end  of  Sand  Point.  The  southern  part  is  known 
as  Caton  Shoal. 

Baralof  Bay,  locally  known  as  Squaw  Harbor,  on  the  eastern  coast 
of  the  island,  about  6^2  miles  northward  of  Unga  Cape  and  about  the 
same  distance  westward  from  Popof  Head,  is  a  good  anchorage  except 
in  heavy  easterly  weather.  In  approaching  from  southeastward, 
keep  0.8  mile  or  more  offshore,  and  in  entering  the  harbor  favor,  if 
anything,  the  north  side.  Anchor  in  the  middle  of  the  bay  in  16  to 
18  fathoms,  sticky  bottom.  Small  vessels  anchor  nearer  the  head  of 
the  harbor,  in  not  less  than  about  6  fathoms.  There  are  three  fishing 
stations  in  the  bay.  Vessels  may  lie  across  the  face  of  the  wharf  of  the 
station  on  the  north  side  of  the  bay,  where  there  is  12  feet  of  water  at 
low  tide.  In  the  middle  of  the  bay  and  1,000  yards  from  its  head  is 
a  sandy  shoal  having  a  least  depth  of  24  feet.  Fishing  vessels  use 
this  shoal  for  a  winter  anchorage  and  consider  it  safe.  There  is  a 
sandy  shoal  extending  J4  m^e  off  the  south  side  at  the  entrance. 

Northward  of  Baralof  Bay  the  shore  is  more  or  less  foul.  A  few 
settlers  live  along  this  coast.  There  is  a  fishing  station  in  the  bight 
west  of  Hardscratch  Point. 

Delarof  Harbor  (chart  8851),  3  miles  northward  of  Unga  Cape,  is 
not  sheltered  except  in  northwesterly  weather,  and  the  holding 
ground  is  bad.  The  depths  in  the  outer  harbor  range  from  15  fath- 
oms at  the  entrance  to  5  fathoms  about  300  yards  outside  the  entrance 
to  the  inner  harbor.  It  is  not  safe  to  anchor  in  less  than  about  6 
fathoms. 

Approaching  the  harbor  from  either  direction,  several  rocks  and 
islets  are  found  close  inshore.  Halfway  Rock,  70  feet  high  and  90 
yards  in  diameter,  lies  200  yards  offshore  about  %  mile  inside  the 
north  entrance  point.  Cross  Island,  265  feet  high,  lies  midway  of  the 
north  shore.  Elephant  Rock,  155  feet  high,  is  a  small  projecting 
point  a  short  distance  inside  the  south  entrance  point.  A  rock  40 
feet  high  lies  300  yards  off  Elephant  Rock,  to  which  it  is  connected 
by  a  reef. 

A  dangerous  shoal  known  as  the  Blind  Breaker,  which  is  bare  at 
extreme  low  water,  lies  in  the  entrance  850  yards  180°  true  (S  by  E 
%  E  mag.)  from  the  southeast  end  of  Cross  Island,  and  about  1  mile 
119°  true  (E  %  S  mag.)  from  the  south  entrance  point  of  the  inner 
harbor.  The  rock  is  closely  surrounded  by  depths  of  12  to  14  fathoms. 

A  shoal  with  20  feet  at  mean  lower  low  water  lies  in  the  center  of 
the  anchorage  off  the  town,  about  650  yards  122°  true  (ESE  %  E 
mag.)  from  the  south  entrance  point  of  the  inner  harbor. 

Enter  Delarof  Harbor  on  a  287°  true  (W  ^  S  mag.)  course,  heading 
for  the  point  on  the  south  side  of  the  entrance  of  the  inner  harbor, 
which  leads  J4  mile  northward  of  the  Blind  Breaker. 

A  mile  from  the  entrance  is  a  narrow  constricted  passage  beyond 
which  the  bay  is  shoal.  In  the  center  of  this  inner  harbor  is  a  large 
reef  which  is  exposed  at  extreme  low  water.  Flagstaff  Hill,  80  feet 
high,  is  the  rounded  point,  surmounted  by  a  flagpole,  at  the  north 
side  of  the  narrow  passage  to  the  inner  harbor.  Unga,  the  largest 
settlement  in  the  Shumagin  group,  lies  back  of  this  hill  and  consists 
of  a  fishing  station,  3  stores,  a  post  office,  a  jail,  a  church,  and  about 
30  houses.  The  population  in  1910  was  108.  There  is  no  wharf 


180  SHUMAGIN    ISLANDS. 

where  vessels  may  lie.  On  the  south  side  of  the  harbor  near  the 
entrance  is  the  wharf  of  a  fishing  station,  the  end  of  which  is  bare  at 
low  water.  At  the  head  of  the  harbor  is  the  wharf  of  the  Apollo 
Mines,  approached  only  at  high  water.  A  ledge  bare  at  low  water 
lies  400  yards  southward  from  Unga  wharf.  Small  boats  anchor  in 
2  or  3  fathoms  in  the  middle  of  the  narrow  entrance  inside  of  this 
ledge. 

Kellys  Rock  marks  the  southwest  side  of  the  southern  entrance  to 
Popof  Strait.  It  is  a  flat-topped,  grassy  islet  65  feet  high,  160  yards 
across  and  200  yards  offshore.  There  is  14  fathoms  175  yards  off- 
shore from  it.  Vessels  should  give  it  a  berth  of  J/£  mile  or  more. 
There  is  a  fishing  station  in  the  bight  a  mile  west  of  Kellys  Rock,  and 
this  is  the  only  one  in  the  vicinity  which  is  open  all  the  year. 

Unga  Cape,  the  southeast  point  of  Unga  Island,  is  a  bare,  gray, 
rugged  cliff  855  feet  high.  A  wall-like  slab  of  rock  500  feet  high, 
connected  to  the  cape  by  a  narrow  bar,  stands  just  south  of  the  cliff 
and  perpendicular  to  it.  There  are  ledges  at  the  foot  of  the  cliff. 
A  vessel  may  pass  }/%  mile  off  in  25  fathoms. 

Sealion  Rocks,  3  miles  south-southeastward  of  Unga  Cape,  are 
0.2  mile  in  extent,  130  feet  high,  flat-topped  and  grassy.  There  is 
a  breaker  0.4  mile  northeastward  of  them.  A  vessel  may  pass  y% 
mile  off  in  26  to  32  fathoms  but  should  give  them  a  greater  berth. 
There  is  a  clear  width  between  Sealion  Rocks  and  Unga  Cape  of 
23/2  miles,  with  depths  from  20  to  30  fathoms  and, no  outlying  dangers. 

Acheredin  Bay  is  a  large  open  bight  in  the  south  shore  of  Unga 
Island.  It  is  3  miles  across  and  2  miles  deep.  Its  shore  is  a  sand 
and  pebble  beach,  behind  which  is  a  lake  7  feet  above  high  water. 
A  vessel  may  approach  to  0.6  mile  off  the  sand  beach  in  8  fathoms. 

Acheredin  Point,  the  southwest  end  of  Unga  Island,  is  a  black 
mountain  1,400  feet  high,  with  an  exceedingly  rough  surface  and 
serrated  profile.  At  the  end  of  the  point  is  a  separate  hill  500  feet 
high.  A  vessel  should  keep  I  mile  off. 

The  west  side  of  Unga  Island  is  unsurveyed. 

Bay  Point,  or  Nigger  Head,  is  a  rocky  headland  of  rounded  profile, 
325  feet  high,  which  forms  a  good  landmark  all  around,  and  shows 
over  the  land  in  Unga  Strait.  There  is  said  to  be  anchorage  in  7 
fathoms  northward  of  Bay  Point  affording  good  shelter  for  north- 
easterly winds. 

The  northerly  point  of  the  island  terminates  in  a  sand  spit  sur- 
rounded by  shoal  water  to  a  distance  of  about  J^  mile  offshore  in 
a  northerly  direction  and  to  greater  distances  on  either  side. 

Under  favorable  weather  conditions  a  fair  anchorage  may  be  found 
in  5  to  7  fathoms,  sand  bottom,  %  mile  280°  true  (W  %  S  mag.) 
from  the  sand  spit  on  the  north  shore  of  Unga  Island.  Small  vessels 
can  anchor  closer  to  shore  off  the  western  side  of  this  spit  in  as  little 
as  4  fathoms  in  places.  About  2  miles  southwestward  of  this  spit 
to  the  beginning  of  the  rocky  shore  line  the  5-fathom  curve  is  about 
1  mile  offshore. 

Gull  Island  is  a  flat-topped,  grassy  islet  about  50  feet  high  and 
80  yards  across.  It  is  0.9  mile  off  the  west  side  of  the  entrance  of 
Zachary  Bay.  The  island  has  deep  water  all  round  it  as  close  as 
200  yards.  There  is  a  passage  with  a  clear  width  of  }/%  mile  inside 
of  the  island,  but  care  should  be  taken  to  avoid  the  reef  extending 
from  the  west  entrance  point  of  Zachary  Bay. 


SHUMAGIN   ISLANDS.  181 

ZACHARY  BAY  (CHART  8891), 

on  the  north  side  of  Unga  Island,  is  6  miles  long  and  2  miles  wide 
at  the  entrance,  narrowing  to  about  1  mile  in  the  middle  of  the  bay. 
It  is  open  and  easily  entered.  The  outer  part  of  the  bay  has  depths 
of  10  to  20  fathoms,  sticky  bottom,  affording  anchorage,  but  is 
exposed  to  northerly  and  northeasterly  winds.  The  principal 
dangers  are  as  follows : 

Two  small  reefs,  known  as  Weedy  Shoals,  which  show  well  at  low 
water,  lie  J^  mile  from  the  eastern  shore  halfway  from  the  entrance 
to  North  Head.  A  kelp-marked  ledge,  bare  at  low  water,  extends 
nearly  %  mile  northeastward  from  the  western  shore  at  the  entrance ; 
the  end  of  the  ledge  lies  1.1  miles  162°  true  (SE  %  S  mag.)  from 
Gull  Island. 

The  best  anchorage  for  vessels  in  Zachary  Bay  is  about  J£  to  % 
mile  from  the  eastern  shore  and  J^  to  1  mile  southward  of  Round 
Island,  in  8  to  12  fathoms,  sticky  bottom.  To  enter,  pass  North 
Head  on  a  178°  true  (S  by  E  ^  E  mag.)  course  for  the  west  end  of 
Round  Island  in  range  with  the  middle  of  a  saw-toothed  mountain, 
which  leads  J^  mile  westward  of  North  Head.  Then  pass  about 
200  yards  westward  of  Round  Island,  and  follow  the  eastern  shore 
southward  at  a  distance  of  )^  to  ^  mile.  The  principal  dangers 
are  as  follows: 

A  rock  with  20  feet  over  it  lies  300  yards  westward  of  North 
Head.  An  extensive  shoal  makes  out  from  the  western  shore  from 
northward  of  North  Head  to  the  head  of  the  bay,  the  5-fathom  curve, 
on  the  eastern  edge  of  the  shoal,  passing  700  yards  westward  of 
North  Head  and  350  yards  westward  of  Round  Island;  southward 
of  Round  Island  the  edge  of  the  shoal  is  steep-to.  The  head  of  the 
bay  is  shoal  southward  of  the  point  on  the  east  shore  1.4  miles  south- 
ward of  Round  Island. 

Coal  Harbor  (chart  8891)  is  the  best  anchorage  for  small  vessels 
in  Zachary  Bay.  The  berth  with  best  swinging  room  is  %  mile 
north-northeastward  of  Quartz  Point,  with  North  Head  just  open 
from  the  western  entrance  point  of  the  bay,  and  Range  Islet  bearing 
260°  true  (SW  by^  W  %  W  mag.),  in  7  fathoms,  sticky  bottom. 
The  best  entrance  is  in  mrd-channel  northeastward  of  Round  Island, 
and  then  follow  the  northeast  shore  at  a  distance  of  300  yards.  The 
principal  danger  is  a  spit,  bare  only  at  extreme  low  water,  which 
extends  600  yards  120°  true  (E  by  S  mag.)  from  Round  Island;  the 
range  of  North  Head  and  the  western  entrance  point  of  the  bay  leads 
over  the  easterly  edge  of  the  spit,  and  vessels  should  keep  eastward 
of  this  range  when  Range  Islet  bears  230°  true  (SSW  %  W  mag.). 
The  head  of  the  harbor  southeastward  of  Quartz  Point  is  shoal. 

There  is  an  abandoned  coal  mine  on  the  west  side  of  Zachary  Bay. 

UNGA  STRAIT, 

separating  Unga  Island  from  the  Alaska  Peninsula,  is  2%  miles 
wide  in  its  narrowest  part,  between  the  sand  spit  on  the  north  side 
of  Unga  Island  and  Cape  Aliaksin  on  the  peninsula.  Depths  of  16 
to  30  fathoms  are  found  in  this  part  of  the  strait.  A  vessel  should 
keep  %  mile  off  either  shore. 

A  patch  of  what  looked  like  growing  kelp  was  seen  1.1  miles  0° 
true  (N  by  W  %  W  mag.)  from  the  sand  spit  on  the  north  shore  of 


182  SHUMAGIN    ISLANDS. 

Unga  Island.  The  least  depth  found  in  the  locality  is  22  fathoms 
and  no  trace  of  this  kelp  was  found  in  1915  by  a  surveying  vessel. 
However,  as  a  precautionary  measure,  this  spot  should  be  avoided 
by  deep-draft  vessels. 

Currents. — In  general,  currents  set  in  the  direction  of  all  courses 
from  Sand  Point  to  Pavlof  Bay.  In  Unga  Strait  a  0.4  knot  current 
will  generally  be  found  setting  westward;  it  does  not  change  with 
the  tide  except  between  Unga  and  Popof  Reefs,  where  a  tidal  cur- 
rent with  a  velocity  of  1  knot,  at  strength,  sets  northward  on  the 
flood  tide  and  southward  on  the  ebb. 

CAPE  ALIAKSIN  TO  BELKOFSKI. 

The  surveys  of  this  region  consist  of  a  few  lines  of  soundings  in  the 
channel  from  Cape  Aliaksin  to  Volcano  Bay,  and  of  complete  surveys 
of  Volcano  Bay,  the  north  and  west  sides  of  Dolgoi  Island,  Goloi  and 
the  Iliasik  Islands,  the  passages  between  the  various  islands,  and 
the  waters  for  about  3  miles  westward  of  the  Iliasik  Islands. 

Beaver  Bay  lies  west  of  Cape  Aliaksin  and  is  3  j/2  miles  wide  at  the 
entrance.  It  wis  not  examined,  but  a  narrow  opening  or  "hole  in 
the  wall"  was  seen  at  the  head  of  it,  which  probably  leads  to  Otter 
Bay.  Otter  Bay  is  reported  to  be  closed  by  a  shingle  spit.  On  the 
western  side  of  Beaver  Bay  the  land  is  low,  and  rises  gradually  for 
12  miles  west-sou thwestward.  The  shore  is  not  much  indented  and 
consists  of  a  line  of  low  cliffs  with  occasional  waterfalls.  The  point 
on  the  west  side  of  Beaver  Bay  is  called  McGintys  Point, 

A  single  line  of  soundings  at  a  distance  of  2  miles  from  the  shore 
showed  depths  less  than  10  fathoms,  irregular  bottom,  for  a  distance 
of  5  miles  southwestward  of  the  southwest  point  at  the  entrance  of 
Beaver  Bay.  The  least  depth  found  was  about  4  fathoms  at  a  point 
2  miles  from  shore  and  7.4  miles  300°  true  (W  by  N  mag.)  from  Bay 
Point  (Nigger  Head),  Unga  Island. 

Hair  Seal  Cape  at  the  entrance  to  Pavlof  Coal  Bay,  is  low  and  diffi- 
cult to  recognize.  It  terminates  in  a  flat-topped  mound  100  feet 
high,  connected  to  the  mainland  by  a  low  neck  of  land.  Lying  3 
miles  eastward  of  it  is  a  southerly  projecting  point  which  appears  to 
be  cut  off  to  form  an  island ;  and  1  mile  east-northeastward  of  this  in 
turn  is  a  rocky  ledge  0.8  mile  offshore  and  showing  8  feet  above  water. 
Both  these  may  be  picked  up  when  skirting  the  shore  in  foggy 
weather;  a  vessel  following  the  shore  will  be  in  18  fathoms  when 
heading  for  the  ledge,  as  she  proceeds  westward.  Abreast  of  this 
ledge,  about  }/%  mile  inshore  from  the  beach,  is  a  hog-back  mountain 
1,100  feet  high. 

Moses  Rocks  consist  of  two  breakers  about  0.3  mile  apart,  which 
lie  0.6  mile  southward  and  south-sou  thwestward  from  Hair  Seal  Cape, 
and  270°  true  (WSW  )4  mag.)  from  the  end  of  the  point  3  miles  east- 
ward of  Hair  Seal  Cape.  The  lead  gives  no  warning  of  these  breakers. 
A  depth  of  10  fathoms,  irregular  bottom,  and  no  development,  was 
found  1  mile  south-southeastward  of  Hair  Seal  Cape. 

Pavlof  Coal  Bay  is  a  good  shelter  for  small  vessels  in  northerly 
weather.  It  looks  east-northeastward  up  a  broad  valley,  behind 
the  1,100-foot  hill  already  mentioned,  and  is  entered  on  a  65°  true 
(NE  }/8  E  mag.)  course.  To  avoid  Moses  Rocks  when  entering,  round 
the  cape  at  a  distance  of  0.3  mile  in  11  fathoms,  or  at  a  distance  of 


ALASKA   PENINSULA.  183 

1  J£  miles  in  deeper  water,  following  the  shore  from  Broad  Cape.  A 
depth  of  4  fathoms  was  found  near  the  middle  of  the  bay  north-north- 
westward of  Hair  Seal  Cape,  and  no  sounding  was  done  farther  north- 
ward and  eastward. 

Broad  Cape  has  a  bold  shore,  curved  in  outline;  there  are  two 
mountains  on  it,  close  together,  about  1,800  feet  high  There  are 
two  small  islands  near  the  shore  between  Pavlof  Coal  Bay  and  the 
cape.  There  are  27  to  60  fathoms  1  J£  miles  off  the  cape. 

Pavlof  Bay  was  not  examined.  The  course  from  Broad  Cape  to 
Volcano  Bay  was  sounded  over  and  found  safe.  The  west  shore  of 
Pavlof  Bay  is  called  Long  Beach. 

Arch  Point,  the  north  point  at  the  entrance  to  Volcano  Bay,  is 
moderately  low  with  cliffs  about  100  feet  high  at  the  water,  and  is 
joined  by  a  low  neck  to  the  high  ground  farther  back.  It  is  under- 
cut in  several  places,  forming  caves  and  arches.  The  eastern  part  of 
the  cliffs  are  of  basalt  of  a  marked  columnar  structure,  appearing  like 
a  vast  stockade.  The  rock  is  dark  near  the  water,  changing  to  light 
brown  above.  The  land  back"  of  it  is  grassy.  Deep  water  extends 
close  to  the  south  side  of  the  point.  A  rock  with  11  feet  over  it  lies 
a  little  southward  of  a  line  from  Arch  Point  to  the  north  end  of  Dolgoi 
Island,  and  on  the  range  of  Bluff  Point  and  the  southeasterly  tangent 
of  Moss  Cape.  Broken  ground,  on  which  the  least  depth  found  is 
about  6  fathoms,  and  which  should  be  avoided,  extends  J^  mile  east- 
ward from  the  11-foot  spot. 

Volcano  Bay  is  free  from  rocks  and  shoals,  except  near  the  shores 
which  should  be  given  a  berth  of  about  y%  mile.  The  shoaling  is 
abrupt  from  about  30  fathoms  to  the  north  side  of  the  bay.  Shelter, 
except  from  southeasterly  winds,  and  good  anchorage  may  be  had 
near  its  head  in  10  fathoms,  sticky  bottom.  Shelter  for  small  vessels 
from  southeasterly  winds  may  be  had  in  2  fathoms  behind  the  sand 
spit  in  the  northwest  corner.  Fresh  water  can  be  obtained  here. 
Rocks  and  ledges  extend  500  to  700  yards  from  the  shore  between 
this  spit  and  Bear  Bay.  The  inner  part  of  Bear  Bay  can  be  entered 
only  by  pulling  boats.  A  fair  anchorage,  exposed  only  to  northeast 
winds,  can  be  had  in  the  middle  of  the  entrance  to  Bear  Bay,  in  15  to 
20  fathoms.  The  lagoon  on  the  north  side  of  Volcano  Bay  is  full  of 
bowlders  and  is  nearly  dry  at  low  water. 

PAVLOF  ISLANDS. 

This  group  consists  of  Wosnesenski,  Ukolnoi,  Poperechnoi,  Dolgoi, 
Goloi,  and  the  two  Iliasik  Islands.  Between  Unga  Island  and  Dolgoi 
Island  the  islands  and  bare  rocks  are  fairly  well  located.  The  sur- 
veyed area  near  Dolgoi  Island  and  the  coast  southwestward  to  Thin 
Point  are  shown  on  chart  8703. 

Jude  Island  is  about  150  feet  high,  and  about  y^  mile  across,  round 
in  profile,  grassy  on  top,  and  rocky  at  the  shore.  There  was  a  herd 
of  about  200  sea  lions  on  it  in  1913.  Deep  water  extends  close  to  the 
northwest  side  of  the  island.  Dangerous  rocks  may  be  found  on  a 
line  from  Jude  Island  to  Bay  Point  and  from  Jude  Island  to  Wos- 
nesenski Island.  Breakers  were  seen  in  these  localities  and  a  vessel 
should  keep  1  mile  or  more  northward. 

Wosnesenski  Island  has  a  rocky,  flat-topped  peak  1,200  feet  high 
near  the  southeast  point,  and  the  remainder  of  it  is  lower;  there  is  a 


184  PAVLOF    ISLANDS. 

lagoon  occupying  the  northeast  portion  and  a  small  settlement  on 
the  north  shore.  A  vessel  may  anchor  in  the  bight  on  the  north 
shore  J^  mile  westward  of  a  bare  ledge.  Otherwise  the  shore  seems 
foul  all  around,  and  depths  of  10  to  15  fathoms  are  found  northeast- 
ward for  2  or  3  miles  and  probably  dangerous  rocks  exist  also. 

Ukolnoi  Island  is  steep  and  bold  at  the  northwest  point.  East  of 
the  island  are  several  rocks  and  ledges  showing  above  water  as  far  as 
the  longitude  of  Wosnesenski  Island,  and  there  appears  to  be  foul 
ground  right  across.  In  case  it  should  be  necessary  to  pass  through 
a  channel  might  be  found  by  skirting  Wosnesenski  Island.  Along 
the  south  shore  of  Ukolnoi  Island  there  are  several  breakers  0.3  to  1.8 
miles  offshore. 

Poperechnoi  Island  has  rugged  cliffs  1,300  feet  high  along  its  north- 
east shore.  There  is  a  rock  awash  at  half  tide  1.3  miles  from  the 
northwest  point  of  it,  on  a  line  toward  Wosnesenski  Island,  and 
another  breaker  1.3  miles  east-northeastward  of  this  rock.  Still 
farther  east  is  a  pinnacle  rock  well  above  water,  in  the  middle  of  the 
strait.  No  sounding  has  been  done. 

Dolgoi  Island,  11  miles  across  and  grass  covered,  is  divided  into 
two  mountain  masses  by  Dolgoi  Harbor  and  the  lowland  at  its  head. 
The  greatest  heights  at  the  east  and  west  ends  of  the  island  are  1,450 
and  1,510  feet,  respectively.  The  shore  is  generally  abrupt  and 
high.  The  north  point  of  the  island  is  an  overhanging  cliff. 

Bluff  Point,  the  northwest  end  of  Dolgoi  Island,  is  a  rocky  head- 
land 50  feet  high  with  a  grassy  slope  eastward.  Deep  water  extends 
fairly  close  to  the  northwest  end  of  the  island.  The  south  part  of  the 
island  is  particularly  bold,  the  cliffs  being  several  hundred  feet  high. 
At  the  middle  of  the  southeast  side  is  a  headland  with  a  cliff  920  feet 
high. 

Dolgoi  Cape,  the  south  point  of  Dolgoi  Island,  is  marked  by  several 
large,  detached  rocks  a  few  yards  off  the  shore  line. 

Dolgoi  Harbor  (charts  8703  and  8851)  is  the  safest  and  most  com- 
modious harbor  in  this  part  of  Alaska,  giving  perfect  shelter  and 
freedom  from  williwaws.  There  are  two  islets  on  the  west  side  of 
the  entrance  and  two  larger  islands  inside  the  harbor. 

To  enter  Dolgoi  Harbor,  steer  20°  true  (N  y%  E  mag.)  for  the  highest 
point  (500  feet)  of  the  ridge  at  the  head  of  the  harbor  showing  west- 
ward of  the  two  islands  in  the  harbor,  and  pass  200  yards  or  more 
eastward  of  the  outer  one  of  the  two  islets  on  the  west  side  of  the 
entrance.  Pass  westward  of  the  first  island  in  the  harbor,  favoring 
if  anything  the  island  side. 

The  deeper  passage  then  leads  between  the  two  islands  in  Dolgoi 
Harbor,  talking  care  to  give  the  north  end  of  the  south  island  a  berth 
of  over  150  yards,  and  the  southeast  end  of  the  north  island  a  berth 
of  over  300  yards;  the  best  course  through  is  about  east  (mag.).  Or, 
vessels  can  take  the  passage  west  of  the  upper  island,  which  has  a 
depth  of  about  4  fathoms,  by  keeping  the  island  aboard  at  a  distance 
of  about  200  yards.  Anchorage  can  be  selected  anywhere  inside  the 
island,  the  depths  being  7  to  10  fathoms,  mud  bottom,  with  no  out- 
lying dangers.  Water  can  be  had  from  the  waterfall  on  the  eastern 
shore  abreast  the  first  island.  The  passage  eastward  of  the  first 
island  is  not  recommended. 

Dolgoi  Harbor  is  easily  approached  with  the  aid  of  the  chart,  passing 
on  either  side  of  Goloi  Island.  The  principal  outlying  dangers  in  the 


ALASKA    PENINSULA.  185 

approach  are  two  rocks  with  1  foot  over  them,  which  lie  about  on 
the  range  of  the  east  point  of  Goloi  Island  and  the  end  of  the  spit 
at  the  west  end  of  Dolgoi.  One  rock  lies  0.7  mile  135°  true  (SE  by  E 
y%  E  mag.)  from  the  east  end  of  Goloi  Island;  the  other  rock  lies  0.9 
mile  222°  true  (SSW  y%  W  mag.)  from  the  cluster  of  rocks  at  the 
southeast  side  of  the  entrance  of  Dolgoi  Harbor. 

Goloi  Island  is  970  feet  high  ani  the  sides  are  generally  abrupt 
except  at  the  two  sand  spits,  one  at  the  west  end,  the  other  at  the 
middle  of  the  northeast  side  of  the  island. 

Iliasik  Islands  are  each  about  2.7  miles  long  and  0.7  mile  wide. 
They  are  both  high  and  generally  have  cliffs  at  the  water.  Viewed 
from  Cape  Bold  they  appear  as  three  islands,  as  Inner  Iliasik  is 
nearly  divided  by  a  low  neck  of  land  into  parts  about  800  feet  high. 
The  high  north  end  of  Outer  Iliasik  is  also  separated  by  low  ground 
from  the  rest  of  the  island.  There  are  ledges  and  kelp  extending 
about  200  yards  from  the  east  side  and  about  y±  mile  from  the  west 
side  and  southeast  end  of  Inner^  Iliasik.  Outer  Iliasik  is  surrounded 
by  ledges  and  kelp  to  a  distance  of  }^  mile  in  places;  bare  locks  and 
foul  ground  extend  J^  mile  west-southwestward  from  the  west  end 
of  the  island.  Growing  kelp  was  seen  midway  between  the  islands 
in  midsummer. 

From  the  north  point  of  Inner  Iliasik  Island  there  is  a  reef  extend- 
ing to  the  mainland.  Just  east  of  the  mainland  end  of  the  reef  and 
close  to  the  shore  is  a  large  bowlder  which  is  easily  recognized.  There 
is  little  depth  on  the  reef  near  the  island,  and  about  8  feet  on  the 
greater  part  of  it.  Near  the  mainland  a  depth  of  11  to  12  feet  can 
be  taken  across  the  reef  by  passing  100  to  300  yards  off  the  large 
bowlder  on  a  course  parallel  to  the  shore.  The  passage  is  used  by 
local  fishing  vessels  of  about  6  feet  or  less  draft,  and  is  not  recom- 
mended for  any  but  light-draft  vessels;  the  tendency  is  to  cross  too 
far  from  the  large  bowlder. 

Sandman  Reefs,  a  large  area  of  foul  ground  with  numerous  islands, 
islets,  and  rocks,  extends  in  a  southerly  direction  from  Deer  and  Outer 
Iliasik  Islands  almost  to  the  Sannak  Islands,  and  in  an  easterly  direc- 
tion to  beyond  Pinnacle  Rock.  This  area  is  unsurveyed  and  the 
passage  between  them  and  the  Sannak  group  should  be  used  with 
great  caution. 

BELKOFSKI  TO  IKATAN  BAY. 

Belkofski,  a  native  settlement,  consists  of  a  church  and  about 
25  houses.  The  church  is  painted  white  and  is  prominent.  Vessels 
anchor  off  the  village  in  10  fathoms  and  land  goods  on  the  sand  and 
bowlder  beach  unless  southerly  weather  makes  the  surf  too  heavy. 

Belkofski  Bay  is  deep  and  free  from  hidden  dangers  so  far  as  known, 
except  for  reefs  and  ledges  near  the  shore.  There  are  rocks  600  yards 
off  Cape  Belkofski,  the  east  point  of  entrance.  Vessels  entering 
should  give  the  shore  a  good  berth,  as  the  bay  has  not  been  surveyed. 
A  mile  north  of  Cape  Belkofski  and  running  in  range  with  it  is  a 
long,  high  ridge,  the  upper  part  bare  and  gray  colored,  the  lower  slopes 
grassy,  but  with  gray  streaks  where  broken  rock  has  slid  from  above. 

Kitchen  Anchorage  is  easy  to  reach  and  offers  good  shelter.  Soft 
mud  is  found  at  the  head  of  the  harbor  in  10  or  12  fathoms.  The 
bottom  slopes  from  15  fathoms  at  the  entrance  to  10  fathoms  near 


186  BELKOFSKI    TO    IKATAN    BAY. 

its  head,  the  3-fathom  curve  being  about  150  yards  offshore.     A 
fresh-water  stream  flows  into  the  head  of  the  harbor. 

Bailey  Harbor  is  the  name  .given  to  the  indentation  opening  from 
the  northeast  corner  of  Belkofski  Bay  1  mile  north  of  Kitchen  Anchor- 
age. It  is  entirely  landlocked,  being  shut  in  by  a  broad  shingle  spit, 
and  is  regarded  as  a  secure  anchorage  for  small  vessels.  There  is  5 
to  8  fathoms  near  its  center,  and  about  9  fathoms  through  the  middle 
of  the  narrow  entrance.  In  the  absence  of  a  survey  it  would  be  pru- 
dent to  anchor  off  the  inner  side  of  the  shingle  spit  near  the  entrance. 
There  is  a  long,  winding  lagoon  about  200  yards  wide  running  inland 
from  the  head  of  the  bay.  There  is  8  fathoms  200  feet  off  the  end  of 
the  sand  spit  at  the  entrance  to  the  lagoon. 

Cape  Bold  is  a  rugged  headland  faced  with  vertical  cliffs,  above 
which  the  mountain  rises  in  steep  rock-strewn  slopes.  Several 
prominent  bowlders  stand  a  few  yards  off  the  shore. 

Kings  Cove  is  at  the  head  of  a  deep,  narrow  valley  stretching  inland 
between  high  ridges  which  rise  from  the  shore  on  either  side  of  the 
cove.  The  outer  bay  is  deep  and  free  from  dangers  except  those  close 
to  shore.  Vessels  may  anchor  in  10  to  17  fathoms  close  to  the  sand 
spit  off  the  wharf  and  eastward  from  it.  The  bottom  rises  very 
quickly  not  far  from  the  shore.  Vessels  of  considerable  size  (2,000 
tons  or  more)  can  Me  across  the  head  of  the  cannery  wharf.  Willi- 
waws  are  violent  and  even  dangerous.  To  enter  steer  0°  true  (N  by  W 
%  W  mag.)  for  the  cannery  wharf.  Some  local  magnetic  attraction 
has  been  observed  in  the  vicinity;  32°  easterly  variation  was  ob- 
tained by  observation  at  Vodapoini  Point,  the  east  entrance  point  to 
Cold  Bay,  but  the  extent  of  the  area  affected  is  not  known. 

At  the  head  of  Kings  Cove  a  long  spit  projects  across  from  the  east 
side,  and  is  overlapped  by  a  shorter  spit  from  the  west  side.  From 
the  spits  the  inclosed  lagoon  extends  2  or  3  miles  inland.  There  is 
probably  3  fathoms  over  most  of  it  and  as  much  as  17  fathoms  is 
reported,  but  it  can  be  entered  only  at  high  water.  Small  vessels 
can  anchor  behind  the  western  spit,  but  they  should  have  local 
knowledge  to  avoid  the  shoals  near  the  entrance.  The  tidal  cur- 
rents have  a  velocity  of  about  5  knots  at  strength  in  the  entrance, 
sweeping  eastward  along  the  outer  side  of  the  long  sand  spit  on  the 
ebb  and  keeping  the  bottom  deep  close  to  it. 

Deer  Island  is  a  series  of  high  conical  peaks,  many  of  which  are  so 
nearly  of  the  same  elevation  as  to  be  recognized  with  difficulty  from 
different  positions.  The  north  shore  is  determined  by  a  good  recon- 
naissance, but  the  limits  only  of  the  other  sides  are  shown.  Stag 
Point,  at  its  north  end,  is  a  short  sand  spit,  except  for  which  the  shore 
is  rocky  and  steep.  Back  of  the  point  is  a  high  sugar-loaf  peak.  The 
point  may  be  recognized  by  a  steep,  high,  triangular-shaped  bluff  at 
the  end  of  a  shoulder  of  the  peak  which  is  conspicuous  in  the  other- 
wise sloping  sides.  Anchorage  is  reported  on  the  east  side  of  the 
spit.  West  Cape  is  a  ridge  of  bare  rock  ending  in  sheer  faces  at  the 
western  extremity  and  at  the  two  sides. 

Approaching  Deer  Island  from  westward  Fox  Island  shows  up  low 
and  irregular  and  is  not  very  distinct  until  some  time  after  passing 
Umga  Island,  unless  the  weather  is  exceptionally  clear.  West  Cape 
of  Deer  Island  shows  as  a  flat-topped  sugar  loaf,  apparently  a  detached 
island,  but  later  is  seen  as  a  part  of  Deer  Island,  while  at  the  same 
time  Stag  Point  shows  as  a  high  sugar  loaf  beyond  West  Cape.  South- 


ALASKA    PENINSULA.  187 

ward  of  West  Cape  are  two  barren,  crater- like  peaks,  which  form  an 
excellent  landmark. 

Current.— Eastward  of  Deer  Island  the  flood  current  sets  north- 
ward and  the  ebb  southward. 

North  of  Fox  Island  the  flood  current  sets  northeastward  and  the 
ebb  southwestward. 

Fox  Island  Anchorage,  on  the  east  side  of  Fox  Island,  offers  good 
anchorage  in  8  to  9  fathoms,  soft  bottom,  well  sheltered  from  the 
wind  and  sea  from  northeastward  to  southeastward.  Between  West 
Cape  and  the  shacks  at  the  mouth  of  the  stream  a  valley  extends 
through  southward  to  the  west  side  of  Deer  Island.  Bring  this  val- 
ley to  bear  184°  true  (S  by  E  34  E  mag.)  and  steer  for  it,  and  anchor 
when  Amagat  Island  opens  south  of  Fox  Island. 

Cold  Bay  is  not  surveyed  and  no  description  is  available. 

Thin  Point  is  a  long,  grassy,  low,  flat  or  gently  sloping,  sand  and 
gravel  point.  The  extremity  is  an  eroded  yellow  sand  bank,  west- 
ward from  which  is  a  reef  bare  at  low  water.  On  the  point  about 
2^  miles  from  its  end  there  is  a  symmetrical,  dome-shaped,  grassy 
hill  which  stands  out  conspicuously  as  the  only  high  ground  near 
the  point. 

An  extensive,  and  probably  dangerous,  shoal,  rocky  area  sur- 
rounds Thin  Point.  Only  a  few  Lines  of  soundings  have  been  run 
over  this  area,  and  as  a  measure  of  caution  vessels  should  proceed 
with  care  in  this  vicinity  when  crossing  areas  with  a  depth  less  than 
10  fathoms.  The  principal  part  of  the  shoal  is  apparently  on  a  line 
of  the  point  extended,  and  is  in  the  form  of  a  bar  probably  extend- 
ing to  the  southwest  side  of  Deer  Island.  The  least  depths  found 
by  the  survey  near  the  sailing  line  between  Fox  Island  and  Umga 
Island  are  6  to  7  fathoms,  but  the  bottom  is  very  broken.  A  depth 
of  14  feet  was  found  1.2  miles  southward  of  Thin  Point,  and  3  fathoms 
3.2  miles  southeastward  from  the  point. 

Sozavarika  Island  is  low  and  grassy  and  lies  3  miles  southwestward 
of  Deer  Island.  It  may  be  approached  as  close  as  500  yards  on  its 
northwestern  side,  where  there  is  15  fathoms,  sand  bottom.  Be- 
tween this  island  and  Deer  Island  there  are  sunken  rocks,  and  other 
rocks  are  reported  in  the  line  between  it  and  Umga  Island. 

Umga  Island  is  small,  rounded,  grass  covered,  and  rocky.  It  is 
250  feet  high  and  has  a  survey  signal  at  its  highest  point.  There  is 
40  fathoms  close  to  the  northwest  and  southwest  sides,  but  foul 
ground  is  said  to  exist  eastward  and  southward  of  it. 

Amagat  Island  is  high,  bold,  and  shows  as  two  abutting  parts; 
the  southeast  part  is  1,030  feet  high  and  sharp,  while  the  other  part 
is  lower  (600  feet  high),  broader,  and  flat-topped. 

Morzhovoi  Bay  is  not  surveyed  and  no  description  is  available. 

SANNAK  ISLANDS 

are  the  southwestern  islands  of  the  groups  off  the  southern  side  of 
the  Alaska  Peninsula.  They  consist  of  two  large  islands,  Sannak 
and  Caton  Islands,  and  a  great  number  of  small  islands  and  rocks 
southward  of  the  former,  20  Y^  miles  long  and  10 }/%  miles  wide,  and 
all  bare  of  trees.  Sannak  Mountain,  at  the  northwest  end  of  Sannak 
Island,  is  the  prominent  object  seen  in  approaching  the  group,  and 
is  about  3  miles  long  and  1  mile  wide.  It  is  a  central  peak  (Sannak 


188  SANNAK    ISLANDS. 

Peak)  1,700  feet  high,  in  latitude  54°  28'  N.,  longitude  162°  45'  W., 
with  a  shoulder  on  its  east  side  about  1,300  feet  high  and  one  on  its 
west  side  about  700  feet  high.-  At  4^  miles  eastward  from  Saiinak 
Peak  this  ridge  again  rises  to  over  200  feet,  but  all  the  remainder 
of  the  group  is  but  little  over  100  feet  high  on  the  northern  side, 
decreasing  to  less  than  40  feet  high  among  the  islands  and  rocks 
forming  the  south  side. 

From  time  to  time  sunken  rocks  and  breakers  have  been  reported 
in  numerous  localities  northward  and  northwestward  of  Sannak 
Islands;  no  definite  information  can  be  given  about  them,  but  their 
reported  positions  are  shown  on  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey  Chart 
8860.  Crowley  Rock  is  the  only  known  danger.  The  eastern  end 
of  Caton  Island,  the  eastern  end  of  the  group,  is  fringed  with  reefs 
and  breakers  to  a  distance,  of  over  1  mile.  With  perhaps  the  excep- 
tion of  Peterson  Bay,  the  entire  south  side  of  Sannak  Islands  is 
dangerous  for  a  stranger  to  approach,  especially  the  southwest  end. 
The  principal  outlving  known  dangers  are: 

Crowley  Rock,  lying  1J^  miles  off  the  north  side  of  Sannak  Island 
and  348°  true  (NNW  %  W  mag.)  from  Sannak  Peak,  is  several  small 
pinnacles  very  close  together.  The  least  depth  found  was  about  11 
feet,  though  there  may  be  less,  and  there  are  depths  of  9  to  15  fath- 
oms close-to. 

The  western  end  of  Sannak  Island  is  fringed  with  rocks.  The 
westernmost  known  break  lies  1  mile  267°  true  (WSW  y%  W  mag.) 
from  the  northwesternmost  bare  rocks  of  the  group,  and  nearly  2 
miles  281°  true  (W  j^j  S  mag.)  from  the  west  point  at  the  entrance 
to  Acherk  Harbor. 

A  reef,  with  five  rocks  which  show  above  water,  lies  between  4 
and  5  miles  southwestward  of  Clifford  Island.  What  is  supposed 
to  be  Hennig  Rock  is  the  northernmost  rock  of  the  reef,  and  is  nearly 
on  the  range  of  Sannak  Peak  and  the  western  end  of  Troitz  Island, 
the  middle  and  largest  Trinity  Island,  bearing  71°  true  (NE  J^  E 
mag.),  distant  3^2  miles  from  the  island.  Oneida  Rock,  4  miles  162° 
true  (SE  y%  S  mag.)  from  Hennig  Rock,  is  the  southernmost  rock 
of  the  reef.  It  lies  5  miles  from  Clifford  Island  and  224°  true  (SSW 
34  W  mag.)  from  Sannak  Peak. 

A  narrow  bank  about  5  miles  long  in  a  120°  true  (E  by  S  mag.) 
direction  is  reported  to  lie  7  miles  southwestward  of  Clifford  Island. 
Depths  of  2  to  7  fathoms  were  found  on  it,  and  it  is  marked  by  kelp 
at  slack  water.  The  least  depth  was  found  at  its  northwest  end, 
which  lies  12  miles  238°  .true  (SW  Y2  S  mag.)  from  Sannak  Peak. 

Aleks  Rock  is  in  latitude  54°  20'  N.,  longitude  163°  10'  W.,  and 
lies  16%  miles  241°  true  (SW  J^  S  mag.)  from  Sannak  Peak.  It 
is  the  farthest  outlying  known  rock  southwestward  of  Sannak  Island. 
The  least  depth  found  was  9  fathoms,  but  it  is  reported  to  break 
with  an  ordinary  swell. 

Anderson  and  Leonard  Rocks,  Davidson  Bank,  southwest  of  Sannak 
Island,  long  of  doubtful  existence,  have  been  removed  from  the 
charts.  Repeated  systematic  searches  of  several  months  duration, 
in  all  weathers,  have  failed  to  indicate  shoals  in  the  vicinity  where 
these  rocks  were  reported.  All  reported  positions  of  them  are  along 
the  edge  of  the  bank.  The  bottom  is  extremely  level  and  regular 
to  the  100-fathom  curve  and  drops  abruptly  there.  The  vessels 
making  the  survey  carried  submarine  sentries  set  at  30  to  40  fathoms, 


SANNAK    ISLANDS.  189 

but  no  dangers  were  found.  The  current  runs  westerly;  with  an 
easterly  wind  it  reaches  a  strength  of  %  knot.  It  runs  south  of 
west  when  the  wind  is  north  of  east,  and  runs  north  of  west  when 
the  wind  is  south  of  east.  Along  the  100-fathom  curve  it  reaches  a 
strength  of  more  than  1  knot.  Tide  rips  are  often  seen  here. 

The  anchorages  at  Sannak  Islands  are  suitable  for  small  or  moderate 
sized  vessels  only,  and  with  the  exception  of  Caton  Harbor  there  are 
no  harbors  affording  shelter  from  all  winds. 

Acherk  Harbor,  at  the  northwest  end  of  Sannak  Island,  is  %  mile 
long  and  about  l£  mile  wide,  and  affords  a  contracted  anchorage  for 
small  vessels  with  protection  from  southerly  and  westerly  winds,  but 
is  exposed  to  winds  from  northwest  to  east,  and  a  swell  makes  in 
with  strong  westerly  winds.  There  is  a  small  settlement  at  the  south- 
east corner  of  the  harbor,  at  which  there  is  a  boat  landing,  and  water 
can  be  obtained  by  boats.  The  mean  rise  and  fall  of  the  tide  is  5.1 
feet. 

Approaching  Acherk  Harbor  from  northward  and  eastward  there  are 
several  reported  dangers,  the  positions  of  which  are  shown  on  Coast 
and  Geodetic  Survey  Chart  8860,  but  the  only  known  danger  is 
Crowley  Rock ;  the  safest  way  to  avoid  this  rock  in  coming  from  east- 
ward is  to  keep  within  %  mile  of  the  north  shore  of  Sannak  Island 
from  abreast  Northeast  Point.  Approaching  from  northwestward  steer 
for  the  western  hill  or  shoulder  (about  700  feet)  of  Sannak  Mountain 
on  any  bearing  between  140°  true  (SE  by  E  J^  E  mag.)  and  176°  true 
(SSE  mag.) ;  the  former  bearing  leads  about  %  m&e  northward  of 
the  northernmost  bare  rocks  off  the  western  end  of  Sannak  Island, 
and  the  latter  bearing  leads  about  %  mile  westward  of  Crowley  Rock. 
When  off  the  entrance  steer  193°  true  (S  3/£  E  mag.)  for  the  middle 
of  the  entrance.  Keep  in  mid-harbor  until  the  peaks  of  Sannak 
Mountain  are  in  line  and  the  row  of  houses  on  the  east  side  are  directly 
under  them,  and  anchor  in  5  to  6  fathoms,  hard  bottom.  There  are 
sunken  rocks  off  the  points  at  the  entrance,  but  they  are  marked  by 
kelp  and  can  be  readily  avoided. 

Murphys  Crack  is  a  small  indentation  about  1^  miles  east  of 
Acherk  Harbor.  It  is  protected  by  a  reef  and  affords  shelter  for  the 
boats  of  the  fishermen  who  live  here. 

Pavlof  Harbor  is  a  small  bay  about  1  mile  east  of  the  eastern  base  of 
Sannak  Mountain.  It  is  reported  to  be  a  good  harbor  for  small  craft, 
but  requires  local  knowledge  because  of  the  protecting  reefs  at  the 
entrance,  and  vessels  drawing  more  than  7  or  8  feet  can  not  use  it. 
There  is  a  fishing  station  here. 

Unimak  Cove,  1J4  miles  east  of  Pavlof  Harbor,  is  an  open  bight, 
and  unimportant. 

Johnsons  Bay,  \y^  miles  west  of  Northeast  Point,  has  an  inner 
harbor  for  boats  and  small  craft,  where  there  is  a  fishing  station,  and 
vessels  may  anchor  just  inside  the  entrance  to  the  bay,  favoring  the 
east  side,  in  about  9  fathoms,  with  protection  from  southerly  and 
westerly  winds.  There  are  some  rocks  close  to  the  west  point  at  the 
entrance. 

Northeast  Bay,  at  the  northeast  end  of  Sannak  Island,  affords 
anchorage  with  shelter  from  northwest  and  southwest  winds,  but  is 
exposed  to  easterly  winds.  Northeast  Point,  forming  the  north  side 
of  the  harbor,  is  about  100  feet  high.  Eagle  Rock,  about  50  feet  high, 
lies  near  the  middle  of  the  harbor;  it  is  surrounded  close-to  by  a 


190  SANNAK    ISLANDS. 

ledge  which  covers,  and  a  sunken  reef  connects  it  with  the  head  of 
the  harbor.  Water  can  be  obtained  by  boats  at  the  head  of  the 
harbor. 

To  enter  give  Northeast  Point  a  berth  of  about  ^  mile  and  anchor 
between  the  point  and  Eagle  Rock,  slightly  favoring  the  point,  with 
Chernabura  Island  just  open  of  Northeast  Point,  in  6  to  9  fathoms, 
sandy  bottom. 

Lida  Anchorage  is  a  temporary  anchorage  in  southerly  winds,  at 
the  west  end  of  Caton  Island,  south  of  Lida  Island,  and  which  may 
be  entered  on  either  side  of  the  latter. 

Approaching  from  eastward  stand  in  near  the  visible  rocks  off  the 
east  end  of  Lida  Island,  taking  care  to  avoid  the  partially  covered 
reef,  nearly  J^  mile  eastward  of  Lida  Island,  which  extends  in  a 
northerly  direction  from  Caton  Island.  Anchor  about  )£  mile  from 
Caton  Island,  and  %  to  J^.  mile  southward  of  Lida  Island,  in  6  to  7 
fathoms,  sandy  bottom;  care  should  be  taken  not  to  approach  the 
south  side  of  the  anchorage. 

Approaching  from  westward  steer  for  the  southwestern  side  of  Caton 
Island  on  a  144°  true  (SE  %  E  mag.)  course,  passing  about  %  mile 
southward  of  Lida  Island,  and  leaving  a  rock  awash,  lying  J^  mile 
northward  from  Wanda  Island,  about  %  mile  on  the  starboard  hand, 
and  anchor  as  directed  above.  The  western  end  of  Lida  Island 
should  not  be  approached  closer  than  J^  mile. 

Caton  Harbor  is  a  large  area  with  general  depths  of  2  to  3  fathoms, 
sandy  bottom,  on  the  southwest  side  of  Caton  Island,  protected  on 
the  south  by  Elma  Island  and  on  the  northwest  by  the  islands  and 
reefs,  above  water  in  many  places,  between  Caton  Island  and  Sannak 
Island.  It  is  protected  from  all  swells,  and  schooners  of  considerable 
size  have  wintered  here.  The  entrance  is  narrow  and  is  close  to  the 
west  end  of  Caton  Island;  there  is  another  entrance,  crooked  and 
very  narrow,  between  Elma  Island  and  the  southeast  end  of  Sannak 
Island,  but  its  approach  from  southward  is  full  of  rocks  and  reefs,  and 
it  should  not  be  used  except  with  local  knowledge. 

To  enter  Caton  Harbor  from  northward  proceed  as  directed  for 
entering  Lida  Anchorage  from  westward,  and  when  well  past  the 
rock  awash,  mentioned  under  Lida  Anchorage,  bring  the  south  side 
of  the  rock  awash  in  range  with  Northeast  Point  astern,  and  stand  in 
keeping  the  range  astern,  course  125°  true  (ESE  ^  E  mag.),  until 
close  to  Caton  Island.  Then  keep  the  bare  rocks  and  kelp  projecting 
from  Caton  Island  close  aboard  on  the  port  hand,  but  do  not  approach 
the  kelp  on  the  starboard  hand;  the  least  depth  found  in  the  nar- 
rowest part  of  the  passage  was  4^  fathoms,  shoaling  inside  to  3J^ 
and  3  fathoms.  When  past  the  rocks  on  the  port  hand  steer  about 
193°  true  (S  Y^  E  mag.)  about  J^  mile,  and  anchor  in  about  3  fathoms 
with  Princess  Rock  (high,  grassy  on  top,  extensive  surrounding  reefs 
covered  at  high  water)  in  line  with  Sannak  Mountain,  bearing  294° 
true  (W  J/2  N  mag.).  This  anchorage  is  about  ^  rnile  from  Caton 
Island,  and  the  same  distance  from  the  nearest  reef  on  the  western 
side.  Anchorage,  with  probably  better  shelter  from  northeast  gales, 
can  be  made  off  the  sand  beach  on  Caton  Island,  just  inside  the  narrow 
entrance. 

Peterson  Bay,  on  the  south  side  of  Sannak  Island,  is  well  protected 
from  all  but  southeast  winds,  especially  for  small  vessels,  of  12  feet 
or  less  draft,  which  can  anchor  well  inside  the  bay  abreast  the  village 


SANNAK    ISLANDS.  191 

which  is  on  the  north  side.  The  people  living  here  say  that  in  heavy 
northeast  winter  gales  a  heavy  swell  makes  into  the  bay.  The  bay 
is  over  1J^  miles  long  300°  true  (W  by  N  mag.),  nearly  J^  mile  wide 
at  the  entrance  and  J4  mu<e  wide  at  the  head,  with  about  5  fathoms 
at  the  entrance  and  shoaling  gradually  toward  the  head,  where  there 
is  12  to  14  feet  in  the  widest  part  of  the  bay.  There  is  a  spot  with  11 
feet  over  it  350  yards  off  the  south  side  and  344°  true  (NW  by  N  mag.) 
from  the  south  point  at  the  entrance.  The  mean  rise  and  fall  of  the 
tide  is  4.4  feet. 

To  enter,  in  approaching  from  eastward  give  the  east  and  southeast 
sides  of  Caton  Island  a  berth  of  about  2  miles  to  clear  the  reefs  and 
breakers  which  extend  more  than  1  mile  offshore,  and  steer  262° 
true  (SW  by  W  Y%  W  mag.)  passing  1  mile  southward  of  Umla  Island 
and  Telemitz  Island.  When  the  latter  island  is  abeam  bring  the 
tangent  of  the  north  side  of  Peterson  Bay  in  line  with  the  slight  sad- 
dle between  Sannak  Peak  and  the  eastern  shoulder  of  Sannak  Moun- 
tain, and  run  in  on  this  range  course  318°  true  (NW  by  W  ^  W 
mag.).  When  the  south  point  "of  the  bay  is  about  %  mile  distant, 
haul  northward  a  little  so  as  to  bring  the  north  side  of  the  bay  in  line 
with  the  extreme  southwest  tangent  of  Sannak  Mountain,  and  run  in 
on  this  range,  course  311°  true  (WNW  mag.),  until  the  south  point 
at  the  entrance  bears  187°  true  (S  by  E  mag.).  Then  steer  294°  true 
(W  j/2  N  mag.)  for  the  middle  of  the  bay  and  select  anchorage  accord- 
ing to  draft. 

IKATAN  BAY  AND  ISANOTSKI  STRAIT 

separate  Unimak  Island  from  the  Alaska  Peninsula,  and  have  been 
used  by  light-draft  craft,  intended  for  service  on  the  Yukon  River, 
in  making  the  passage  from  Puget  Sound  ports  to  St.  Michael.  But 
the  strait  is  subject  to  very  strong  tidal  currents,  and  the  northern 
entrance  is  shoal  and  requires  local  knowledge.  Northerly  winds 
draw  through  the  strait  with  great  force. 

Ikatan  Bay,  on  the  north  side  of  Ikatan  Peninsula,  is  about  3% 
miles  wide  and  5  miles  long  in  a  southwest  direction,  and  is  free  from 
surf  except  with  winds  from  north  to  east.  Sankin  Island,  lying  1 
mile  from  the  north  side  of  the  bay,  is  high,  with  a  rounded,  grassy 
summit;  a  reef  extends  from  the  island  toward  the  nearest  point  of 
the  peninsula.  Sankin  Bay,  northwest  of  Sankin  Island,  is  reported 
to  be  shoal.  There  is  no  passage  north  of  Sankin  Island. 

The  southwest  end  of  Ikatan  Bay  is  separated  from  Otter  Cove  by 
an  isthmus,  20  to  30  feet  high;  a  river  enters  Ikatan  Bay  at  the  middle 
of  this  lowland,  and  a  submerged  spit,  which  drops  off  abruptly  to 
over  20  fathoms,  makes  off  from  its  mouth. 

Approaching  Ikatan  Bay  from  southwestward  the  only  known  danger 
is  Pankof  Breaker,  lying  a  little  over  2  miles  53°  true  (NE  by  N  mag.) 
from  the  southeast  point  at  the  entrance  to  East  Anchor  Cove.  To 
avoid  the  rock,  round  Cape  Pankof  at  a  distance  of  1  mile  and  steer 
325°  true  (NW  %  W  mag.),  following  the  northeastern  coast  of 
Ikatan  Peninsula  at  a  distance  of  1  mile. 

There  is  a  good  anchorage  in  the  bight  on  the  west  side  of  Ikatan 
Point,  the  south  point  at  the  entrance  to  the  bay,  in  about  9  fathoms, 
sand  and  mud  bottom,  with  protection  from  winds  from  southeast  to 
southwest;  water  can  be  conveniently  obtained  here.  Salmon  traps 
will  be  seen  in  this  bight. 


192  IKATAN    BAY. 

The  best  anchorage  in  Ikatan  Bay  from  all  southerly  winds  is  on 
its  south  side  off  the  low  divide  leading  to  Dora  Harbor,  and  174° 
true  (SSE  J£  E  mag.)  from  Sankin  Island.  In  approaching  this 
anchorage  bring  Bird  Island  in  sight  over  the  middle  of  the  lowland, 
and  anchor  in  any  depth  desired,  as  it  shoals  gradually  to  the  beach. 
Anchorage  can  also  be  made  on  the  north  side  of  the  bay,  2J4  miles 
westward  of  Sankin  Island,  in  10  fathoms,  sandy  bottom,  sheltered 
from  ordinary  northerly  winds,  but  badly  exposed  to  easterly  and 
southerly  winds. 

Isanotski  Strait  has  its  southerly  entrance  at  the  northwest  end  of 
Ikatan  Bay.  This  entrance  is  narrow,  and  a  reef  projects  from  the 
east  point  at  the  entrance,  and  another  from  the  next  point  on  the 
west  side  inside  the  entrance,  and  the  swirls  around  them  show  plainly. 
In  the  southern  and  narrow  part  of  the  strait  a  mid-channel  course 
should  be  followed. 

There  is  an  extensive  shoal,  or  flat,  in  the  northern  and  widest 
portion  of  the  strait,  lying  eastward  of  the  channel  and  southward  of 
the  outlet  into  Bering  Sea.  The  channel  westward  of  the  shoal  is 
said  to  have  a  depth  of  about  2  fathoms.  The  northern  entrance  is 
obstructed  by  shoals,  of  a  shifting  nature,  and  can  be  used  only  by 
light-draft  vessels  with  local  knowledge. 

Traders  Cove,  on  the  eastern  side  of  Isanotski  Strait  about  7  miles 
above  its  entrance  from  Ikatan  Bay,  is  a  good  anchorage.  Morzhovoi, 
a  mission  and  native  village,  is  on  the  south  side.  Fresh  water  can  be 
obtained  at  the  southeast  corner  of  the  cove  near  the  village.  The 
anchorage  is  in  the  middle  of  the  cove  off  the  village,  with  the  Greek 
church  bearing  about  111°  true  (E  J^  S  mag.),  in  4^  fathoms, 
muddy  bottom.  Strong  winds  and  williwaws  blow  across  the  cove, 
but  the  anchorage  is  good. 

Tides. — The  mean  rise  and  fall  in  Ikatan  Bay  is  4.5  feet. 

In  the  narrow  southern  part  of  Isanotski  Strait  the  tidal  currents 
have  a  velocity  of  7  to  9  miles  or  more,  and  it  is  said  that  there  is 
practically  no  slack  and  that  the  current  turns  about  three  hours 
after  high  or  low  water  in  Ikatan  Bay. 

IKATAN  PENINSULA, 

the  southeastern  extremity  of  Unimak  Island,  is  about  13  miles  long 
and  is  divided  into  three  mountain  masses  and  from  Unimak  Island 
by  low  depressions  which  extend  from  West  Anchor  Cove  to  East 
Anchor  Cove,  and  from  Dora  Harbor  and  Otter  Cove  to  Ikatan  Bay. 

Cape  Pankof,  the  eastern  end  of  Ikatan  Peninsula,  terminates  in 
three  cliffs  on  the  southern  side,  the  highest  about  1,200  feet,  but  on 
the  northern  side  there  is  a  gentle  slope  to  the  low  isthmus  between 
East  and  West  Anchor  Coves.  Some  bare  rocks  lie  within  %  mile 
from  the  cape,  on  the  southern  and  eastern  sides. 

Pankof  Breaker  lies  a  little  over  2  miles  53°  true  (NE  by  N  mag.) 
from  the  southeast  point  at  the  entrance  to  East  Anchor  Cove.  It 
is  a  pinnacle  rock,  judging  from  the  appearance  of  the  break,  with 
probably  less  than  10  feet  over  it  and  13  to  25  fathoms  close-to. 

A  rock,  said  to  have  about  4  fathoms  over  it  and  to  break  in  a 
southwest  swell,  is  reported  to  lie  about  2  miles  120°  true  (E  by  S 
mag.)  from  Cape  Pankof. 


IKATAN   PENINSULA.  193 

Bird  Island,  about  ^  mile  in  extent,  750  feet  high,  and  precipitous, 
lies  2  miles  from  the  south  coast  of  Ikatan  Peninsula,  off  the  entrance 
to  Dora  Harbor,  and  8  miles  westward  from  Cape  Pankof.  A  sunken 
reef  connects  the  island  with  the  western  point  at  the  entrance  to 
Dora  Harbor,  and  there  is  no  safe  passage  for  vessels  between.  The 
western  end  of  the  island  should  not  be  approached  closer  than  ^ 
mile. 

East  Anchor  Cove,  on  the  north  side  of  Cape  Pankof,  is  a  good 
anchorage  except  with  winds  from  north  to  southeast.  The  cove  is 
large  and  easily  entered,  and  the  only  known  danger  in  the  approach 
is  Pankof  Breaker.  To  enter  give  the  southeast  point  at  the  entrance 
a  berth  of  over  y2  mile,  and  select  anchorage  as  desired  in  7  to  10 
fathoms.  The  cove  is  free  from  dangers  if  the  shore  be  given  a  berth 
of  about  J^  mile. 

West  Anchor  Cove  is  a  safe  and  commodious  anchorage  for  any 
kind  of  vessel,  easy  of  access  and  departure  at  any  time.  The  cove 
is  exposed  to  southerly  weather^  but  with  East  Anchor  Cove  on  the 
other  side  of  the  cape,  safe  and  sheltered  anchorage  from  any -ordinary 
weather  can  be  found  in  one  or  the  other.  The  bottom  is  fine  dark 
sand  in  which  the  anchor  holds  well.  There  is  a  narrow  shelf  of 
rocks  along  the  shore  at  the  east  point  of  entrance,  the  outer  edge 
of  which  shows  at  half  tide  and  probably  breaks  all  the  time.  There 
is  6  fathoms  70  yards  off  the  visible  end  of  the  reef,  with  rapidly 
deepening  water  outward  from  there.  The  rock,  15  feet  high,  in- 
side the  cove  marks  the  western  limit  of  dangers  on  this  side.  Inside 
the  cove  rocky  ledges  extend  not  over  200  to  300  yards  from  the 
north  and  south  shores.  Near  the  head  of  the  cove,  on  the  southeast 
side,  a  rock  column  stands  out  prominently  from  the  shore,  marking 
the  upper  limit  of  the  anchorage  for  all  but  small  craft. 

Dora  Harbor,  on  the  south  side  of  Ikatan  Peninsula,  2  miles  north 
of  Bird  Island,  affords  good  anchorage  for  small  vessels,  with  pro- 
tection from  all  winds  and  swell,  especially  for  vessels  of  about  9  feet 
or  less  draft,  which  can  anchor  near  the  head.  The  entire  shore  of 
the  harbor  is  fringed  by  ledges,  partly  bare  at  low  water,  to  a  distance 
of  about  300  yards.  The  reef  extending  J4  mil.e  westward  from  the 
eastern  point  of  the  entrance  and  that  projecting  from  the  western 
point  toward  Bird  Island  afford  protection  from  ordinary  southerly 
and  westerly  swell  at  the  outer  anchorage,  but  a  heavy  swell  from 
southward  is  uncomfortable.  The  inner  harbor  is  a  slight  expansion 
at  the  head  with  depths  of  10  to  12  feet  in  the  middle;  there  is  a 
fishing  station  and  stream  on  its  west  side. 

To  enter  Dora  Harbor,  steer  for  the  west  point  at  the  entrance  on  a 
334°  true  (NW  mag.)  course,  passing  %  mile  northeastward  of  Bird 
Island.  When  the  north  end  of  Bird  Island  bears  on  the  port  beam 
steer  350°  true  (NNW  Yi  W  mag.).  Keep  in  mid-harbor  and  anchor 
with  the  east  point  at  the  entrance  bearing  154°  true  (SE  mag.)  and 
the  west  point  249°  true  (SW  M  W  mag.)  in  about  5  fathoms.  This 
anchorage  is  about  midway  between  the  east  point  at  the  entrance 
and  a  projecting  point  on  the  west  side  halfway  up  the  harbor,  and 
the  clear  width  of  the  anchorage  is  M  mile.  Vessels  of  9  feet  or  less 
draft  may  follow  a  mid-harbor  course  and  anchor  in  the  middle  of 
the  inner  harbor,  off  the  fishing  station,  in  12  feet  of  w^ater. 
31056°— 16 13 


194  UNIMAK    ISLAND. 

Otter  Cove  is  an  open  bight  at  the  northwest  end  of  Ikatan  Peninsula. 
It  is  exposed  to  southerly  winds  and  to  the  Pacific  swell,  and  there 
is  always  a  heavy  surf.  Northerly  winds  blow  with  great  violence 
over  the  low  isthmus  separating  it  from  Ikatan  Bay.  The  only  safe 
boat  landing  is  in  its  eastern  corner.  A  rock  awash  at  low  water  lies 
over  J/2  m^e  from  the  shore  of  Ikatan  Peninsula  and  3J^  miles 
northwestward  from  Bird  Island. 

UNIMAK  ISLAND,  OTTER  COVE  TO  CAPE  SARICHEF. 

This  coast,  having  a  length  of  about  70  miles,  has  cliffs  in  places, 
with  lower  land  and  sand  beaches  between,  and  is  backed  by  the 
high  mountain  masses  of  the  central  part  of  the  island.  The  coast 
is  fairly  regular,  with  no  indentations  of  any  extent,  and  there  are 
no  harbors  nor  sheltered  anchorages.  The  coast  is  exposed  to  the 
ocean  swell,  and  there  is  generally  a  heavy  surf,  which  makes  landing 
dangerous.  From  the  few  soundings  made,  the  10-fathom  curve 
is  less  than  %  m^e  from  the  beach  in  most  places,  and  there  are 
no  known  outlying  dangers. 

Cape  Lazaref  is  the  southwesternmost  of  three  high  cliffs,  with 
sand  beaches  between,  which  are  found  in  a  distance  of  about  8  miles 
southwestward  of  Otter  Cove,  and  is  1,000  feet  high.  From  the 
sharp  point  of  the  cape  a  reef  extends  \y%  miles  southeastward, 
consisting  of  two  rocks  about  150  feet  high  and  another  about  70 
feet  high  midway  between  them,  and  a  multitude  of  low  rocks  close 
together.  The  outer  pinnacle  lies  18^  miles  258°  true  (SW  by 
W  )^  W  mag.)  from  Cape  Pankof.  Anchorage,  with  fairly  good 
protection  from  westerly  winds,  can  be  made  northeastward  of  this 
reef,  about  J^  mile  southward  of  a  bunch  of  rocks  lying  y%  mile  off 
the  eastern  side  of  the  cape,  in  10  fathoms,  sandy  bottom.  A  rocky 
islet  about  130  feet  high  lies  1^  miles  westward  of  the  cape  and  ^ 
mile  from  the  beach. 

From  Cape  Lazaref  the  coast  trends  westward,  curving  gradually 
southward  for  about  30  miles,  forming  a  broad,  open  bight  called 
TJnimak  Bay,  having  a  sandy  beach.  This  sand  beach  is  broken  by 
a  lava  bed  8^  miles  westward  of  Cape  Lazaref,  and  by  three  conical 
hills,  the  southernmost  reaching  the  water  and  formed  into  several 
columns,  making  a  small  projection  (Rukavitsie  Cape),  15  miles  west- 
ward of  Cape  Lazaref.  At  the  southern  end  of  the  sand  beach  there 
is  a  broad  valley,  the  south  point  of  which  is  a  sharp  projection,  with 
steep  sides  and  about  350  feet  high,  which  forms  a  small  cove 
(Promontory  Cove)  open  northward,  which  is  reported  to  afford 
anchorage  with  protection  from  southerly  winds  but  not  from  the 
swell.  The  bottom  is  sandy  and  the  shoaling  toward  the  beach 
gradual. 

Cape  Lutke,  2}^  miles  southward  of  Promontory  Cove,  is  a  cliff 
538  feet  high,  joined  by  a  lower  ridge  to  the  higher  land  farther 
back,  and  is  the  southwestern  head  of  Unimak  Bay.  At  this  point 
the  coast  changes  direction  to'  southwestward  and  then  westward 
for  13  miles  to  Seal  Cape. 

Arch  Point,  3  miles  northeastward  of  Seal  Cape,  is  a  rocky  projec- 
tion 40  feet  high  with  an  arch  through  the  extremity  of  the  point. 

Promontory  Hill,  5  miles  northeastward  from  Seal  Cape,  is  a  short 
ridge,  about  1,130  feet  high,  having  a  northwest  and  southeast 


UNIMAK    ISLAND.  195 

direction,  and  detached  from  the  interior  highland.  Its  outlines 
are  smoothly  rounded  and  there  is  a  slight  saddle  in  the  ridge,  the 
whole  having  a  bare,  brown  appearance.  It  is  isolated  and  promi- 
nent, and  together  with  Scotch  Cap  is  a  good  landmark  for  the 
eastern  entrance  to  Unimak  Pass. 

Seal  Cape  is  not  particularly  noticeable,  but  the  locality  is  well 
marked  by  Promontory  Hill,  Arch  Point,  and  Scotch  Cap. 

From  Seal  Cape  around  to  Cape  Sarichef,  a  distance  of  19  miles, 
the  coast  of  Unimak  Island  has  a  number  of  projecting  points,  is 
low  in  appearance,  and  slopes  gradually  upward  to  the  highland  of 
the  island.  There  are  low  bluffs  in  places,  but  none  so  high  as  Scotch 
Cap  or  which  can  be  mistaken  for  it.  There  are  no  dangers  if  the 
coast  be  given  a  berth  of  J/£  mile. 

Scotch  Cap  lighthouse  is  about  1%  miles  eastward  of  Scotch  Cap 
in  approximately  latitude  54°  24'  N,  longitude  164°  45'  W.  The 
structure  is  a  white,  octagonal  building  and  tower,  and  there  are  a 
number  of  buildings  near  it.  -The  light  is  fixed  white,  third  order, 
elevated  90  feet  above  high  water,  and  should  be  visible  15  miles  in 
clear  weather  when  bearing  from  277°  true  (W  by  S  mag.)  through 
north  to  108°  true  (E  mag.).  The  fog  signal  is  a  10-inch  compressed- 
air  whistle  giving  blasts  of  5  seconds'  duration  separated  by  silent 
intervals  of  55  seconds.  Light  is  discontinued  from  November  15 
to  March  20,  excepting  the  last  10  days  of  each  intervening  month, 
during  which  period  the  mail  boat  is  expected. 

Scotch  Cap  is  a  precipitous  cliff  of  rock  which  extends  along  the 
beach  nearly  1  mile.  It  is  420  feet  high  at  its  highest  point  and 
becomes  lower  at  either  end.  Back  of  the  face  of  the  cliff  the  land 
slopes  downward  for  nearly  1  mile,  and  then  rises  by  a  uniform  slope 
to  the  higher  land  of  the  island.  In  front  of  the  cliff,  50  yards  from 
its  foot,  is  a  large  pinnacle  rock  172  feet  high.  Scotch  Cap  can  be 
seen  many  miles  in  clear  weather  and  is  unmistakable. 

Cape  Sarichef,  the  western  end  of  Unimak  Island,  is  the  eastern  point 
at  the  northwestern  entrance  to  Unimak  Pass.  The  cape  is  about 
100  feet  high,  with  steep  grassy  sides,  and  the  land  back  of  the  cape 
slopes  gradually  upward  to  Pogromni  Volcano.  There  is  a  black  lava 
bed  along  the  beach  south  of  the  cape,  and  2  miles  south  of  the  cape 
there  is  a  flat  rock  barely  detached  from  the  coast. 

A  bank  of  black  sand  extends  2.9  miles  267°  true  (WSW  J£  W 
mag.)  from  Cape  Sarichef;  there  are  depths  of  10  to  15  fathoms  over  it, 
and  there  are  heavy  tide  rips,  overfalls,  and  eddies;  the  current  reaches 
an  estimated  force  of  2  knots.  The  banks  appear  to  be  an  extension 
in  a  west-northwesterly  direction  of  the  old  lava  flow  which  may  be 
seen  1  mile  southward  of  Cape  Sarichef  lighthouse.  No  dangerous 
rocks  were  found.  A  reef  is  reported  to  extend  about  %  mile  from 
the  shore  about  1  mile  northwestward  from  the  lighthouse. 

Cape  Sarichef  lighthouse,  on  the  summit  of  the  cape,  is  in  approxi- 
mate latitude  54°  36'  N,  longitude  164°  56'  W.  The  structure  is  a 
white,  octagonal  building  and  tower,  and  .there  are  a  number  of 
buildings  near  it.  The  light  is  occulting  white,  light  25  seconds, 
eclipse  5  seconds,  third  order,  elevated  126^2  feet  above  the  water, 
and  should  be  visible  17^  miles  in  clear  weather  when  bearing  from 
16°  true  (N^W mag.)  through  east  to  218°  true  (Sbv  W  %  Wmag.). 
The  fog  signal  is  a  first-class,  compressed-air  siren,  giving  blasts  of  3 


196  UNIMAK    ISLAND. 

seconds'  duration  separated  by  alternate  silent  intervals  of  5  and  49 
seconds.  The  light  is  discontinued  from  November  15  to  March  20 
except  during  the  last  10  days  of  each  intervening  month,  during 
which  period  the  mail  boat  is  expected. 

ALEUTIAN  ISLANDS. 

This  chain  extends  from  Unimak  Island  to  Attu  Island,  a  distance 
of  over  900  miles.  The  islands  fall  into  various  groups,  of  which  the 
Fox  Islands,  Islands  of  the  Four  Mountains,  Andreanof  Islands,  Rat 
Islands,  and  Near  Islands  are  the  most  important. 

The  topographic  features  are  uniformly  rugged;  the  islands  are 
mountainous,  and  the  shores  bold,  with  numerous  offlying  islets, 
rocks,  and  reefs.  In  the  absence  of  surveys,  the  only  safe  assumption 
is  that  these  features  are  duplicated  beneath  the  surface  of  the  water. 
At  all  times  in  approaching  the  land,  therefore,  vessels  should  be 
navigated  with  great  caution. 

Aside  from  the  lack  of  surveys,  the  greatest  difficulties  in  navigating 
this  region  are  due  to  a  combination  of  prevailing  thick  weather  and 
currents  which,  largely  influenced  by  weather  conditions,  attain  con- 
siderable velocity  at  times.  A  statement  embodying  all  available 
information  regarding  these  currents,  is  given  on  page  23. 

FOX  ISLANDS  AND  PASSES. 

The  three  large  islands,  Unimak,  Unalaska,  Umnak,  and  their 
associated  islands,  lying  westward  of  Alaska  Peninsula,  are  known 
as  the  Fox  Islands.  The  islands  of  this  group  are  high,  bare  of  trees, 
and  generally  grass  covered,  and  terminate  generally  at  the  water  in 
precipitous  cliffs.  Most  of  them  have  numerous  pinnacle  rocks  close 
to  the  shore.  They  are  frequented  by  birds  in  enormous  numbers, 
and  immense  flocks  of  them  are  frequently  met  with  when  in  their 
vicinity.  The  highest  peaks  which,  in  clear  weather,  are  prominent 
landmarks  for  mariners  are : 

Bound  Top  Mountain  on  Unimak  Island  in  latitude  54°  48'  09"  N 
and  longitude  163°  35 '  35 "  W  is  a  rounded  summit  6,155  feet  high, 
surrounded  by  snow  fields. 

Shishaldin  Volcano,  on  Unimak  Island,  9,387  feet  high,  in  latitude 
54°  45'  23"  N  and  longitude  163°  58'  W,  is  cone-shaped  and  very 
regular  in  outline,  with  faint  wreaths  of  smoke  and  vapor  at  times 
drifting  from  its  summit.  It  is  for  the  me  st  part  snow  clad,  except 
where  the  rocky  cliffs  and  projections  afford  no  lodgment. 

Isanotski  Peaks,  on  Unimak  Island,  in  latitude  54°  46'  N  and  longi- 
tude 163°  43'  30"  W,  is  seen  close  eastward  of  Shishaldin,  very 
rugged,  and  having  a  broken  or  castellated  double  summit,  the  high- 
est 8,088  feet  high.  The  summit  is  bare  and  looks  as  though  com- 
posed of  great  vertical  rock  masses. 

Pogromni  Volcano,  about  8  miles  from  the  western  end  of  Unimak 
Island,  in  latitude  54°  34'  16"  N  and  longitude  164°  41'  30"  W,  is 
6,500  feet  high,  a  snow  clad,  conical  peak,  vertical  ridges  cropping 
through  the  snow.  Pogromni  is  a  guiding  landmark  in  clear  weather 
in  making  Unimak  Pass,  both  from  southward  and  from  Bering  Sea. 

Makushin  Volcano,  on  the  northwestern  side  of  Unalaska  Island, 
in  latitude  53°  52'  20"  N  and  longitude  166°  50'  40"  W  (approxi- 


ALEUTIAN  ISLANDS.  197 

mately),  is  5,691  feet  high,  and  in  clear  weather  is  a  prominent  land- 
mark for  vessels  bound  to  Dutch  Harbor  from  Bering  Sea. 

These  mountains  are  excellent  landmarks  if  they  can  be  seen,  but 
in  summer  they  are  often  obscured  by  fogs  or  low-lying  clouds.  The 
lower  hills  and  islands  and  objects  near  the  sea  level  generally  furnish 
the  available  landmarks. 

From  southward  and  eastward,  bound  for  Bering  Sea,  there  are 
three  passes  used  by  deep-draft  vessels,  known  collectively  as  the 
Fox  Islands  Passes,  and  respectively  as  Unimak,  Akutan,  and  Unalga 
Passes.  The  largest  and  most  desirable  one  to  use  in  thick  and  foggy 
weather  is  the  eastern  one,  Unimak  Pass.  This  is  clear  of  hidden 
dangers,  the  widest  of  the  three,  and  is  comparatively  free  from  tide 
rips.  It  is  especially  recommended  for  sailing  vessels,  and  for 
steamers  bound  northward  direct.  Akutan  and  Unalga  Passes  are 
convenient,  with  daylight  and  clear  weather,  for  steam  vessels  bound 
to  Unalaska  Bay,  but,  being  narrow  and  having  strong  currents  and 
tide  rips  at  times,  are  not  recommended  for  sailing  vessels  bound 
north.  A  fair  wind  is  almost"  necessary  for  the  passage,  and  from 
southward  this  would  bring  thick  weather.  The  minor  passes 
between  the  islands  westward  of  Unimak  Pass  are  described  under 
their  several  headings  following. 

Soundings. — Southward  of  tlie  passes  the  100-fathom  curve  is  20 
to  40  miles  offshore,  and  when  inside  of  this  depth  the  color  of  the 
water  will  have  changed  from  dark  blue  to  light  green.  This  change 
in  the  color  of  the  water  is  the  best  indication  the  mariner  has  in 
thick  weather  to  warn  him  of  his  approach  to  land  and  that  he  is  on 
soundings.  Southwest  of  Unimak  Pass  the  50-fathom  curve  is  3  to 
5  miles  offshore,  and  in  thick  weather  the  greatest  caution  should  be 
used  in  approaching  inside  of  this  depth.  Southeast  of  Unimak  Pass 
the  water  shoals  rapidly  from  100  fathoms  to  Davidson  Bank,  on 
which  a  least  depth  of  36  fathoms  is  marked  27  miles  from  Ugamak 
Island. 

Tidal  currents  and  tide  rips. — In  the  vicinity  of  the  passes  the 
tidal  currents  have  considerable  velocity,  and  their  direction  and 
times  of  change  are  uncertain;  they  are  also  greatly  influenced  by 
winds.  In  navigating  near  the  entrances  to  the  passes  the  current 
should  be  kept  in  mind  and  precautions  be  taken  to  guard  against 
being  carried  into  dangerous  localities,  especially  in  thick  weather. 

In  Unimak  Pass  the  observed  maximum  velocity  of  the  current  is 
about  4  miles  per  hour,  and  its  velocity  is  greater  near  Scotch  Cap 
and  Ugamak  Island  than  in  the  middle  of  the  pass.  The  northerly 
(flood)  current  begins  about  three  hours  before  the  time  of  high  water 
at  Kodiak  and  the  southerly  (ebb)  current  begins  about  three  hours 
before  the  time  of  low  water  at  Kodiak  as  taken  from  the  Coast  and 
Geodetic  Survey  Tide  Tables.  The  tide  rips,  during  the  largest  tides 
and  when  a  strong  wind  opposes  the  current,  are  strong  but  not  dan- 
gerous to  well-found  sailing  vessels  or  steamers. 

In  Akutan  Pass  the  currents  have  an  estimated  maximum  velocity 
of  6  to  7  miles  per  hour.  The  northerly  (flood)  current  begins  about 
three  hours  before  the  time  of  high  water  at  Kodiak  and  the  southerly 
(ebb)  current  begins  about  three  hours  before  the  time  of  low  water 
at  Kodiak  as  taken  from  the  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey  Tide  Tables. 
There  are  strong  tide  rips  during  the  periods  of  largest  tides;  but 
the  strongest  rips  are  not  generally  found  in  the  middle  of  the  pass. 


198  FOX   ISLANDS. 

With  a  current  setting  northward  the  rips  will  be  strongest  in  the 
northern  entrance  from  Cape  Kalekta  and  Akutan  Island  to  Unalga 
Island,  and  with  a  current  setting  southward  the  strongest  rips 
will  be  found  at  the  southern  entrance  to  the  pass.  When  the 
current  setting  north  is  opposed  by  a  strong  northerly  wind  the 
tide  rips  in  the  northern  entrance  to  the  pass  are  dangerous,  and 
it  is  advisable  not  to  use  this  pass  in  a  gale.  Under  ordinary  con- 
ditions, when  there  are  no  strong  winds,  this  pass  can  be  used  by 
full-powered  steamers  at  any  stage  of  the  current,  but  sailing  vessels 
should  not  use  it  unless  they  happen  to  enter  at  or  near  slack  water. 
It  is  stated  that  the  most  dangerous  rips  occur  at  the  north  entrance 
to  the  pass. 

In  Unalga  Pass  the  currents  have  an  estimated  maximum  velocity 
of  about  9  miles  an  hour,  and  the  times  for  the  beginning  of  flood 
and  ebb  currents  are  the  same  as  for  Akutan  Pass.  The  tide  rips 
prevail  under  the  same  general  conditions  as  in  Akutan  Pass,  except 
that  they  are,  if  anything,  heavier  and  more  dangerous  in  a  gale. 

The  duration  of  both  flood  and  ebb  is  subject  to  considerable 
variation  in  these  passes,  so  that  too  much  reliance  should  not  be 
placed  upon  the  times  given  above. 

Assistant  J.  J.  Gilbert,  commanding  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey 
steamer  "Pathfinder,"  who  surveyed  the  Fox  Islands  Passes  in  1901, 
states  that  "they  [tide  rips  in  Akutan  and  Unalga  Passes]  occur 
during  spring  tides,  when  the  currents  are  strong,  and  usually  when 
there  is  a  strong  wind  or  swell  from  the  other  direction;  this  condi- 
tion is  not  indispensable,  for,  on  one  occasion,  there  was  neither 
wind  nor  sea,  when  suddenly  we  were  in  the  midst  of  the  rips,  and 
had  wet  things  pretty  thoroughly  before  the  hawse  pipes  could  be 
closed." 

When  the  tide  rips  are  heaviest  in  Akutan  and  Unalga  Passes, 
the  water  is  broken  into  heavy  choppy  seas  from  all  directions,  which 
board  the  vessel  and  make  it  difficult  to  keep  control  even  of  large, 
powerful  steamers. 

The  general  conditions  of  fog  and  weather  described  on  page  228 
apply  also  to  the  vicinity  of  the  Fox  Islands  Passes. 

DIRECTIONS,    UNIMAK   PASS. 

Directions  from  Cape  Pankof  through  Unimak  Pass  to  Cape 
Kalekta  are  given  on  page  152. 

In  the  directions  following  no  allowance  has  been  made  for  the 
tidal  currents,  which  have  considerable  velocity  in  Unimak  Pass; 
this  should  be  kept  in  mind  in  order  to  make  the  courses  good. 

Unimak  Pass  is  the  widest  of  the  Fox  Islands  Passes,  being  about 
10  miles  wide  at  its  narrowest  part,  between  Ugamak  Island  and 
Scotch  Cap.  It  is  free  from  outlying  dangers  and  dangerous  tide 
rips,  and  the  tidal  currents  have  less  velocity  than  in  the  other  passes. 
Except  near  the  shores,  it  is  free  from  williwaws.  It  is  the  most 
desirable  pass  for  sailing  vessels  and  for  vessels  not  calling  at  Dutch 
Harbor.  The  directions  for  approaching  this  pass  are  also  good  for 
vessels  desiring  to  pass  through  Akutan  and  Unalga  Passes. 

When  approaching  the  passes  from  southward  and  eastward,  care 
must  be  taken  to  avoid  the  Sannak  Reefs  and  Aleks  Rock.  A  good 
rule  is  to  make  longitude  164°  W  while  still  south  of  latitude  54°  N 


UNIMAK  PASS.  199 

and  then  stand  northwestward  to  make  Seal  Cape.  If  the  weather 
is  very  clear  the  mountains  of  Unimak  Island  may  be  seen  and 
recognized  and  the  course  shaped  for  Unimak  Pass;  but  under  ordi- 
nary conditions  Promontory  Hill  back  of  Seal  Cape,  Tigalda  Island, 
or  Ugamak  Island,  will  be  the  first  land  sighted. 

If  Tigalda  Island  is  sighted  at  a  distance  when  approaching  Unimak 
Pass,  it  will  appear  as  a  number  of  small,  detached  islands,  but 
when  seen  closer  to  it  is  one  island  with  six  distinct  mountain  ridges. 

A  355°  true  (NNW  mag.)  course  heading  for  Pogromni  Volcano 
will  lead  nearly  for  Seal  Cape,  passing  about  4  miles  eastward  of 
Ugamak  Island. 

If  the  weather  is  thick,  soundings  on  Davidson  Bank  may  be  of 
use  in  feeling  the  way  in  to  the  land.  In  the  vicinity  of  Seal  Cape 
the  coast  is  bold  and  may  be  approached  with  caution  close  enough 
(from  YL  to  %  mile)  to  be  seen  and  to  be  followed  until  some  point  is 
recognized  by  which  the  vessel's  position  may  be  known.  A  vessel 
should  first  be  sure  of  her  position  before  attempting  to  enter  Unimak 
Pass  and  in  thick  weather  should  not  attempt  the  other  passes. 

In  thick  weather,  if  the  land  is  made  in  the  vicinity  of  Seal  Cape,  a 
vessel  may  stand  westward,  following  the  beach  and  giving  it  a  berth 
of  %  mile  or  more  until  Scotch  Cap  lighthouse  or  Scotch  Cap  is  made 
and  recognized.  With  Scotch  Cap  lighthouse  bearing  18°  true  (N 
mag.),  distant  1  to  2  miles,  steer  288°  true  (W  mag.)  for  6  miles,  and 
then  steer  333°  true  (NW  mag.),  which  should  give  the  coast  of 
Unimak  Island  a  berth  of  about  2^  miles,  and  the  course  made  good 
for  about  11  miles  should  lead  to  a  position  5  miles  254°  true  (SW 
by  W  mag.)  from  Cape  Sarichef.  Or,  if  bound  to  Unalaska  Bay, 
when  Scotch  Cap  lighthouse  bears  18°  true  (N  mag.),  distant  1  to  2 
miles,  a  266°  true  (WSW  mag.)  course  made  good  for  31  miles  should 
lead  about  2  miles  northward  of  Akun  Head. 

In  coming  from  southeastward,  when  Ugamak  Island  is  sighted 
shape  the  course  to  pass  about  2  miles  northeastward  of  it,  and  then: 

From  a  position  2  miles  63°  true  (NE  mag.)  from  the  northeast  end 
of  Ugamak  Island  make  good  a  322°  true  (NW  by  W  mag.)  course 
for  10  miles  to  a  position  with  Scotch  Cap  lighthouse  bearing  74° 
true  (NE  by  E  mag.),  distant  5M  miles.  Then  steer  333°  true  (NW 
mag.),  with  the  northeastern  end  of  Ugamak  Island  astern,  and  give 
the  coast  of  Unimak  Island  a  berth  of  about  2J^  miles;  this  course 
made  good  for  13  Yz  miles  should  lead  to  a  position  with  Cape  Sarichef 
lighthouse  bearing  74°  true  (NE  by  E  mag.),  distant  5  miles.  Then 
follow  the  directions  for  Bering  Sea  on  page  269. 

Or,  if  bound  to  Unalaska  Bay,  from  a  position  2  miles  18°  true  (N 
mag.)  of  the  northeast  end  of  Ugamak  Island  make  good  a  280°  true 
(W  %  S  mag.)  course  for  26  miles,  which  should  lead  to  a  position  2 
miles  northward  of  the  eastern  head  at  the  north  end  of  Akun  Island. 
Then  steer  268°  true  (WSW  Y±  W  mag.)  about  5  miles  to  a  position 
2  miles  349°  true  (NNW  Y2  W  mag.)  from  Akun  Head.  Then  foUow 
the  directions  on  page  152. 


on  the  southwest  side  at  the  southeast  entrance  to  Unimak  Pass,  lies 
10  miles  southward  of  Unimak  Island,  and  its  southeast  point  is  in 
latitude  54°  13'  N,  longitude  164°  46'  W.  The  island  is  rugged,  with 
cliffs  at  the  shore,  and  1,000  foot  high  at  the  eastern  end,  where  there 


200  ALEUTIAN   ISLANDS. 

is  a  sharp  peak.  Near  the  middle  of  the  island  there  is  a  knob  nearly 
as  high  as  the  eastern  end.  The  island  is  fringed  with  kelp  and  bare 
rocks  close-to,  but  there  are  no  known  outlying  dangers.  There  is 
no  harbor  at  the  island.  Aiktak  Island  lies  %  mile  southward  of 
Ugamak  Island;  its  south  side  is  a  cliff  about  600  feet  high. 

Ugamak  Strait,  between  Ugamak  and  Aiktak  Islands  on  the  north 
and  Kaligagan  Island  on  the  south,  has  a  width  of  3  miles,  and  there 
are  no  known  hidden  dangers.  Passing  1  mile  southward  of  Aiktak 
Island,  a  290°  true  (W  J£  N  mag.)  course,  heading  for  the  north  end 
of  Akun  Island,  is  considered  sale,  and  carries  through  the  passage  in 
mid-channel. 

TIGALDA    ISLAND, 

the  south  side  of  which  is  in  latitude  54°  04'  N,  is  separated  from 
Ugamak  Island  by  Ugamak  Strait.  The  island  is  11  miles  long  and 
about  3>^  miles  wide,  and  consists  of  six  mountain  ridges  1,200  to 
1,800  feet  high,  separated  by  low  valleys  having  a  northwesterly 
direction.  The  western  end  of  the  island  is  comparatively  low. 
Kaligagan  Island,  lying  in  Ugamak  Strait  %  mile  off  the  northeast 
end  of  Tigalda  Island,  is  %  mile  long  and  about  300  feet  high.  A 
large  number  of  high,  bare  rocks  extend  2J^  miles  westward  of  Kali- 
gagan Island,  and  the  outermost  lies  1%  miles  from  Tigalda  Island. 
Two  rounded  rocks  He  %  mile  off  the  south  side  of  Tigalda  Island, 
and  an  islet  100  feet  high  lies  close  to  the  island  midway  between 
these  rocks  and  the  western  end  of  Tigalda  Island. 

Tigalda  Bay,  on  the  north  side  of  Tigalda  Island  3  miles  from  its 
eastern  end,  is  a  sheltered  anchorage  except  from  northwest  winds. 
The  bay  is  about  %  mile  wide  and  1^  miles  long  in  a  108°  true 
(E  mag.)  direction,  and  has  depths  of  8  to  10  fathoms,  rocky  bottom. 
The  mean  rise  and  fall  of  tides  is  0.9  foot. 

To  enter  Tigalda  Bay  from  Ugamak  Strait,  pass  J^  mile  or  more 
northward  and  westward  of  the  outermost  bare  rock,  lying  2  J^  miles 
westward  of  Kaligagan  Island,  and  steer  204°  true  (S  }/%  W  mag.) 
for  214  miles.  Tigalda  Bay  should  then  be  opened  on  the  port  beam. 
Enter  the  bay  in  mid-channel  and  select  anchorage  near  the  middle, 
taking  care  not  to  approach  the  head  nearer  than  about  %  mile. 

Approaching  from  southwestward  through  Avatanak  Strait,  follow 
the  north  side  of  Tigalda  Island,  giving  it  a  berth  of  about  1  mile 
until  heading  about  112°  true  (E  %  S  mag.)  for  the  entrance  to  the 
bay;  on  this  course  Tanginak  Islet,  about  80  feet  high,  should  be 
astern  and  the  highest  peak  (1,400  feet)  close  to  the  east  end  of 
Tigalda  Island  should  be  ahead.  Enter  the  bay  and  anchor  as 
directed  in  the  preceding  paragraph. 

Derbin  Strait,  separating  Tigalda  and  Avatanak  Islands,  is  a  little 
over  1  mile  wide,  and  there  are  no  known  hidden  dangers.  A  mid- 
channel  course  through  the  strait,  326°  true  (NW  V^  W  mag.),  with 
the  northeast  headland  of  Akun  Island  ahead,  is  considered  safe. 

AVATANAK   ISLAND, 

lying  southwestward  of  Tigalda  Island,  is  separated  from  Akun  Island 
by  Avatanak  Strait.  The  island  is  about  9  miles  long  and  over  3  miles 
wide  at  its  eastern  end,  but  the  western  half  of  the  island  averages 
less  than  %  mile  wide.  The  middle  of  the  island  is  a  great  depression 


FOX    ISLANDS.  201 

whose  sides  slope  gently  upward  to  the  mountains  at  its  eastern  and 
western  ends,  which  are  about  1,700  and  1,500  feet  high,  respectively. 
Cluster?,  of  bare  rocks  extend  about  %  mile  off  the  southeast  and  west- 
ends  of  the  island,  and  Basalt  Rock,  about  30  feet  high,  lies  in  Avata- 
nak  Strait,  about  1  mile  off  the  north  side  of  the  island.  There  is  no 
secure  anchorage. 

Rootok  Strait,  separating  Avatanak  Island  from  Rootok  Island,  is  a 
little  over  1  mile  wide  in  its  narrowest  part,  but  the  clear  channel  is 
reduced  by  rocks  on  both  sides  to  a  width  of  about  %  mile;  there  are 
no  known  hidden  dangers  when  passing  through  in  mid-channel. 
The  directions  following  are  considered  safe  and  lead  in  mid-channel. 

Approaching  from  southeastward,  steer  for  the  north  end  of  Rootok 
Island  on  a  299°  true  (W  by  N  mag.)  course,  leaving  the  east  end  of 
the  island  ^§  mile  on  the  port  hand.  When  the  west  end  of  Avatanak 
Island  bears  abeam,  steer  about  332°  true  (NW  mag.)  and  pass  in 
mid-channel  between  the  bare  rocks  off  the  west  end  of  Avatanak 
Island  and  those  close  to  the  north  end  of  Rootok  Island. 

«. 

ROOTOK   ISLAND 

is  the  western  island  on  the  southeast  side  of  Avatanak  Strait,  and  lies 
3  miles  southeastward  from  the  southern  end  of  Akun  Island.  The 
island  is  3  miles  long  and  about  2  miles  wide.  There  are  three  peaks 
on  its  southern  side,  the  highest  1,760  feet,  and  the  island  terminates 
at  the  shore  in  cliffs.  There  is  no  secure  anchorage.  The  southern 
ends  of  Tigalda,  Avatanak,  and  Rootok  Islands  are  nearly  in  Une, 
bearing  262°  true  (SW  by  W  %  W  mag.). 

Avatanak  Strait  is  a  broad  channel  separating  Avatanak  and 
Rootok  islands  from  Akun  Island,  and  leads  from  Unimak  Pass  for 
Akutan  Pass.  The  strait  has  a  general  245°  true  (SW  M  W  mag.) 
direction,  and  is  3  miles  wide  at  its  narrowest  part.  A  few  reconnais- 
sance lines  of  soundings  in  this  channel  indicate  that  the  bottom  is 
irregular,  but  the  strait  is  considered  safe  by  most  navigators  and  its 
navigation  is  not  difficult  in  clear  weather.  Strong  northwesterly 
winds  draw  heavily  through  Akun  Pass. 

Current  observations  have  not  been  made  in  Avatanak  Strait.  The 
flood  current  sets  northeastward  and  the  ebb  southwestward  through 
the  strait. 

AKUN    ISLAND 

lies  23  miles  southwestward  of  Unimak  Island,  and  is  separated  from 
Akutan  Island  by  Akutan  Bay  and  Akun  Strait,  and  from  Rootok 
and  Avatanak  Islands  by  Avatanak  Strait.  It  is  about  12  miles  long, 
but  is  very  irregular  in  shape,  being  nearly  divided  by  Akun  Cove 
and  Lost  Harbor  and  a  low  depression  joining  them.  The  island  is 
high  and  rugged,  particularly  its  northern  part,  which  reaches  an 
elevation  of  about  2,500  feet  in  an  extinct  crater  at  its  northwest  end 
on  the  north  side  of  Lost  Harbor.  The  northern  end  of  Akun  Island 
is  two  massive  heads  about  4  miles  apart,  separated  by  Little  Bay 
with  a  moderately  low  divide  at  its  head,  the  whole  forming  a  large 
valley.  Both  heads  have  precipitous  sea  faces  about  1,200  feet  high, 
and  have  grassy  saddles  southward  of  them.  Akun  Head,  the  western 
headland,  has  a  long  lozenge-shaped  horizontal  strata  with  a  red 
iron-rust  color  in  the  face  of  the  cliff.  Tanginak  Islet,  about  80  feet 


202  AKUN   ISLAND. 

high  with  steep  sides,  lies  2^  miks  off  the  east  end  of  Akun  Island, 
and  there  is  a  deep  passage  between  if  the  east  end  of  Akun  Island  be 
given  a  berth  of  over  %  mile.  Tangik  and  Poa  Islands  (about  200 
feet  high)  lie  in  Avatanak  Strait  about  %  mile  off  the  southern  side 
of  Akun  Island.  Two  low  islets  surrounded  by  kelp  lie  on  the  eastern 
side  at  the  northern  end  of  Akun  Strait  close  to  the  southwest  end  of 
Akun  Island.  There  are  a  number  of  anchorages  around  the  island 
with  offshore  winds.  The  best  are — 

Seredka  Bay,  on  the  south  side  of  Akun  Island  2  miles  westward  of 
Round  Head,  the  southeast  point  of  the  island,  and  !J/£  miles  north- 
ward of  Tangik  Island,  is  about  1  mile  wide  and  the  same  long,  open 
southeast,  and  has  two  bights  at  the  head.  The  bay  is  easy  of  access, 
and  a  safe  and  roomy  anchorage  except  with  southeast  winds.  There 
is  considerable  kelp  on  the  southwest  side  of  the  bay.  The  Pathfinder 
anchored  in  the  bight  at  the  north  end  of  the  bay,  with  the  east  end 
of  Tangik  Island  shut  out  by  the  south  point  at  the  entrance  to  the 
bay. 

Akun  Cove  is  the  broad  indentation  in  the  northeast  side  of  Akun 
Island;  it  affords  anchorage  at  its  head  except  with  winds  from 
southeast  to  northwest,  but  heavy  williwaws  are  experienced  with 
offshore  winds.  The  bay  is  5  miles  wide  at  its  entrance  and  about  4 
miles  long.  At  its  head,  where  the  bay  is  2J^  miles  wide,  there  are 
two  large  bights.  Anchorage  may  be  made  in  either  of  the  bights, 
about  }/%  mile  from  shore,  in  10  to  15  fathoms.  There  are  no  known 
dangers  in  the  bay  except  close  to  shore.  There  are  fresh-water 
lakes  at  the  heads  of  the  bights,  about  10  feet  above  high  water,  and 
there  is  a  very  low  depression  from  the  head  of  the  northern  bight  to 
Lost  Harbor. 

Lost  Harbor  has  its  entrance  from  Akutan  Bay  on  the  western  side 
of  Akun  Island  about  G  miks  southward  of  Akun  Head.  It  is  a  good 
harbor,  sheltered  from  all  except  southwest  winds,  and  is  large  and 
easily  entered.  The  harbor  has  a  uniform  width  of  1 J^  miles  and  is 
nearly  3  miles  long  in  a  63°  true  (NE  mag.)  direction. 

Approaching  Lost  Harbor  from  westward  pass  about  1  mile  north- 
ward of  North  Head  (of  Akutan  Island)  and  make  good  a  102°  true 
(E  %  N  mag.)  course  for  10  miles,  which  should  lead  to  the  middle 
of  the  entrance.  Then  steer  about  57°  true  (NE  J^  N  mag.),  follow- 
ing a  mid-channel  course  into  the  harbor,  and  taking  care  to  give 
the  northwest  shore  of  the  harbor  a  berth  of  %  mile  or  more  until 
near  the  head.  When  about  %  mile  from  the  head  of  the  harbor 
haul  up  to  about  332°  true  (NW  mag.)  and  anchor  about  }/%  mile 
from  shore  at  the  northwest  end  of  the  head  of  the  harbor,  in  about 
10  fathoms. 

Approaching  from  northward  around  Akun  Head,  follow  the  western 
shore  of  Akun  Island  at  a  distance  of  about  1  mile  until  in  the  middle 
of  the  entrance  to  Lost  Harbor,  and  then  proceed  as  directed  in  the 
preceding  paragraph  to  the  anchorage. 

AKUTAN    ISLAND, 

•• 

the  largest  between  Unalaska  Island  and  Unimak  Pass,  is  about  15 
miles  long  in  a  general  east  and  west  direction,  and  its  greatest  width 
in  a  north  and  south  direction  is  about  10  miles.  The  island  lies 
about  9  miles  northeastward  from  Unalaska  Island  and  is  separated 


AKUTAN    ISLAND.  203 

from  the  latter  by  Akutan  and  Unalga  Passes.  Akutan  Peak,  4,100 
feet  high,  is  a  little  west  of  the  middle  of  the  island  and  is  its  highest 
point.  On  the  northeast  side  the  island  is  separated  from  Akun 
Island  by  Akutan  Bay  and  Akun  Strait ;  the  latter  is  about  %  mile 
wide,  but  the  ledges  on  both  sides  leave  a  channel  about  600  yards 
wide  at  its  narrowest  part,  with  a  depth  of  about  7  fathoms.  There 
are  strong  tide  rips  in  this  channel,  and  it  is  not  recommended.  As 
far  as  known  there  are  no  dangers  over  Y^  mile  from  the  shore  of  the 
island,  except  the  reef  on  its  northwest  side. 

North  Head  is  a  high,  bold  cliff,  with  a  large,  deep,  grassy  valley  in 
the  otherwise  high  shore  on  its  east  side.  About  2  miles  southwest- 
ward  of  the  cape  there  is  a  narrow,  grassv  valley  which  separates  the 
high  ridge  of  North  Head  from  another  high  ridge;  the  western  side 
of  the  valley  is  a  bluff.  ^ 

Lava  Point,  6  miles  southwestward  of  North  Head,  is  moderately 
low  lava  beds.  At  the  end  of  the  point  is  a  flat  rock  having  the  same 
height  as  the  point  and  slightly  detached  from  it. 

A  reef,  bare  at  low  water  artd  covered  with  kelp,  extends  %  mile 
from  the  western  side  of  Akutan  Island  at  a  point  2  ^  miles  southward 
of  Lava  Point. 

Cape  Morgan,  the  southwest  end  of  the  island  and  on  the  north  side 
of  Akutan  Pass,  is  steep  and  high.  Three  pinnacle  rocks,  4  to  8  feet 
high,  lie  in  the  pass  600  yards  off  the  cape,  and  other  bare  rocks 
extend  the  same  distance  off  its  southeast  side.  The  cape  should  be 
given  a  berth  of  over  y±  mile. 

Battery  Point,  the  south  end  of  Akutan  Island,. is  prominent,  steep, 
and  high,  and  is  surrounded  by  bare  rocks  close-to. 

There  are  a  number  of  places  where  vessels  may  anchor  with  an 
offshore  wind;  but  they  are  open  seaward  and  are  hot  recommended. 
Akutan  Harbor  is  the  only  secure  anchorage. 

Vulcan  Cove,  about  3  miles  northeastward  of  Battery  Point,  affords 
shelter  in  northerly  weather,  but  is  open  to  the  Pacific  swell. 

Hotsprings  Bay  is  a  wide  indentation  in  Akutan  Island  open  north- 
ward between  North  Head  and  Akutan  Harbor.  The  north  point  at 
the  entrance  is  a  high,  rocky  cliff.  The  south  point  at  the  entrance, 
Ridge  Point,  lying  about  2^  miles  southeastward  from  the  north 
point  at  the  entrance,  is  a  narrow  ridge  about  150  feet  high,  which  has 
bare  rock  cliffs  on  its  west  side,  but  slopes  rapidly  on  its  east  side 
into  a  grassy  valley  and  sandy  cove.  At  the  head  of  the  bay  are 
three  bights  having  streams,  and  the  southernmost  has  hot  springs 
about  1  mile  up  the  stream.  No  directions  can  be  given  for  anchoring 
in  the  bay,  except  that  the  anchorage  is  reported  to  be  in  15  to  20 
fathoms,  sandy  bottom.  A  kelp  patch  extends  a  short  distance  into 
the  bay  from  the  south  point  at  the  entrance. 

Akutan  Harbor  is  on  the  north  side  of  the  island  near  its  eastern  end. 
The  harbor  is  entered  from  northward  through  Akutan  Bay;  it  is 
nearly  3%  miles  long  and  ^  to  1%  miles  wide.  There  are  no  known 
dangers  over  300  yards  from  the  shore.  There  is  anchorage  off  the 
the  north  shore  abreast  an  Aleut  village  about  1  y%  miles  westward  of 
the  north  point  at  the  entrance  and  about  300  yards  from  the  shore 
in  about  22  fathoms.  A  vessel  may  also  anchor  in  the  broad  bight 
in  the  south  shore  in  15  fathoms,  with  the  north  point  at  the  entrance 
bearing  about  17°  true  (N  mag.)  and  taking  care  to  keep  clear  of  the 


204  AKUTAN   ISLAND. 

kelp.  A  light  is  established  on  the  southeastern  end  of  the  point  on 
the  north  side  of  the  entrance. 

There  is  a  whaling  station  in  Akutan  Harbor,  from  which  steam 
whalers  are  operated.  In  1913  and  1914  a  considerable  supply  of  fuel 
oil  was  on  hand  at  the  station,  and  vessels  were  supplied  when  notice 
was  given  in  advance. 

Approaching  Akutan  Harbor  from  Akun  Head,  follow  the  northwest 
shore  of  Akun  Island  giving  it  a  berth  of  about  1  mile  until  abreast 
the  old  crater  on  the  island,  and  then  steer  about  178°  true  (S  by  E 
%  E  mag.)  with  Akun  Strait  on  the  port  bow.  The  north  point  at 
the  entrance  to  Akutan  Harbor  will  be  a  little  on  the  starboard  bow 
(this  point  is  a  grassy  hummock  over  100  feet  high  and  is  connected 
with  the  mainland  of  Akutan  Island  by  a  low,  grassy  spit) .  Steer  so 
as  to  leave  this  point  over  %  mile  on  the  starboard  hand,  round  it  at 
this  distance,  and  then  steer  251°  true  (SW  J£  W  mag.)  into  the 
harbor,  giving  the  shores  a  berth  of  over  300  yards.  Anchor  off  the 
village,  taking  care  to  allow  the  vessel  swinging  room. 

Passing  north  of  North  Head  (of  Akutan  Island)  leave  it  about  1 
mile  on  the  starboard  hand  and  steer  about  107°  true  (E  mag.), 

g'ving  the  shore  of  the  island  a  berth  of  1  mile  on  the  starboard  hand, 
aving  stood  on  this  course  about  6  miles  and  when  Ridge  Point  bears 
on  the  starboard  beam  distant  2  miles,  steer  150°  true  (SE  ^  E  mag.) 
about  4  miles;  the  north  point  at  the  entrance  to  Akutan  Harbor 
should  then  be  forward  of  the  starboard  beam  distant  nearly  %  mile; 
steer  so  as  to  leave  the  point  over  ^  niile  on  the  starboard  hand  and 
enter  the  harbor  as  directed  in  the  preceding  paragraph. 

AKUTAN   PASS 

is  2^  miles  wide  in  its  narrowest  part.  There  are  six  small  islets, 
Baby  Islands,  on  the  western  side  of  the  pass,  with  many  detached 
rocks  above  water  in  the  same  group,  but  not  extending  beyond  the 
islets  into  the  pass.  Cape  Morgan,  on  the  north  side  of  the  pass, 
should  be  given  a  berth  of  over  J/£  mile.  The  breaker  reported  in  the 
middle  of  Akutan  Pass  was  searched  for  and  does  not  exist.  The 
current  and  tide  rips  (see  p.  197)  are  not  so  strong  as  in  Unalga  Pass. 
On  this  account,  and  because  of  its  greater  width  and  the  fact  that  a 
straight  course  will  carry  through,  this  pass  is  preferred  by  many  to 
Unalga  Pass. 

Akutan  Pass  is  recommended,  in  the  daytime  with  clear  weather, 
for  steamers  bound  to  or  from  Unalaska  Bay,  and  for  sailing  vessels 
from  Unalaska  Bay  with  a  fair  wind.  From  southward  it  is  recom- 
mended to  make  the  land  in  the  vicinity  of  Tigalda  Island  and 
Avatanak  Island  and  follow  along  the  south  side  of  these  islands 
until  the  course  is  shaped  from  Rootok  Island  to  Cape  Morgan.  A 
mid-channel  course  through  the  pass  is  recommended  as  the  most 
prudent  one. 

DIRECTIONS,    AKUTAN    PASS. 

From  a  position  3  miles  southward  of  Rootok  Island  a  course  280° 
true  (W  y%  S  mag.)  made  good  for  17  miles  will  lead  1  %  miles  south- 
ward of  Battery  Point  and  to  a  mid-channel  position  in  the  pass 
between  Cape  Morgan  and  Baby  Islands.  Continue  the  course  3 
miles  past  Cape  Morgan  to  a  position  2  miles  off  the  north  side  of 


FOX    ISLANDS.  205 

Unalga  Island,  and  then  steer  269°  true  (WSW  %  W  mag.)  with 
Battery  Point  astern.  This  course  made  good  for  8  miles  will  lead 
to  a  position  1J4  miles  northward  of  Cape  Kalekta. 


UNALGA    ISLAND 

lies  northeastward  of  Unalaska  Island  nearly  halfway  to  Akutan 
Island;  Akutan  Pass  leads  between  Unalga  Island  and  Akutan 
Island,  and  Unalga  Pass  leads  between  Unalga  Island  and  Unalaska 
Island.  Unalga  Island  is  about  4J^  miles  long  east  and  west,  about 
2^  miles  wide  and  650  feet  high,  covered  with  high  grass.  Lying 
north  of  the  eastern  end  of  the  island  is  a  group  of  six  small  islands 
known  as  Baby  Islands  ;  between  these  and  Unalga  Island  there  is  a 
kelp-bordered  passage  (Baby  Pass)  about  %  mile  wide  with  a  reported 
depth  of  11  fathoms.  The  southern  and  western  shores  of  Unalga 
Island  bordering  on  Unalga  Pass  are  free  from  outlying  dangers; 
but  it  is  advisable  to  give  tnem*a  berth  of  at  least  Y^  mile. 

Malga  Bay,  also  called  Unalga  Cove,  on  the  northwest  side  of 
Unalga  Island,  is  about  %  mile  in  diameter  and  affords  shelter  in 
southerly  weather.  No  directions  are  necessary  except  to  keep  in 
the  middle  of  the  cove  and  well  clear  of  the  kelp.  The  mean  rise 
and  fall  of  the  tides  is  1.2  feet. 

UNALGA    PASS, 

between  Unalga  and  Unalaska  Islands,  is  the  narrowest  of  the  three 
principally  used  passes,  and  has  the  strongest  tidal  currents.  It  is 
about  1^4  miles  wide  in  its  narrowest  part,  and,  with  the  exception 
of  rocks  above  water,  which  make  out  a  short  distance  from  the 
points  of  Unalaska  and  Unalga  Islands  the  pass  is  considered  free 
from  dangers.  In  the  middle  of  the  pass  there  are  depths  of  24  to 
40  fathoms,  with  deeper  water  northwestward  and  southeastward. 
Its  worst  features  are  the  strong  tidal  currents  and  tide  rips,  both 
of  which  are  generally  considered  worse  in  this  pass  than  in  either 
of  the  other  two  ;  williwaws  of  great  force  are  also  experienced.  The 
advantage  of  using  this  pass  in  thick  weather  is  that  the  shore  of 
Unalga  Island  is  clear  of  outlying  dangers,  and  when  made  can  be 
followed  close  enough  to  keep  it  in  sight  while  going  through. 

The  Signals,  Egg  Island,  and  Old  Man  are  the  prominent  land- 
marks for  making  Unalga  Pass  from  southeastward. 

For  currents  and  tide  rips  in  the  pass,  see  page  198. 

DIRECTIONS,    UNALGA    PASS. 

From  Southeastward.  —  Passing  3  miles  southward  of  Rootok  Island 
a  course  261°  true  (SW  by  W  %  W  mag.)  made  good  for  about  20 
miles  will  lead  to  a  position  2  miles  off  the  south  side  of  Unalga  Island. 
Then  steer  about  292°  true  (W  %  N  mag.)  to  a  position  about  % 
mile  off  the  southwest  end  of  Unalga  Island  in  the  narrowest  part  of 
the  pass. 

Or,  when  Egg  Island  is  recognized,  pass  2  to  3  miles  northward  of 
it,  about  midway  between  it  and  Unalga  Island,  and  steer  about  292° 
true  (W  l/2  N  mag.)  to  a  position  about  %  mile  off  the  southwest  end 
of  Unalga  Island  in  the  narrowest  part  of  the  pass. 


206  UNALGA    PASS. 

From  a  position  about  %  mile  off  the  southwest  end  of  Unalga 
Island  make  good  a  329°  true  (NW  M  W  mag.)  course  for  3  miles  to 
a  position  with  Erskine  Point  1  mile  on  the  port  beam.  Then  steer 
297°  true  (W  %  N  mag.)  for  4  miles  and  pass  1  mile  northward  of 
Cape  Kalekta. 

The  above  directions  lead  through  the  middle  of  the  pass,  and  this 
is  the  safest  course  for  any  vessel  to  follow  on  account  of  the  tide  rips 
and  strength  of  the  current.  The  shore  of  Unalga  Island,  bordering 
Unalga  Pass,  as  far  as  known,  is  free  from  dangers  at  a  distance  of  J£ 
mile  from  shore.  On  the  southern  side  of  the  pass  there  are  some 
rocks  showing  out  of  water,  but  not  over  %  mile  from  the  shore. 

UNALASKA  ISLAND, 

lying  southwestward  of  Akutan  Island  and  separated  from  the  latter 
by  Akutan  and  Unalga  Passes,  is  one  of  the  three  largest  of  the  Aleu- 
tian Islands.  The  island  is  about  67  miles  long,  about  23  miles  wide 
at  its  widest  part,  mountainous,  and  during  the  greater  part  of  the 
year  the  mountains  are  covered  with  snow.  Makushin  Volcano, 
5,691  feet  high,  the  highest  point  on  the  island,  is  near  its  northwest- 
ern side  about  25  miles  from  the  eastern  end  of  the  island.  The 
eastern  end  of  Unalaska  Island  was  surveyed  in  1901,  but  the  island 
west  of  Biorka  Island  and  Unalaska  Bay  is  still  imperfectly  known. 

Biorka  Island,  close  to  the  northeastern  end  of  Unalaska  Island 
and  separated  from  the  latter  by  a  narrow,  deep  strait  (Udagak 
Strait),  appears  as  a  part  of  Unalaska  Island.  A  number  of  rocks 
lie  1  to  2  %  miles  eastward  of  the  eastern  end  of  Biorka  Island. 

Egg  Island  is  about  %  m^e  m  diameter,  550  feet  high,  and  lies 
about  \y<2  miles  northeastward  from  the  north  point  of  Biorka  Island. 
Lying  a  little  over  %  mile  west  of  Egg  Island  are  Old  Man  Rocks, 
two  rocks  surrounded  by  deep  water;  the  higher  is  about  60  feet 
high  and  flat-topped,  and  the  smaller  is  round-topped  and  lies  a  short 
distance  north  of  the  higher  rock. 

Egg  Island  Passage  leads  between  Egg  Island  and  Biorka  Cape 
and  southward  of  Old  Man  Rocks.  This  pass  is  nearly  1%  miles 
wide  and  has  a  depth  of  about  35  fathoms  in  the  middle.  A  309° 
true  (WNW  mag.)  course  passing  midway  between  Egg  Island  and 
Biorka  Cape  leads  through  the  middle  of  the  pass. 

The  Signals  are  three  small  rocks.  The  outer  is  50  feet  high  and 
lies  nearly  3  miles  southward  from  Egg  Island.  A  small  rock,  10 
feet  high  and  over  which  the  sea  washes,  lies  a  little  over  J£  m^e 
eastward  of  the  Outer  Signal,  The  Inner  Signal  is  180  feet  high  and 
lies  %  mile  from  the  shore  of  Biorka  Island  and  4J/2  miles  south  of 
Egg  Island.  There  is  apparently  deep  water  between  the  Inner  Sig- 
nal and  Outer  Signal,  but  they  should  be  approached  with  caution. 

BEAVER    INLET 

makes  in  17  miles  in  a  235°  true  (SW  %  S  mag.)  direction  in  the  north- 
eastern end  of  Unalaska  Island.  Its  entrance  lies  between  Biorka 
Cape  on  the  southeast  and  Brundage  Head  on  the  northwest  and  is 
approached  from  southward  and  eastward  between  Egg  and  Unalga 
Islands.  The  least,  width  of  the  inlet  is  1%  miles  near  its  head  and 
it  has  a  clear  and  unobstructed  channel  its  full  length. 


UNALASKA   ISLAND.  207 

Udagak  Strait  separates  Biorka  Island  from  Unalaska  Island;  its 
entrance  in  Beaver  Inlet  is  9%  miles  southwestward  from  Old  Man. 
This  strait  has  a  least  width  of  %  mile,  but  has  good  water;  there 
are  some  rocks  off  the  south  srjit  of  the  narrows  which  mark  three 
points  of  a  reef  the  limits  of  which  are  marked  by  kelp ;  one  or  more 
of  the  rocks  are  always  visible.  To  pass  through  the  strait  follow 
a  mid-channel  track,  giving  the  two  gravel  spits  a  good  berth.  There 
is  an  anchorage,  sheltered  from  all  winds,  in  Udagak  Bay,  an  indenta- 
tion in  the  west  shore  of  the  strait  about  3J4  miles  from  its  entrance 
in  Beaver  Inlet. 

There  are  a  number  of  bays  making  off  from  Beaver  Inlet  in 
which  vessels  may  anchor,  but  those  on  the  south  side  of  the  inlet 
are  open  northward  and  northwestward  and  those  on  the  north 
side  are  open  southward  and  eastward. 

Udamat  Bay,  on  the  northwest  side  of  Biorka  Island,  5^  miles 
southwestward  from  Old  Man,  extends  2  54  miles  in  a  186°  true 
(S  by  E  mag.)  direction,  has  a  general  width  of  %  mile  near  its  head, 
and  has  a  deep  and  unobstructed  channel.  There  is  a  small  native 
village  on  the  north  side  of  the  point  at  the  east  side  of  the  entrance 
to  the  bay.  Vessels  may  anchor  in  the  southeastern  end  of  the  bay, 
taking  care  to  have  room  to  swing. 

Strait  Bay  makes  into  Biorka  Island  from  Beaver  Inlet  just  east 
of  Udagak  Strait;  the  Pathfinder  anchored  in  the  head  of  this  bay. 

Amugul  Bay  makes  southward  from  Beaver  Inlet  about  3  miles 
southwestward  of  the  entrance  to  Udagak  Strait.  The  Pathfinder 
anchored  in  a  cove  in  the  southwestern  and  broadest  part  of  the  bay. 
There  is  a  small  island  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  entrance  to  the  bay. 

At  the  head  of  Beaver  Inlet  there  are  four  small  bays;  named  in 
order,  following  the  south  shore  around  to  the  north  shore,  they  are 
Tanaskan,  Final,  Kisselen,  and  Erskine.  The  Pathfinder  anchored 
near  the  head  in  Final  and  Erskine  Bays. 

Uniktali  Bay  makes  into  the  north  shore  of  Beaver  Inlet  about 
15  miles  above  its  entrance;  this  bay  is  nearly  3  miles  long  in  a 
westerly  direction  and  ^  mile  wide  at  its  narrowest  part  near  its 
head. 

Agamgik  Bay  and  Ugadaga  Bay  are  two  indentations  in  the  north 
shore  of  Beaver  Inlet  5J/2  and  8  miles,  respectively,  above  the  en- 
trance of  the  inlet.  From  the  head  of  Ugadaga  Bay  a  trail  leads 
to  the  village  of  Iliuliuk.  There  are  rocks  6ff  the  western  point  at 
the  entrance  to  Agamgik  Bay. 

Deep  Bay  is  the  bight  on  the  north  side  of  the  entrance  to  Beaver 
Inlet,  and  is  protected  from  northeastward  by  a  long  ledge  and 
several  small  islets  which  make  off  about  ^  mile  from  the  shore. 
The  Pathfinder  anchored  in  the  northwestern  corner  of  the  bay. 

The  places  in  Beaver  Inlet  where  the  Pathfinder  anchored  were 
used  only  as  anchorages  for  the  night  while  that  vessel  was  engaged 
in  surveying  in  the  locality. 

ENGLISH    BAY 

is  a  secure  anchorage  in  the  north  side  of  Unalaska  Island,  directly 
south  of  the  west  end  of  Unalga  Island.  The  best  anchorage  is 
nearly  2  miles  above  the  entrance  in  about  6  or  7  fathoms ;  the  width 
of  the  anchorage  between  the  5-fathom  curves  is  here  about  300 


208  UNALASKA    ISLAND. 

yards.  There  are  bare  rocks  off  both  points  at  the  entrance,  between 
which  the  channel  has  a  width  of  about  %  mile.  When  about  1% 
miles  above  the  entrance  the  western  shore  should  be  given  a  berth 
of  over  400  yards  to  avoid  a  shoal  with  1  to  3  fathoms  over  it  which 
stretches  along  the  shore  ^  mile.  In  entering  care  must  be  taken 
not  to  be  set  off  the  course  by  the  strong  currents  in  Unalga  Pass, 
which  have  a  maximum  velocity  of  about  9  miles;  follow  a  mid- 
cbannel  track  or  favor  the  eastern  shore  and  anchor  in  6  to  7  fathoms 
in  the  middle  of  the  bay  nearly  2  miles  above  the  entrance.  Good 
holding  ground  in  depths  of  12  to  17  fathoms  will  be  found  M  to  1^ 
miles  inside  the  entrance.  There  is  a  small  fishing  village  on  the 
eastern  point  (Fisherman  Point)  at  the  entrance  to  the  bay.  From 
Fisherman  Point  eastward  a  little  over  1  mile  to  Brundage  Head 
there  are  ledges  and  rocks  which  lie  some  distance  from  the  shore. 

KALEKTA   BAY 

is  a  broad,  open  bay  in  the  north  end  of  Unalaska  Island  just  east  of 
Unalaska  Bay;  it  has  no  known  dangers  over  400  yards  from  the 
shore,  and  there  are  a  number  of  places  where  a  vessel  may  anchor; 
but  as  this  bay  is  open  northward,  and  EnglishBay  and  Dutch  Harbor 
are  better  harbors,  it  is  not  recommended.  There  is  a  pinnacle  rock 
off  Erskine  Point,  the  eastern  point  at  the  entrance,  somewhat  similar 
to  Priest  Rock;  but  this  rock  is  distinguished  by  a  smaller  one  between 
it  and  Erskine  Point. 

UNALASKA -BAY 

is  the  indentation  making  into  the  north  end  of  Unalaska  Island 
between  Cape  Kalekta  and  Cape  Cheerful.  Commercially  it  is  one 
of  the  most  important  bays  in  western  Alaska.  Its  shores  are  gen- 
erally mountainous,  with  precipitous  sea  faces.  Amaknak  Island  lies 
in  its  southern  end.  Westward  of  the  island  the  water  is  deep,  but 
there  is  no  good  harbor  in  this  part  of  the  bay;  eastward  of  the  island 
are  the  important  anchorages  of  Iliuliuk  Bay,  Dutch  Harbor,  and 
Hiuliuk  Harbor.  The  channel  to  Iliuliuk  Bay  and  Dutch  Harbor  is 
free  from  dangers,  except  along  the  shores.  Iliuliuk  Harbor  is  ob- 
structed at  its  entrance  by  ledges,  but  with  the  aid  of  the  buoys  is  not 
difficult  to  enter  with  a  small  vessel. 

Cape  Kalekta,  500  feet  high,  is  the  eastern  point  at  the  entrance  to 
Unalaska  Bay.  The  extremity  and  western  side  of  the  cape  are 
rugged,  precipitous  cliffs,  with  a  few  rocks  but  no  beach  at  the  water 
line.  From  the  summit  of  the  cape  the  land  falls  to  the  break  at 
Constantine  Bay,  and  then  rises  to  higher  land  farther  south.  A 
dangerous  ledge,  usually  marked  by  breakers,  lies  nearly  %  mile 
northward  of  the  cape.  The  cape  should  be  given  a  berth  of  1  mile 
or  more  to  clear  the  ledge,  as  the  strong  tidal  currents  may  tend  to 
carry  a  vessel  on  it. 

Priest  Rock,  close-to  off  the  northwest  side  of  Cape  Kalekta,  is  a 
pinnacle  about  175  feet  high.  A  portion  of  the  northwestern  face  of 
the  rock  has  been  whitewashed  to  aid  in  its  identification. 

Cape  Cheerful,  the  western  point  at  the  entrance  to  Unalaska  Bay, 
is  made  up  of  bold,  very  high  headlands,  rounded  on  top,  and  inter- 
sected by  deep,  grassy  valleys.  The  shore  is  free  from  dangers  and 
has  deep  water  close-to.  A  cascade,  125  feet  high,  south  of  Cape 
Cheerful,  can  be  seen  from  the  vicinity  of  Cape  Kalekta,  and  is  some- 


UNALASKA   BAY.  209 

oimes  useful  in  thick  weather,  when  only  the  lower  part  of  the  land 
can  be  seen. 

Ulakta  Head,  the  north  end  of  Amaknak  Island,  is  900  feet  high. 
It  has  a  flat  top,  and  in  clear  weather  it  is  one  of  the  best  landmarks 
for  fixing  the  position  of  Unalaska  Bay.  From  its  northwest  point 
a  reef  extends  j/g  mile,  marked  by  Needle  Rock,  similar  in  appearance 
to  Priest  Rock,  but  not  so  large.  From  its  northeast  point  a  long, 
narrow,  grassy,  shingle  spit  extends  southward  1  y%  miles ;  its  southern 
end,  called  Spithead,  is  marked  by  a  black  and  white  wooden  beacon 
which  is  liable  to  be  destroyed  by  heavy  gales.  An  extensive  reef 
with  little  depth  over  it  is  reported  to  lie  between  Amaknak  Island 
and  Hog  Island. 

Princes  Head,  2  miles  from  Cape  Kalekta,  is  a  large,  square-headed 
rocky  point  that  projects  from  the  shore  far  enough  to  be  seen,  even 
in  thick  weather,  when  foUowing  the  east  shore. 

Constantine  Bay,  about  4  miles  from  Cape  Kalekta,  is  obstructed 
by  numerous  ledges,  many  of  which  are  only  evident  from  the  attached 
kelp.  It  is  of  no  importance  and  should  be  avoided  by  all  vessels. 

Summer  Bay,  the  large,  shallow  bight  3  miles  from  Constantine  Bay 
and  opposite  Ulakta  Head,  is  shoal,  and  its  shores  are  lined  with  kelp- 
marked  rocks  and  ledges.  At  its  southern  headland  is  Second  Priest, 
about  60  feet  high.  The  bay  should  be  avoided  by  vessels. 

Iliuliuk  Bay  extends  from  Second  Priest  and  Ulakta  Head  to 
Iliuliuk.  Northward  of  Spithead  there  is  a  ridge  extending  across 
the  bay,  on  which  the  least  depths  found  are  7  to  8  fathoms;  kelp  has 
been  seen  on  this  ridge  in  about  mid-channel.  South  of  this  ridge 
the  depths  increase  to  16  and  19  fathoms.  There  is  anchorage  any- 
where in  the  bay.  The  usual  anchorage  is  at  the  head  in  14  to  16 
fathoms,  muddy  bottom,  where,  even  with  northerly  winds,  the  force 
of  the  sea  does  not  seem  to  reach  home.  At  the  head  of  Iliuliuk  Bay, 
behind  the  village,  there  is  a  ravine  or  break  in  the  mountains,  which 
extends  through  to  the  water  southward.  This  is  sometimes  useful 
as  a  guide  in  entering  the  bay. 

DUTCH    HARBOR    (CHART    9008) 

is  on  the  west  side  of  Iliuliuk  Bay.  Its  entrance  is  between  Spithead 
and  Rocky  Point.  The  water  is  deep  close  to  the  shores  and  in  all 
parts  of  the  harbor,  except  off  Rocky  Point,  where  there  is  a  reef 
making  off  a  little  less  than  y±  mile,  marked  at  its  end  by  a  black  can 
buoy.  The  entrance  between  Spithead  and  the  end  of  the  reef  off 
Rocky  Point  is  about  J^  mile  wide,  with  a  depth  of  18  fathoms. 
Anchorage  may  be  had  throughout  the  harbor  in  14  to  19  fathoms. 
Violent  williwaws  are  experienced  during  gales,  especially  from  south- 
west, and  the  best  shelter  will  be  found  under  tne  high  part  of  the 
island  well  northward  of  the  wharf. 

The  headquarters  of  the  North  American  Commercial  Co.  for 
this  part  of  Alaska  are  situated  on  the  south  side  of  Dutch  Harbor. 
In  front  of  their  warehouses  and  coal  depot  a  T-shaped  wharf  extends 
put  to  deep  water.  Large  vessels  can  he  at  the  outer  end,  and  there 
is  ample  room  for  small  vessel;  on  the  inside  of  the  T.  The  wharf  is 
old  and  weak;  a  large  vessel  should  lay  out  anchors  to  hold  her  clear 
in  bad  weather.  Fresh  water  can  be  obtained  at  the  wharf.  A  naval 
radio  station  is  operated  at  Dutch  Harbor. 

31056°— 16 14 


210  UN  ALASKA   BAY. 

ILIULIUK  HARBOR    (CHART   9008) 

is  joined  to  the  head  of  Iliuliuk  Bay  by  the  passage  between  Iliuliuk 
Reef  and  the  village  of  Iliuliuk  (Unalaska  post  office).  The  harbor 
is  small  and  the  channel  leading  into  it  narrow,  and  it  is  suitable  only 
for  small  or  moderate-sized  vessels,  although  vessels  of  6,000  tons 
have  been  taken  in  and  out. 

Channels. — The  channel  always  used  is  the  one  southward  of  Iliuliuk 
Reef.  A  red  buoy  marks  the  southern  end  of  Iliuliuk  Reef  and  a 
black  buoy  approximately  the  3-f athom  curve  on  the  opposite  side  of 
the  channel.  The  passage  has  a  least  depth  of  about  5  fathoms  at 
mean  lower  low  water,  and  a  clear  width  of  about  27  yards  between 
Tuscarora  Rock  and  the  19-foot  shoal  spot  on  the  north  side  of  the 
channel.  It  should  be  noted  that  Tuscarora  Rock  is  charted  about 
mid-channel  between  the  buoys. 

There  is  a  channel  northwestward  of  Iliuliuk  Reef,  between  it  and 
North  Rock,  which  has  a  least  found  depth  of  3  fathoms,  but  it 
should  not  be  attempted  except  with  local  knowledge. 

Anchorage. — Iliuliuk  Harbor  is  small,  but  landlocked,  with  good 
holding  ground,  and  an  average  depth  of  10  fathoms.  Violent  willi- 
waws  are  experienced  with  strong  southwest  gales.  The  headquar- 
ters of  the  Alaska  Commercial  Co.  are  at  Iliuliuk,  and  the  company 
has  a  wharf  projecting  into  the  harbor  at  its  entrance  from  the  west- 
ern end  of  the  spit  on  which  the  village  is  located,  with  depths  of 
4)4  to  6  fathoms  along  its  north  and  west  faces. 

Iliuliuk  is  the  original  Russian  settlement.  There  is  a  Greek  church 
with  a  parochial  school,  also  a  Methodist  mission  school.  The  post 
office,  United  States  deputy  collector,  United  States  commissioner, 
and  United  States  deputy  marshal  for  this  general  locality  are  located 
here.  The  post  office  is  called  Unalaska. 

Supplies,  etc. — The  Alaska  Commercial  Co.  has  a  well-stocked  general 
store  and  commodious  warehouses  at  Iliuliuk.  Coal  is  kept  on  hand 
for  sale  and  can  be  handled  at  the  rate  of  200  tons  per  day.  Fresh 
water  can  be  obtained  at  the  wharf.  Lumber  can  usually  be  obtained 
in  limited  quantities. 

Tides. — The  mean  rise  and  fall  in  Dutch  Harbor  is  2  feet.  The 
tidal  current  in  Dutch  Harbor  is  inappreciable,  and  in  Iliuliuk  Harbor 
the  velocity  does  not  exceed  1  knot. 

Ice. — The  bay  is  open  to  navigation  at  all  seasons.  It  is  reported 
that  on  two  occasions  the  drift  ice  of  Bering  Sea  entered  Unalaska 
Bay,  but  such  an  occurrence  is  so  rare  that  it  need  not  be  considered. 
Ice  often  forms  in  the  sheltered  coves  and  harbors  in  cold,  calm 
weather,  but  it  never  attains  any  thickness  or  interferes  with  naviga- 
tion. 

The  remaining  portions  of  Unalaska  Bay  southward  and  westward 
of  Amaknak  Island  are  not  important  to  navigators,  but  may  be 
briefly  described  as  follows:  The  portion  south-southwestward  of 
Amaknak  Island  is  a  long  narrow  inlet  called  Captains  Bay ;  it  has  not 
been  accurately  surveyed,  but  vessels  have  entered  it  on  occasions. 
The  narrow  passage  from  it  to  Iliuliuk  Harbor  is  not  recommended. 
There  are  a  few  houses  along  the  eastern  shore,  and  a  ranch  at  the 
head  of  the  bay.  On  the  western  side  of  Unalaska  Bay  are  Nateekin 
Bay,  Broad  Bay,  and  Eider  Point  Anchorage,  none  of  which  are  of  any 
importance.  This  coast  is  high,  with  valleys  at  the  heads  of  the  bays, 


TJNALASKA  BAY.  211 

mid  several  conspicuous  waterfalls  over  the  cliffs  between  them. 
Hog  Island  lies  off  the  western  side  of  Amaknak  Island;  rocks  and 
reefs  have  been  reported  all  round  it  extending  to  a  considerable  dis- 
tance, and  the  locality  between  it  and  Amaknak  Island  is  reported 
foul  right  across.  A  long  reef  is  charted,  extending  south-southeast 
from  Eider  Point. 

DIRECTIONS,  UNALASKA  BAY. 

When  bound  for  Unalaska  Bay  from  any  part  of  Bering  Sea,  it  is 
recommended  to  shape  the  course  for  Cape  Cheerful.  In  thick  weather 
it  is  better  to  fall  westward  of  Cape  Cheerful  and  then  round  it  than 
to  fall  eastward  of  it  and  get  down  into  the  passes.  Makushin  Volcano, 
5,691  feet  high,  can  generally  be  seen  in  clear  weather,  and  is  prominent. 
An  extinct  crater,  2,314  feet  high,  back  of  Cape  Cheerful  and  west  of 
Eider  Point,  gives  a  distinct  point  for  which  to  steer  until  close  enough 
to  distinguish  the  surrounding  features.  On  getting  close  to  the  island, 
when  the  fog  hangs  over  the  land  but  leaves  a  clear  space  just  along 
the  water's  edge,  Wislow  Island  forms  a  good  mark.  It  is  in  a  smafl 
bay  about  2  miles  westward  of  Cape  Cheerful,  and  is  a  small,  rounded 
island,  regular  in  shape,  and  stands  far  enough  from  the  land  to  be 
seen  as  not  a  part  of  the  main  island.  Westward,  under  similar  con- 
ditions, Makushin  Cape  can  be  seen  at  times.  The  land  slopes  gently 
to  the  cape  from  Makushin  Volcano,  and  ends  in  a  small  peak-like 
formation.  From  eastward  the  cascade  south  of  Cape  Cheerful  is 
also  useful  as  a  mark.  Strangers,  when  in  the  vicinity  and  uncertain 
of  the  identity  of  the  bay  and  its  landmarks,  should  endeavor  to  pick 
out  Ulakta  Head.  Looking  into  the  bay,  its  flat  top  breaking  off 
abruptly  to  sloping  sides  presents  an  appearance  unlike  any  other 
in  the  vicinity,  and  shows  up  well  against  the  background  of  moun- 
tains. When  sighted,  steer  for  it,  leave  it  on  the  starboard  hand, 
and  follow  around,  keeping  out  of  kelp. 

Cape  Kalekta  to  anchorage. — Having  arrived  in  the  vicinity  of 
Cape  Kalekta,  give  it  a  berth  of  over  1  mile  in  rounding  it,  and  steer 
for  Ulakta  Head,  course  214°  true  (S  by  W  ^  Wmag.),  about  4  miles. 
When  the  south  point  at  the  entrance  to  Constantine  Bay  is  abeam, 
distant  1  mile,  change  course  to  195°  true  (S  J£  E  mag.)  for  about  3J^ 
miles  to  a  mid-channel  position  in  Iliuliuk  Bay  eastward  of  Ulakta 
Head.  Then  follow  a  mid-channel  course  through  Iliuliuk  Bay,  course 
about  220°  true  (SSW  mag.),  and  anchor  J4  to  ^  mile  from  the  head 
of  the  bay  in  14  to  16  fathoms,  muddy  bottom. 

To  enter  Dutch  Harbor  pass  between  Spithead  and  the  buoy  off 
Rocky  Point,  and  anchor  in  the  harbor,  as  desired,  in  about  18  fathoms, 
muddy  bottom. 

At  night  the  spit  is  difficult  to  make  out,  and  the  following  may  be 
useful:  Stand  through  Iliuliuk  Bay  in  mid-channel,  taking  care  to 
keep  clear  of  the  reef  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  spit,  and  when  the 
lowest  part  of  Amaknak  Island,  at  the  southwest  end  of  Dutch 
Harbor,  bears  276°  true  (W  by  S  mag.)  steer  for  it,  keeping  the  bear- 
ing, which  leads  in  mid-channel  between  Spithead  and  Rocky  Point 
buoy.  On  this  course  the  high  mountain  on  the  eastern  side,  south 
of  Summer  Bay,  should  be  directly  astern. 

To  enter  Iliuliuk  Harbor,  stand  southward  through  Iliuliuk  Bay 
on  the  220°  true  (SSW  mag.)  course  until  the  buoys  are  sighted. 
Then  haul  westward  and  in  passing  between  the  buoys,  favor  the 


212  UNALASKA   BAY. 

red  buoy,  keeping  out  of  the  kelp.  Iliuliuk  Reef  is  marked  by  kelp, 
which  with  care,  serves  as  a  guide  if  the  buoy  is  not  in  place.  When 
clear  of  Tuscarora  Rock  haul  northward  to  pass  in  mid-channel  south- 
ward of  the  dry  rocks  of  Iliuliuk  Reef  and  pass  close  to  the  north- 
east corner  of  the  wharf.  Small  vessels  may  anchor  in  the  middle 
of  the  harbor  in  10  fathoms;  the  western  side  of  the  harbor  should 
be  given  a  berth  of  over  100  yards. 

Remarks. — Sailing  vessels  entering  Dutch  Harbor  should  carry 
sufficient  sail  to  keep  good  way  on  until  past  the  beacon  on  Spithead. 
It  has  frequently  occurred  that  vessels  shortening  sail  at  Ulakta 
Head  have  been  set  toward  the  shoal  on  the  east  side  of  the  spit 
owing  to  little  headway  and  the  wTind  drawing  ahead.  They  are 
then  obliged  to  anchor  in  an  exposed  place,  and  steam  assistance  is 
not  always  available. 

The  214°  true  (S  by  W  1A  W  mag.)  course  from  Cape  Kalekta 
follows  the  shore  northward  of  Constantine  Bay  at  a  distance  of 
about  1  mile.  In  thick  weather,  when  following  the  east  shore, 
care  must  be  taken  not  to  enter  Constantine  or  Summer  Bays  by 
mistake.  This  has  sometimes  occurred  when  the  opposite  head- 
land could  not  be  made  out.  If  passing  southward  of  Tuscarora 
Rock,  vessels  are  obliged  to  make  a  sharp  turn  westward,  and  care 
should  be  observed. 

Dangers. — A  large  cluster  of  rocks,  mostly  awash,  and  usually 
marked  by  breakers,  extends  nearly  200  yards  westward  of  the  south 
head  of  Constantine  Bay. 

Second  Priest,  near  the  south  point  of  Summer  Bay,  is  surrounded 
by  reefs,  awash  and  under  water,  for  a  distance  of  300  yards.  Be- 
tween Second  Priest  and  a  point  opposite  the  entrance  to  Dutch 
Harbor  the  east  shore  is  fringed  with  rocks,  and  should  not  be  ap- 
proached closer  than  J£  mile. 

The  spit  has  a  kelp-marked  shoal  on  its  east  side  which  extends 
its  whole  length;  at  its  middle  point  the  shoal  extends  J4  m^e  from 
shore,  and  from  it  a  ridge  on  which  the  least  depth  found  is  7  fathoms, 
extends  east-southeastward  across  the  bay.  Kelp  has  been  seen 
on  this  ridge  about  in  mid-channel.  Spithead  is  bold-to,  and  may 
be  safely  approached  as  close  as  150  yards. 

Rocky  Point  has  a  kelp-marked  reef  which  extends  toward  Spit- 
head  about  350  yards;  eastward  of  the  point  the  shoal  makes  out 
about  200  yards  with  little  kelp.  The  northeastern  extremity  of 
the  reef  is  marked  by  a  buoy  (can,  black,  No.  1)  in  7  fathoms. 

From  Rocky  Point  south,  the  shore  of  Amaknak  Island  should 
not  be  approached  closer  than  300  yards. 

Iliuliuk  Reef  is  a  ledge,  portions  of  which  are  always  exposed, 
extending  250  yards  in  an  east  and  west  direction.  From  the  eastern 
dry  rocks  a  ledge,  with  12  to  15  feet  over  it  and  marked  by  kelp, 
extends  150  yards  177°  true  (S  by  E  %  E  mag.). 

Tuscarora  Rock  is  charted  as  a  3-f athom  spot  of  small  extent,  with 
some  kelp,  lying  213  yards  172°  true  (SSE  l/8  E  mag.)  from  the  east- 
erly dry  rocks  on  Iliuliuk  Reef.  The  3-fathom  curve,  on  the  edge  of 
the  shoal  making  out  from  the  shore,  is  about  35  yards  southward 
of  Tuscarora  Rock. 


UNALASKA    BAY.  213 

A  dangerous  rock,  having  15  feet  over  it  at  mean  lower  low  water, 
was  found  in  1915  in  the  channel  between  Iliuliuk  Bay  and  Iliuliuk 
Harbor.  The  rock  lies  in  the  southern  part  of  the  channel,  172  yards 
54°  true  (NE  %  N  mag.)  from  the  higher  and  larger  of  the  two  spires 
on  the  Russian  church  at  Iliuliuk,  and  502  yards  132°  true  (SE  by  E 
Y±  E  mag.)  from  the  northeasterly  corner  of  the  Alaska  Commercial 
Co.'s  wharf. 

A  rocky  and  sandy  shoal  spot  with  19  feet  over  it  at  mean  lower 
low  water  was  also  found  in  1915  near  the  northern  limits  of  the  chan- 
nel between  Iliuliuk  Bay  and  Iliuliuk  Harbor,  221  yards  46°  true 
(NNE  y%  E  mag.)  from  the  larger  and  higher  of  the  two  spires  on  the 
Russian  church  at  Iliuliuk,  and  487  yards  126°  true  (ESE  %  E  mag.) 
from  the  northeasterly  end  of  the  Alaska  Commercial  Co.'s  wharf. 

NORTH    COAST   OF    UNALASKA    ISLAND. 

There  are  no  available  surveys  of  the  Aleutian  Islands  west  of 
Unalaska  Bay.  The  charts  are  compilations  from  various  sources, 
with  corrections  made  from  later  information  received;  they  are 
therefore  necessarily  imperfect,  and  must  be  used  with  caution,  espe- 
cially in  the  vicinity  of  the  land. 

Cape  Cheerful  is  described  on  page  208,  and  Wislow  Island  on 
page  210. 

Irishmans  Hat  is  a  square  tower  rock  about  50  feet  high  lying  close 
to  shore  about  3  miles  westward  of  Wislow  Island. 

Makushin  Cape,  13  miles  southwestward  of  Wislow  Island,  is  a 
round  hill  400  feet  high,  which  appears  like  an  island  from  a  distance, 
and  is  a  good  mark.  There  are  a  number  of  prominent  pinnacle 
rocks  off  the  cape.  Southward  of  it  is  Cape  Kovrizhka,  also  called 
Cape  Gattan,  and  Volcano  Bay. 

Makushin  Bay  has  an  Aleut  village,  and  there  are  promising  min- 
eral prospects  in  the  vicinity.  The  northern  entrance  point  is 
marked  by  a  rocky  islet  about  40  feet  high,  lying  \y%  miles  south- 
westward  of  the  point;  there  are  several  rocks  above  water  between 
it  and  the  shore.  To  enter  the  bay,  pass  about  1  mile  westward  of 
the  rocky  islet,  and  when  it  is  abeam,  steer  151°  true  (SE  mag.) 
iuntil  some  remarkable  pinnacle  rocks  are  in  line  with  a  low  dip 
In  the  mountains  at  the  head  of  the  bay,  bearing  about  96°  true 
(E  ]/%  N  mag.).  Then  steer  for  them  through  the  middle  of  the 
entrance  until  Priest  Rock  and  the  village  open  out  on  the  port 
hand;  haul  in  for  the  village  on  bearing  286°  true  (W  mag.)  and 
anchor  in  13  fathoms,  mud  bottom,  with  the  church  bearing  286°  true 
(W  mag.)  and  Priest  Rock  bearing  230°  true  (SW  by  S  mag.). 
Soundings  in  this  harbor  showed  no  dangers.  Fresh  water  is  obtain- 
able near  by. 

Kashega  Bay  is  charted  14  miles  south-southwestward  of  Makushin 
Bay.  The  following  information  was  furnished  by  the  Coast  Guard 
Cutter  Manning: 

When  clear  of  Cape  Spray  haul  to  pass  3  miles  off  Kashega  Point. 
A  high  conical  rock  will  be  seen  bearing  a  little  on  the  port  bow  and 
apparently  well  over  toward  the  western  side  of  Kashega  Bay.  Keep 
this  rock  a  little  open  on  the  port  bow  until  Kashega  Point  is  abeam, 
then  haul  to  139°  true  (SE  by  E  mag.)  with  the  conical  rock  open 
on  the  starboard  bow,  heading  for  a  mid-channel  position  between 
the  grassy  island  and  the  north  entrance  point  of  the  inner  harbor. 


214  UNALASKA   ISLAND. 

When  the  village  is  first  sighted  on  this  course  it  is  seen  directly 
under  a  conical  mountain  peak.  Continuing  on  this  course,  the  vil- 
lage shuts  in  behind  a  low  bluff  and  the  harbor  opens.  With  the 
harbor  open,  steer  a  mid-channel  course  for  a  short  distance  inside 
the  grassy  island,  and  anchor  in  9  fathoms,  hard  bottom. 

Chernofski  Harbor  (chart  9196)  is  charted  about  22  miles  south- 
westward  from  Makushin  Bay,  and  near  the  northeast  entrance  to 
Umnak  Pass.  It  is  reported  to  be  a  safe  harbor,  sheltered  from  all 
weather.  Approaching  it  from  northward,  a  vessel  first  makes  Nel- 
lie Juan  Cape,  a  high  bold  bluff,  unlike  any  other  land  in  the  vicinity. 
There  is  a  reef  about  300  yards  long  extending  off  the  cape;  the  reef 
ending  in  a  rock  about  15  feet  high. 

From  Nellie  Juan  Cape  continue  for  about  3J^  miles  to  East.  Point, 
opening  out  Chernofski  Church  over  the  land  to  the  right  of  a  high 
wedge-shaped  rock  about  1  mile  eastward  of  the  entrance.  The 
entrance  is  between  East  and  West  Points,  through  a  narrow  canal 
formed  by  low  promontories.  The  seaward  faces  of  the  points  are 
rugged  and  broken,  and  there  are  rocks  extending  seaward  on  the 
line  of  the  ridges  off  both  points;  there  is  a  deep  wide  cleft  across 
the  middle  of  the  eastern  promontory,  which  forms  a  landmark  when 
bearing  southward  of  southeast.  The  inner  harbor  is  reported  to  be 
J4  to  %  mile  across.  From  the  entrance,  the  right  tangent  of  Umnak 
Island  bears  309°  true  (WNW  mag.). 

To  enter,  round  East  Point  not  less  than  500  yards  distant,  and 
steer  129°  true  (ESE  mag.)  in  mid-channel  between  the  two  points; 
round  Observatory  Point,  the  low  shingle  point  at  the  southeastern 
extremity  of  the  eastern  promontory,  giving  it  a  good  clearance  and 
anchor  in  10  to  12  fathoms,  mud  bottom,  in  the  middle  of  the  harbor, 
halfway  from  Observatory  Point  to  the  church,  with  the  church 
bearing  331°  true  (NW  mag.),  and  the  point  bearing  about  196° 
true  (Smag.). 

There  is  no  wharf;  a  boat  landing  is  made  on  the  shingle  beach  in 
front  of  the  village.  Fresh  water  may  be  secured  from  a  stream  in 
the  southern  part  of  the  bay.  Soundings  made  in  the  harbor  showed 
no  dangers;  but  the  head  of  the  bay  at  the  southeastern  end  is  shal- 
low, and  can  not  be  used.  The  harbor  is  surrounded  by  high  land, 
with  two  valleys  opening  into  the  head  of  it.  The  position  of  Observ- 
atory Point  is  said  to  be  latitude  53°  23'  06"  N,  longitude  167°  30 ' 
34"  W. 

About  7  miles  inland  from  the  southwestern  end  of  Unalaska  Island 
there  is  a  conical  peak  about  2,000  feet  high,  which  forms  an  important 
landmark,  as  the  other  land  in  the  vicinity  is  comparatively  low.  % 

SOUTH    COAST    OF   UNALASKA    ISLAND. 

The  southeastern  coast  of  Unalaska  Island  from  Udagak  Strait  to 
Umnak  Pa?s,  a  distance  of  about  60  miles,  is  indented  by  many  bays. 
There  are  no  directions  for  this  coast  available.  Kuliliak  Bay  (chart 
9196)  is  about  30  miles  east-northeastward  of  Umnak  Pass;  it  is  said 
to  be  about  500  yards  wide  at  the  entrance,  and  1 Yi  miles  long  in  a 
northeasterly  direction,  with  depths  of  4  to  9  fathoms;  there  is  no 
information  about  this  bay  except  that  contained  in  the  published 
plan. 

It  is  reported  that  the  southern  shore  of  Unalaska  Island  extends 
some  miles  farther  south  than  charted. 


ALEUTIAN    ISLANDS.  215 

UMNAK  PASS 

separates  Unalaska  Island  from  Umnak  Island ;  vessels  have  used  it, 
navigating  slowly  and  cautiously,  and  using  the  lead  constantly.  It 
can  not  be  recommended  as  a  safe  passage.  The  Coast  Guard  cutter 
Manning  reports  passing  through  in  1903,  as  follows:  Give  Samalga 
Island  a  good  clearance;  the  southwest  coast  of  Umnak  Island  has 
numerous  outlying  reefs,  and  care  should  be  taken  when  approaching. 
Stand  along  the  south  side  of  Umnak  Island  for  the  Vsevidof  Islands, 
and  after  rounding  these  islands,  a  course  61°  true  (NE  mag.)  for 
Tulik  Volcano  will  bring  the  Pillars  on  the  port  bow. 

Later  the  Manning  passed  through  Umnak  Pass  during  bad  weather 
and  saw  no  breaks  except  those  charted.  Rounding  Polivnoi  Rock 
at  a  distance  of  1  mile,  she  hauled  straight  up  for  Ship  Rock,  carrying 
18  to  30  fathoms  of  water.  When  within  J^  mile  of  Ship  Rock  she 
hauled  to  pass  Y^  mile  off,  and  stood  through. 

The  Pillars  are  two  rocks,  170  and  125  feet  high,  with  a  small  de- 
tached rock  about  100  yards  northward.  From  the  Pillars  haul  for 
Kettle  Cape,  and  then  proceed  slowly  and  cautiously  through  the 
middle  of  Umnak  Pass.  Care  should  be  taken  to  avoid  the  3-fathom 
shoal  about  2J/£  miles  southeast  of  Kettle  Cape.  Avoid  also  the 
sunken  rock  which  lies  about  halfway  between  the  above  shoal  and 
Kettle  Cape.  The  recommended  track  passes  between  these  shoals, 
in  a  depth  of  10  fathoms. 

After  passing  Kettle  Cape  avoid  the  kelp  patch  %  mile  off  the  west- 
ern side  of  the  pass,  between  the  cape  and  Ship  Rock,  which  is  about 
300  feet  high,  and  lies  near  Umnak  Island  on  the  western  side  of  the 
northeast  entrance  of  the  pass.  From  Ship  Rock  a  course  may  be 
laid  for  Chernofski  Harbor. 

The  chart  shows  two  islets  and  a  rock  southwestward  of  the  western 
end  of  Unalaska  Island,  on  the  line  of  the  point.  The  rock  is  re- 
ported as  sunken,  and  at  a  distance  of  4)^  miles  from  the  point;  it  is 
on  the  southeastern  side  of  the  recommended  track. 

BOGOSLOF  ISLAND 

lies  in  Bering  Sea  about  22  miles  northward  of  Umnak  Island;  it  is 
reported  as  less  than  1  mile  in  extent  and  400  to  600  feet  high.  In 
1914  there  were  three  peaks;  the  southern  one,  called  Castle  Peak  or 
Castle  Island,  was  the  highest,  and  was  sharp  in  outline;  the  middle 
one,  called  Perry  or  McCulloch  Peak,  was  also  sharp;  and  the  northern 
one,  called  Fire  Peak  or  Fire  Island,  was  flat  or  rounded  in  outline,  and 
the  lowest  of  the  three.  The  three  peaks  are  reported  to  be  connected 
by  low  beaches  of  volcanic  ashes  and  cinders.  Records  state  that 
Castle  Peak  was  first  thrown  up  above  the  sea  by  a  volcanic  eruption 
in  the  year  1796;  Fire  Peak  was  thrown  up  in  1883,  and  Perry  Peak 
in  1906;  the  three  were  found  connected  in  a  single  island  in  1907. 

The  locality  should  be  navigated  with  caution,  and  future  changes 
may  be  inferred.  It  is  not  known  whether  there  are  dangers  in  the 
vicinity;  it  has  been  reported  that  there  is  no  bottom  at  15  fathoms 
at  distances  of  J^  to  J^  mile  on  the  northern,  western,  and  southern 
sides;  but  it  has  also  been  reported  that  there  are  scattered  breakers 
on  all  sides  except  the  west.  Discolored  water  is  often  seen  in  the 
^,  which  does  not  indicate  shoals.  It  is  reported  that  the 


216  OBOGOSLOF   ISLAND. 

island  was  in  violent  eruption  in  1910.  The  island  forms  a  useful 
landfall  on  a  course  westward  from  Cape  Cheerful,  but  it  has  been 
reported  to  lie  5  miles  farther  west  than  charted;  the  report  would 
place  it  in  longitude  167°  58'  W. 

A  current  is  often  reported  setting  eastward  in  this  vicinity,  which 
is  variously  reported  to  set  toward  Cape  Cheerful  and  toward  Umnak 
Pass,  with  a  strength  of  0.1  to  0.4  knot.  It  is  inferred  that  with  a 
barometric  depression  near  Unimak  Pass  it  sets  toward  Cape  Cheer- 
ful, but  with  a  depression  in  the  Pacific  Ocean  southward  of  Unalaska 
Island  it  sets  toward  Umnak  Pass.  Vessels  coming  from  westward 
often  make  Cape  Makushin  ahead  instead  of  to  starboard. 

UMNAK  ISLAND 

is,  next  to  Unalaska,  the  largest  island  in  the  archipelago;  it  is  about 
70  miles  by  16  miles  in  extreme  length  and  breadth.  The  volcano  of 
Mount  Vsevidof,  7,236  feet  high,  is  the  summit  of  the  island.  It  is  a 
cone-shaped,  snow-covered  mountain  sloping  to  the  sea  from  north 
around  to  southwest.  It  is  situated  southwestward  of  the  center  of 
the  island,  near  the  western  shore,  with  no  other  mountains  south- 
westward  from  it. 

It  is  reported  that  the  entire  north  coast  of  Umnak  Island  should 
be  approached  with  caution,  and,  in  particular,  that  there  is  a  rock, 
surrounded  by  22  fathoms  of  water,  off  Cape  Tanak,  at  the  northern- 
most point.  Vessels  should  pass  a  mile  or  more  off  Cape  Idak  and 
should  keep  outside  the  100-fathom  curve  while  rounding  Cape  Tanak. 

Inanudak  Bay  lies  on  the  northwest  coast  of  the  island;  it  has  also 
been  called  McAdoo  Bay.  Anchorage  is  reported  in  the  northern 
part  of  the  bay,  in  13  fathoms,  inside  the  northern  entrance  point. 

Nikolski  Anchorage,  or  Umnak  Bay,  is  about  14  miles  southward 
of  Mount  Vsevidof.  Ananiuliak  Island,  5  miles  northward  of  Nikolski 
and  about  1  %  miles  offshore,  is  about  200  feet  high,  kite  shaped,  and 
about  1%  miles  long  in  a  north-northeasterly  direction,  tapering  to 
the  southwest.  The  area  between  this  island  and  the  main  shore  is 
reported  to  be  foul.  Adugak  Island,  about  12  miles  west-southwest- 
ward  of  Nikolski  and  about  5  miles  offshore,  is  about  100  feet  high. 

High  Hill  is  3  miles  northward  of  Nikolski  and  shows  flat  topped 
from  seaward;  off  the  point  southward  of  it  there  is  a  spit  with  kelp 
and  4  fathoms  at  the  edge  of  the  kelp. 

A  reef,  shoal  enough  to  break,  is  reported  to  exist  about  5  miles 
292°  true  (W  ^  N  mag.)  from  the  village.  The  entire  area  southwest- 
ward  of  this  reef,  and  between  Umnak  and  Adugak  Islands,  is  re- 
ported to  be  foul.  Vessels  should  not  attempt  to  enter  this  area, 
nor  should  they  pass  anywhere  inside  a  line  between  the  north  ends 
of  Adugak  and  Ananiuliak  Islands,  except  close  to  the  latter.  There 
are  dangerous  tide  races  and  currents  off  the  entrance  to  Nikolski. 

The  best  anchorage  is  in  12  fathoms  on  the  port  hand  going  in,  off 
Kelp  Point,  about  4  miles  150°  true  (SE  >g  E  mag.)  from  the  south- 
western extremity  of  Ananiuliak  Island.  The  anchorage,  however, 
is  not  very  good  and  with  winds  from  west-southwest  to  northwest 
is  not  tenable.  A  nearer  anchorage  for  boating  purposes  can  be  had 
in  14  fathoms  off  the  southern  point  of  the  entrance  to  the  small  inner 
boat  harbor. 


UMNAK    ISLAND.  217 

Very  small  schooners  and  boats  can  enter  the  boat  harbor  through 
a  passage  with  4  fathoms  of  water,  between  the  reefs  off  the  village 
showing  well  above  water  and  the  right-hand  point  of  land  going  in. 
There  is  a  sunken  rock  with  kelp  on  it  in  the  channel.  Going;  in,  a 
course  with  the  church  open  from  a  yellow-roofed  house  and  midway 
between  the  house  and  the  right  point  of  the  reef  will  lead  clear  of 
the  rock.  The  boat  landing  is  on  a  shingle  beach  in  front  of  the  vil- 
lage, where  the  surf  seldom  breaks  except  in  very  heavy  weather. 

The  point  about  4  miles  west-southwestward  of  Nikolski  village 
has  many  rocks  off  it  above  and  below  water,  extending  well  out 
toward  Adugak  Island. 

Samalga  Island  lies  off  the  southeastern  point  of  Umnak  Island; 
the  passage  between  it  and  Cape  Sagak  is  reported  dangerous.  The, 
island  is  low  and  sandy,  and  extends  in  a  northeast  and  southwest 
direction.  There  is  a  fox  farm  on  it.  All  navigators  recommend 
giving  it  a  good  berth,  on  account  of  outlying  reefs  on  all  sides.  There 
is  a  breaker  reported  westward  of  Cape  Sagak  and  about  on  line 
between  the  western  points  of  Samalga  and  Adugak  Islands ;  another 
reef  is  charted  off  the  southwest  point  of  Samalga  Island,  on  the  axis 
of  the  island. 

Driftwood  Bay  is  on  the  southeast  coast  of  Umnak  Island  opposite 
Nikolski  village ;  vessels  have  anchored  here,  but  no  detailed  informa- 
tion is  available. 

The  southeast  coast  of  Umnak  Island  should  be  navigated  with 
great  caution;  reports  state  that  it  is  foul  and  dangerous,  but  accurate 
information  is  not  available. 

ISLANDS  OF  FOUR  MOUNTAINS 

are  a  group  of  five  volcanic  islands  lying  southwestward  of  Umnak 
Island.  Their  names  are  Chuginadak,  Herbert,  Carlisle,  Kagamil, 
and  Uliaga.  The  group  is  about  20  by  30  miles  in  extent  and  is 
separated  from  Umnak  Island  by  a  passage  about  17  miles  wide. 

The  islands  are  all  high  and  steep,  and  partly  snow  covered.  The 
highest  summit  is  Mount  Cleveland,  8,150  feet  high,  on  the  western 
end  of  Chuginadak  Island.  The  passages  between  the  various 
islands  all  appear  to  be  safe.  There  are  no  harbors,  so  that  it  is  very 
difficult  to  find  anchorages  or  landing  places. 

A  reef  which  breaks  heavily  extends  1  ^  miles  southeastward  from 
Concord  Point,  the  southeast  point  of  Chuginadak  Island.  Corwin 
Rock  is  charted  about  1J^  miles  northeastward  of  the  northeastern 
point  of  the  same  island.  There  are  strong  tidal  currents  through  the 
group;  a  current  of  5  knots  running  about  southwest  is  reported  off 
Concord  Point. 

There  is  no  other  information  about  these  islands  except  that  given 
by  the  chart.  This  is  the  result  of  a  reconnaissance  in  1894,  and  the 
general  features  will  no  doubt  be  found  reliable.  These  islands  are 
uninhabited  and  are  not  often  visited.  There  is  an  old  report  that  a 
sounding  of  13  fathoms  has  been  made  50  miles  southward  of  the  Four 
Mountains;  it  is  said  that  there  was  once  an  island  there.  • 


218  ALEUTIAN    ISLANDS. 

YUNASKA,  AMUKTA,  AND  CHAGULAK  ISLANDS 

form  a  group  westward  of  the  Islands  of  Four  Mountains;  they  are 
2,800  to  4,300  feet  high.  Their  positions  are  somewhat  doubtful, 
and  bearings  among  them  do  not  agree.  Reports  have  been  received 
that  Yunaska  Island  is  charted  4  to  5  miles  northward  and  westward 
of  its  true  position.  There  is  a  high  rock  charted  at  the  east  point 
of  Chagulak  Island,  a  high  rock  between  it  and  Amukta  Island,  and 
a  high  rock  1  mile  southeastward  of  Amukta  Island.  There  is  no 
other  information  about  these  islands. 

Amukta  Pass  is  a  broad  clear  passage,  and  is  the  first  opening  west 
of  Unalga  Pass  which  can  be  recommended  to  a  stranger.  It  is  often 
called  the  172-degree  pass.  It  is  about  35  miles  wide  between 
Amukta  and  Seguam  Islands;  and  no  offshore  dangers  have  been 
reported  in  it.  The  landfalls  on  both  sides  are  good,  but  should  be 
given  a  reasonably  wide  berth,  as  there  are  no  soundings  near  their 
shores.  Both  Amukta  and  Seguam  Islands  may  be  seen  across  the 
full  width  of  the  pass  in  fair  weather.  Vessels  have  reported  high 
breaking  seas  in  Seguam  Pass;  it  is  probable  that  the  current  always 
runs  northward  through  the  pass,  and  in  this  case  bad  northerly 
weather  would  always  cause  this  condition.  Traders  report  that 
there  is  always  a  fair  current  from  the  Islands  of  Four  Mountains  to 
Cape  Cheerful.  In  1914  a  24-foot  sea  almost  breaking  was  met  east- 
ward of  Seguam  Island,  with  northerly  weather. 

SEGUAM  ISLAND, 

2,098  feet  high,  shows  two  slight  saddles  in  the  profile  from  north  and 
south.  It  slopes  to  the  sea  on  the  south  and  east  sides,  but  has  high 
cliffs  on  the  northeast  side.  The  middle  peak  is  said  to  smoke  at 
times.  It  is  reported  that  rocks  and  discolored  water  extend  for  1  J/£ 
miles  off  the  east  and  west  points. 

Seguam  Pass  lies  between  Seguam  and  Amlia  Islands.  It  has  been 
regarded  with  suspicion,  and  a  sailing  vessel  has  been  lost  on  Agligadak 
Reefs,  on  the  southwest  side.  The  pass  is  about  12  miles  wide,  and 
it  is  reported  that  there  are  strong  currents,  rips,  and  overfalls. 
There  are  no  reports  of  offshore  dangers. 

ANDREANOF  ISLANDS. 

Amlia  Island  is  about  40  miles  long  and  very  narrow;  there  is  a 
chain  of  sharp  peaks  throughout  its  length,  no  one  of  which  is  especially 
distinctive.  Its  shores  should  be  given  a  good  berth,  particularly  near 
the  eastern  end.  The  eastern  point  is  a  good  landmark  in  fair 
weather.  It  is  visible  at  a  considerable  distance,  running  out  with  a 
straight  profile  at  a  moderate  elevation,  and  dropping  to  the  sea  in  a 
precipice.  It  must  be  given  a  berth  of  several  miles  on  account  of 
rocks  which  are  shown  on  the  chart  eastward  and  southward  of  it. 

Sviechnikof  Harbor  (chart  9196)  is  on  the  south  shore  of  Amlia 
Island  about  15  miles  from  the  eastern  point.  The  entrance  is  difficult 
to  make  out,  and  should  be  attempted  only  in  clear  weather.  Sagigik 
Islet  about  9  miles  eastward,  and  the  pyramid  peak  to  the  right  of 
the  entrance,  may  be  recognized.  The  harbor  is  said  to  extend  about 
2  miles  in  a  north-northwest  direction  with  a  width  of  J/£  mile,  and  is 


AMLIA    ISLAND.  219 

sheltered  from  the  sea  by  a  narrow  islet  off  the  eastern  entrance  point. 
It  is  said  to  be  an  excellent  harbor  with  good  holding  ground  and 
protected  from  all  winds.  To  enter  hold  the  port  side  of  the  entrance 
until  past  the  long  island  and  the  rocks  and  reefs  which  will  be  seen 
on  the  starboard  side,  then  stand  up  the  middle  of  the  bay  and  anchor 
in  12  fathoms,  mud  bottom,  with  the  waterfall  open.  Soundings 
have  been  taken  in  the  bay  which  indicate  that  there  are  no  dangers 
except  the  reef  at  the  east  entrance  point. 

Amlia  Pass  is  a  strait  1  to  1  ^  miles  wide  between  Amlia  and  Atka 
Islands,  and  has  been  used  by  vessels.  A  current  of  8  knots  has 
been  observed  and  there  are  strong  tide  rips  across  it  which  give  it 
a  very  dangerous  appearance.  A  sounding  of  20  fathoms  was 
obtained  in  these  rips.  There  is  an  extensive  ledge  showing  above 
water  off  the  Atka  Island  shore.  It  is  reported  that  only  full-pow- 
ered steam  vessels  should  attempt  to  pass  through,  and  that  the  Amlia 
Island  shore  should  be  held.  One  report  says  "  favor  the  Amlia 
Island  shore  until  up  with  the^reef,  and  then  steer  about  169°  true 
(SSE  mag.)  in  mid-channel." 

Atka  Island  is  the  largest  of  the  Andreanof  Islands;  it  is  about  20 
by  50  miles  in  extent  and  contains  the  last  settlement  westward  in 
the  Aleutian  Islands,  except  Attu.  The  northeastern  portion  con- 
tains the  active  volcano  of  Korovin,  4,852  feet  high,  with  slopes  of 
the  mountain  breaking  off  in  a  rocky  escarpment  at  the  northern 
extremity  of  the  island.  The  southwest  portion  of  the  island  from 
Nazan  and  Korovin  bays  is  lower  and  runs  off  to  the  narrow  low 
southwest  extremity. 

Nazan  Bay  (chart  9196)  lies  on  the  eastern  coast,  facing  Amlia 
Island ;  the  west  point  of  Amlia  is  a  conspicuous  landmark  for  making 
the  bay.  Cape  Kudugnak  is  the  northern  point  of  the  bay  and  con- 
sists of  a  rounded  hillock.  From  here  Uyak  Island,  150  feet  high, 
at  the  southern  entrance  to  the  harbor  may  be  seen;  or  in  case  of 
fog  the  island  may  be  picked  up  before  the  cape  is  lost.  In  foggy 
weather  the  harbor  will  often  be  found  clear  when  there  is  fog  at  the 
cape.  The  northern  part  of  the  harbor  is  large  and  is  unprotected 
from  the  east;  it  is  about  1^  miles  across,  with  depths  of  15  to  20 
fathoms. 

The  inner  harbor  lies  in  front  of  the  village,  and  is  small  and  pro- 
tected, with  depths  of  7  to  10  fathoms.  Conical  Rocks  form  a  single 
islet  80  feet  high  and  lie  northward  of  the  inner  harbor,  between  it 
and  the  northern  harbor.  There  are  two  other  islets  between  Conical 
Rocks  and  the  shore,  and  foul  ground  around  and  between  the  three. 

Bolshoi  Island  is  a  large  island  400  feet  high,  forming  the  eastern 
side  of  the  inner  harbor,  and  lying  near  the  shore  in  the  southern  side 
of  Nazan  Bay.  There  is  a  narrow  passage  120  yards  wide  between 
it  and  the  south  shore.  The  northeastern  and  southeastern  sides 
of  the  island  are  foul  for  some  distance  from  its  shores,  and  there  are 
several  islets  adjacent  to  its  eastern  and  southern  shores.  Foul 
ground  is  reported  between  it  and  Uyak  Island. 

The  settlement  consists  of  Indians  and  half-breeds ;  there  is  a 
small  store,  and  a  Government  school  conducted  bv  a  white  teacher. 
There  are  no  mail  facilities;  the  only  communication  with  the  out- 
side is  by  small  trading  schooners  to  Unalaska. 

To  enter  Nazan  Bay,  round  Cape  Kudugnak,  1  mile  distant,  and 
steer  271°  true  (W  by  S  mag.);  Uyak  Island  is  right  ahead  on  this 


220  ALEUTIAN    ISLANDS. 

course,  and  the  course  must  be  altered  to  pass  it  J4  mile  distant  to 
port.  Then  steer  260°  true  (WSW  mag.)  about  1  mile,  with  the 
Conical  Rocks  right  ahead.  This  course  must  be  altered  to  pass 
Conical  Rocks  about  400  yards  to  starboard  and  about  midway 
between  them  and  Bolshoi  Island.  There  are  sunken  rocks  on  botn 
sides  of  the  passage,  generally  marked  by  kelp.  Then  steer  about 
214°  true  (SSW  mag.)  for  about  y^  mile,  to  the  anchorage  off  the 
village.  Anchor  in  10  fathoms,  mud  bottom,  midway  between  the 
bluff  on  the  village  point  and  the  rocky  ledge  at  the  point  of  Bolshoi 
Island;  the  anchorage  is  about  400  yards  in  extent.  A  vessel  not 
desiring  to  come  to  the  inner  harbor  may  find  anchorage  anywhere 
northward  of  Conical  Rocks.  Fresh  water  can  be  obtained  from  a 
stream  south  of  the  village. 

Korovin  Bay  (chart  9196),  on  the  western  side  of  Atka  Island, 
opposite  Nazan  Bay,  is  reported  to  be  about  7  miles  by  4  miles  in 
extent.  It  is  open  westward  and  has  not  been  considered  a  good 
anchorage.  There  are  two  shallow  harbors,  or  lagoons,  in  the  north- 
ern part  with  2  fathoms  or  less  in  them.  At  the  head  of  the  bay 
there  are  reported  to  be  reefs  well  offshore.  On  the  south  shore  are 
Sand  Bay,  called  also  Martin  Harbor,  and  Sarana  Bay.  Both  of 
these  have  been  recommended,  but  there  is  no  detailed  information 
about  them. 

It  is  reported  that  the  bearing  between  Koniuji  and  Kasatochi 
Islands  is  correct  as  shown  by  the  chart. 

Great  Sitkin  Island  is  shown  on  the  chart  as  a  volcanic  peak  5,033 
feet  high,  with  its  northern  point  marked  by  a  rounded  hillock  800 
feet  high.  Off  the  eastern  coast  is  Ulak  Island,  about  500  feet  high. 
A  vessel  has  anchored  in  the  northeast  bight  of  Great  Sitkin,  with 
offshore  winds;  10  fathoms  sand  bottom  was  found  2  miles  from  the 
beach,  with  a  gradual  slope  from  the  shore.  A  kelp  patch  extends 
1  mile  eastward,  showing  a  depth  of  3  to  7  fathoms. 

There  is  no  information  about  any  of  the  other  islands  or  passages 
between  Atka  and  Adak  Islands  except  the  chart,  which  is  said  to 
be  approximately  correct. 

ADAK  ISLAND 

is  large  and  mountainous;  some  of  the  peaks  are  always  snow  cov- 
ered. The  Bay  of  Islands  (chart  9196)  lies  on  the  northwestern 
shore,  opening  on  Adak  Strait.  It  has  not  been  recommended  as 
a  harbor,  as  it  is  said  to  be  open  to  westerly  gales.  Southward  of 
the  bay  there  is  a  landlocked  basin  about  2  miles  long  and  1  mile 
wide,  which  is  entered  from  the  head  of  the  bay  by  a  passage  25 
yards  wide.  There  is  no  other  information  to  add  to  that  shown 
on  the  chart. 

The  Bay  of  Waterfalls  (chart  9196)  is  at  the  southwestern  point 
of  Adak  Island,  and  opens  on  the  Pacific  Ocean.  It  is  about  4  miles 
wide  at  the  entrance,  and  extends  about  8  miles  inland  in  a  northerly 
direction.  The  two  entrance  points  are  Cape  Yakak  and  Turret 
Point,  which  form  important  landmarks  for  vessels  passing  south- 
ward of  the  islands.  Cape  Yakak  is  a  long  fiat  tableland,  well  defined 
and  easily  distinguished,  as  it  has  no  high  peaks  on  it  and  is  the  only 
point  of  that  nature  on  the  western  Aleutian  Islands;  in  clear  weather 


ADAK    ISLAND.  221 

the  high  peaks  of  Kanaka  Island  loom  up  in  the  distance  above  it. 
Three  miles  eastward  pi  Turret  Point  there  is  another  bay  called 
False  Bay,  which  is  distinguished  from  Bay  of  Waterfalls  by  two 
ragged  islands  on  the  eastern  side  which  do  not  resemble  Turret 
Point  at  all.  Turret  Point  and  Cape  Yakak  may  be  approached 
within  less  than  2  miles,  but  caution  must  be  used,  as  there  is  foul 
ground  closer  in. 

Chapel  Roads  is  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  Bay  of  Waterfalls  and 
offers  convenient  and  sheltered  anchorage  in  20  fathoms,  rock  and 
sand  bottom.  Chapel  Cove  is  at  the  head  of  Chapel  Roads;  the 
entrance  is  narrow,  and  almost  in  the  middle  of  it  has  a  pinnacle  rock 
not  marked,  with  2^  fathoms  over  it.  Inside  the  cove  there  is  a 
ledge  of  rocks  above  water  on  the  southwestern  side,  called  Pulpit 
Rocks.  There  is  swinging  room  for  a  200-foot  vessel  with  45  fathoms 
of  chain,  if  she  anchors  in  the  middle.  There  is  12  fathoms  fairly 
soft  bottom  in  this  position. 

Cataract  Bight  is  on  the  eastern  shore  of  the  Bay  of  Waterfalls 
near  the  head;  it  is  protected  from  the  swell  which  runs  in  from  the 
sea,  but  there  is  scant  swinging  room  if  a  vessel  swings  toward  the 
beach.  In  case  of  northerly  weather  a  vessel  should  anchor  at  the 
head  of  the  bay,  selecting  anchorage  as  desired,  as  there  are  no  dan- 
gers. With  southerly  winds  a  perceptible  swell  reaches  here  from 
the  sea.  Fresh  water  may  be  obtained  at  any  one  of  many  streams 
in  the  bay.  There  is  no  settlement  here. 

No  detailed  directions  are  required  for  entering  the  bay.  Except 
for  the  dangers  already  mentioned,  the  entire  area  is  believed  to  be 
clear.  From  a  position  about  midway  between  Turret  Point  and 
Cape  Yakak  a  4°  true  (N  %  W  mag.)  course  heading  midway  between 
Middle  Point  and  Middle  Rock  leads  through  a  least  depth  of  56 
fathoms.  From  abreast  Middle  Rock  follow  a  mid-channel  course 
to  the  anchorage  at  the  head  of  the  bay. 

Adak  Strait  separates  Adak  and  Kanaga  Islands;  a  vessel  reports 
passing  through  it,  keeping  1J4  miles  off  the  points  of  Adak  Island. 
There  was  a  2-knot  current  setting  northward,  and  hsavy  tide  rips 
and  swirls  were  encountered  at  the  north  entrance.  Soundings  from 
36  fathoms  to  no  bottom  at  90  fathoms  were  obtained. 

Kanaga  Island  is  reported  to  have  a  high  smoking  volcano  on  its 
northern  end;  the  southwestern  end  has  an  elevation  of  1,392  feet. 

Tanaga  Island  is  westward  of  Kanaga  Island,  and  has  a  volcano 
6,975  feet  high  on  its  northwest  point.  Tanaga  Bay,  called  also 
Glory  of  Russia  Bay,  lies  midway  of  the  west  coast.  It  is  said  to 
afford  anchorage  in  the  northern  part  near  the  head,  abreast  of  two 
streams,  over  a  bottom  of  fine  black  sand. 

Tanaga  Pass,  westward  of  Tanaga  Island,  is  reported  clear  by 
several  vessels  which  have  used  it. 

Gareloi  Island  is  an  active  volcano  which  is  reported  to  be  a  good 
landmark;  it  is  5,334  feet  high  and  snow  covered.  There  is  a  group 
of  islands  southward  of  it,  for  which  no  information  is  available 
except  the  chart.  Amatignak  Island,  1,921  feet  high,  is  the  south- 
ernmost of  the  group,  and  is  an  important  landmark  for  vessels  pass- 
ing southward  of  the  islands. 


222  ALEUTIAN    ISLANDS. 

RAT  ISLANDS. 

Semisopochnoi  Island,  called  also  Island  of  the  Seven  Mountains, 
is  shown  on  the  chart  as  3,112  feet  high;  it  is  important  on  account 
of  Petrel  Bank,  which  extends  about  30  miles  north-northeastward 
from  it,  and  is  about  18  miles  across.  The  least  known  depth  on  this 
bank  is  29  fathoms.  It  is  very  useful  in  navigating  this  region  in 
foggy  weather,  when  Semisopochnoi  Island  is  obscured. 

Amchitka  Island  is  long  and  low.  The  northwest  end  is  shown  on 
the  chart  as  1,008  feet  high.  The  eastern  extremity  forms  a  penin- 
sula, from  the  end  of  which  a  reef  extends  for  2  miles;  a  hillock 
marks  the  extremity  of  this  point.  The  offshore  navigator  can  not 
expect  to  see  Amchitka  at  all  as  there  are  no  commanding  elevations. 

Constantino  Harbor  (chart  9196),  near  the  easternmost  point  of 
Amchitka  Island,  on  the  northern  side,  is  said  to  be  the  only  harbor 
on  the  island.  It  is  open  northeastward,  and  is  said  to  afford  anchor- 
age in  depths  of  8  to  12  fathoms.  The  chart  shows  the  details,  and 
there  is  no  information  except  that  shown. 

Kirilof  Bay  is  said  to  be  only  a  small  boat  harbor  inside  the  reef; 
vessels  should  not  attempt  to  find  a  sheltered  anchorage  here. 

little  Sitkin,  Chugul  (also  called  Iron  Island),  Davidof,  and 
Khwostof  Islands  form  a  group  of  four;  their  positions  have  been 
disputed  from  time  to  time.  The  two  largest  are  high  volcanic  cones 
with  smooth  slopes.  Little  Sitkin  shows  a  long  flat  point  at  the 
northern  side. 

It  is  reported  that  there  is  a  small  island  about  midway  between 
Little  Sitkin  and  Rat  Island.  It  is  also  reported  that  there  is  a  reef 
all  the  way  from  Rat  Island  to  the  south  end  of  Kiska  Island,  and 
that  bottom  can  be  seen  all  the  way  across;  vessels  have  therefore 
regarded  that  passage  with  suspicion.  There  is  no  other  information 
about  Rat  Island  except  the  chart. 

KISKA  ISLAND. 

The  general  trend  of  the  island  is  north-northeast  and  south- 
southwest,  with  a  ridge  of  mountains  as  a  backbone,  having  elevations 
of  4,050  feet  at  the  northern  end,  and  1,200  to  1,500  feet  in  the  south- 
ern part.  The  shores  are  hilly  and  rocky. 

The  northeast  coast,  from  Northeast  Cape  to  Kiska  Harbor,  is  bold 
with  numerous  points  and  bays,  with  outlying  rocks  to  a  maximum 
distance  of  about  1 J^  miles. 

McArthur  Reef,  a  rocky  patch  about  l/2  by  J£  mile  in  extent,  and 
nearly  awash  at  low  water,  lies  about  midway  of,  and  on  a  line 
between,  the  peak  on  Chugul  Island  and  the  peak  on  the  north  end 
of  Kiska. 

Tanadak  Island  is  flat-topped,  resembling  a  mesa  when  seen  from  a 
distance. 

Tanadak  Pass,  between  Little  Kiska  and  Tanadak  Islands,  should 
be  used  with  caution. 

South  Pass,  between  Kiska  and  Little  Kiska  Islands,  is  foul  and 
should  not  be  used. 

Kiska  Harbor  is  closed  to  foreign  shipping. 


ALEUTIAN   ISLANDS.  223 

BULDIR  ISLAND 

is  an  important  landmark.  Its  position  has  often  been  disputed,  but 
is  considered  to  be  approximately  correct  as  now  charted.  The 
island  is  said  to  be  1,145  feet  high.  Vessels  have  passed  along  the 
north  shore,  but  the  south  shore  has  been  regarded  as  dangerous. 
Vessels  have  found  temporary  anchorage  near  the  western  point  in 
10  to  15  fathoms  about  1  mile  offshore. 

The  north  anchorage  is  about  halfway  between  the  two  reefs  shown 
on  the  chart,  one  off  the  north  shore  and  the  other  off  the  northwest 
point.  In  approaching  the  anchorage  avoid  the  reef  on  the  north 
shore  and  stand  in  on  a  163°  true  (SSE  mag.)  course  nearly  parallel 
to  the  reefs  off  the  northwest  point.  This  reef  consists  of  a  low, 
round  knuckle  directly  off  the  point  and  two  fairly  high  islands. 
Foul  ground  exists  close  around  the  islands.  The  north  reef  at  low 
water  shows  two  rocks  close  inshore,  and  more  foul  ground  is  supposed 
to  exist.  It  is  stated  that  almost  the  only  possible  boat  landing  on 
the  island  is  at  this  anchorage. " 

The  southwest  anchorage  is  in  10  fathoms,  with  the  sea-lion  rookery 
bearing  41°  true  (NE  byl^  mag.),  distant  1  mile. 

The  passage  between  Kiska  and  Buldir  Islands  is  about  50  miles 
wide ;  but  can  not  be  considered  safe  until  it  is  more  carefully  explored. 
It  is  chiefly  noted  on  account  of  a  line  of  tide  rips,  breakers,  and 
overfalls  which  are  often  seen  extending  well  across  between  the  two 
islands.  The  current  amounts  to  a  knot  or  more  at  times.  The  rips 
occur  on  banks  of  less  than  100  fathoms  surrounded  by  deeper  water, 
and  until  the  region  is  well  explored,  a  vessel  must  proceed  through 
them  with  caution,  and  should  take  soundings  at  all  times. 

There  may  be  a  dangerous  shoal  near  the  15-fathom  sounding 
charted  10  miles  from  Buldir  on  a  line  toward  the  middle  of  Kiska; 
breakers  have  been  reported  here.  There  are  indications  that  there 
may  be  a  dangerous  shoal  halfway  between  Buldir  and  the  south  end 
of  Kiska;  and  there  have  been  reports  to  that  effect.  There  is  no 
information  to  verify  the  two  reefs  marked  UP.  D.  sunken  rocks"  10 
miles  southward  and  6  miles  southeastward  of  Buldir,  and  they  may 
be  anywhere  in  a  wide  region  round  about.  One  report  places  them 
about"  14  miles  sputhwestward  of  the  island. 

Tahoma  Reef  is  a  reef  of  sunken  rocks  about  2  miles  in  extent, 
marked  by  heavy  kelp  fields,  lying  189°  true  (S  J^  W  mag.),  distant 
31  miles  from  the  peak  of  Buldir  Island.  Breakers  were  seen  in  about 
2  fathoms,  but  there  are  no  rocks  above  water.  There  are  other 
breakers  about  2  miles  108°  true  (E  by  S  mag.)  from  the  position 
located.  Depths  of  60  fathoms  were  found  6  miles  distant  southward 
and  westward,  with  a  regular  slope  from  the  reef  to  this  distance. 

Ingenstrem  Rocks  consist  of  a  number  of  small  black  pinnacles 
about  20  feet  high,  with  breakers  near  them.  The  water  shoals  to 
50  fathoms  within  3  miles  of  them,  and  there  is  moderately  shallow 
water  between  them  and  the  Semichi  Islands.  The  latest  information 
places  their  position  13  miles  121°  true  (SE  by  E  %  E  mag.)  from  the 
southeastern  end  of  the  Semichi  group. 

The  Semichi  Islands  are  a  group  of  three,  of  which  the  two  eastern 
ones  are  low  and  the  western  one  higher.  There  are  reefs  extending 
about  1%  miles  southeastward  and  northeastward  from  the  eastern 


224  ALEUTIAN    ISLANDS. 

point  of  the  group.  The  passages  between  the  islands  are  narrow 
and  appear  to  be  foul.  A  safe  track  was  found  2  miles  off  the  southern 
coast.  Temporary  anchorage  may  be  found  southward  of  the  eastern 
island. 

AGATTU  ISLAND 

has  high  mountains  upon  it,  while  the  extreme  western  point  is  low. 
There  are  reports  that  the  shap3  does  not  agree  with  the  chart.  It 
is  reported  that  the  northeast  and  southeast  points  are  in  range  on  a 
bearing  23°  true  (N  by  E  y%  E  mag.),  and  that  the  eastern  point  of 
the  Semichi  Islands  lies  on  the  same  range.  A  course  from  the 
Semichi  Islands  to  the  western  point  of  Agattu  indicates  that  this 
point  is  charted  about  4  miles  too  far  westward.  The  southern 
coast  of  Agattu  is  dangerous,  with  numerous  outlying  rocks  and 
breakers.  A  vessel  should  keep  at  least  3  miles  offshore. 

McDonald  Bay  is  an  open  anchorage  on  the  east  coast.  Approach- 
ing it  from  northward  bring  Northeast  Cape  to  bear  241°  true  (SW 
by  W  mag.)  distant  3  miles,  and  then  steer  213°  true  (SSW  ^  W 
mag.)  until  it  bears  abeam.  Then  steer  for  Monolith  Point  at  the 
north  point  of  the  cove  on  a  course  255°  true  (WSW  %  W  mag.), 
and  when  Cone  Peak  bears  325°  true  (NW  J^  N  mag.)  with  a  water- 
fall about  in  range,  round  to  and  anchor  in  15  fathoms,  sand  bottom, 
about  3/2  mile  offshore. 

ATTU  ISLAND 

is  the  westernmost  of  the  Aleutian  Islands,  and  the  last  of  the  islands 
belonging  to  the  United  States.  It  is  about  20  by  35  miles  in  extent 
and  is  indented  by  many  bays  and  long  inlets;  there  are  mountains 
3,000  feet  high  upon  it.  There  are  many  rocks  and  reefs  off  its 
shores,  and  a  vessel  should  exercise  extreme  caution  in  the  vicinity. 
It  is  reported  that  there  is  a  rock  about  15  feet  high,  connected  with 
the  land  by  a  line  of  breakers,  located  3  miles  125°  true  (SE  by  E  J^ 
E  mag.)  from  East  Cape,  and  that  the  cape  should  be  given  a  berth 
of  at  least  4  miles. 

The  chart  shows  several  deep  bays  on  the  south  coast  and  many  off- 
shore dangers,  but  there  is  no  other  information  about  them.  Sarana 
Bay  on  the  northeast  coast  and  Chichagof  Harbor  on  the  north  coast 
are  the  only  bays  for  which  there  is  available  information. 

Chichagof  Harbor  (chart  9196)  is  small,  but  offers  good  shelter  for  a 
vessel  of  less  than  14  feet  draft.  The  chart  is  said  to  be  correct  in  all 
essentials  for  navigation,  but  there  may  be  considerable  difficulty 
in  finding  the  bay  in  bad  weather.  A  vessel  should  therefore  proceed 
with  caution,  especially  in  bad  northerly  weather.  Strong  currents 
set  northeastward  and  southwestward  past  East  Cape,  which  are 
possibly  influenced  more  by  the  weather  than  by  the  tide. 

There  are  rocks  for  a  distance  of  about  1  mile  eastward  of  Cape 
Khlebnikof,  which  is  the  landfall  in  the  approach  from  East  Cape  or 
from  northeastward.  Cooper  Island  is  high  and  dome-shaped,  and 
Gibson  Island  is  lower  and  flat-topped.  Pisa  Tower  is  a  leaning 
conical  rock  at  the  east  entrance  point,  which  is  used  as  a  front  range 
mark.  An  outer  anchorage  is  reported  in  14  fathoms  with  Cooper 
Island  dome  bearirg  309°  true  (NW  by  W  mag.)  and  Pisa  Tower 
bearing  185°  true  (S  mag.). 


ALEUTIAN    ISLANDS.  225 

To  enter  the  inner  harbor,  steer  for  Pisa  Tower  on  a  bearing  which 
will  lead  clear  of  Gibson  Island,  and  when  passing  between  Pisa 
Tower  and  Middle  Rocks  avoid  opening  the  flagstaff  in  the  village 
clear  of  Ranze  Point,  bearing  about  233°  true  (SW  M  W  mag.). 

This  range  leads  over  the  2J^-fathom  spot  marked  by  kelp,  which 
lies  off  Middle  Rocks.  Then  stand  through  the  middle  of  the  passage 
between  Range  Point  and  Inner  Rocks,  and  round  to  about  275°  true 
(W  mag.),  heading  for  the  southernmost  of  five  jagged  heads  on  the 
shore  just  above  the  water  line ;  keep  both  leads  going,  and  when  the 
dome  of  Cooper  Island  shows  in  the  open,  round  slowly,  to  a  course 
about  224°  true  (SW  J^  S  mag.),  heading  about  halfway  between 
the  gulch  and  the  village.  Anchor  in  the  middle  of  the  harbor,  in  5 
fathoms,  sticky  bottom.  The  flagstaff  will  not  be  seen  until  well 
in  toward  Range  Point.  A  vessel  must  be  maneuvered  smartly, 
as  the  turns  are  sharp  and  there  is  little  room. 

There  is  an  Aleut  settlement  here,  with  a  small  store  kept  by  a 
white  trader;  some  blue  foxes  arevbred  on  the  neighboring  islands. 

Sarana  Bay  is  a  deep  indentation  on  the  northeast  shore  of  Attu 
Island  between  Cape  Khlebmkof  and  East  Cape.  The  Coast  Guard 
cutter  Tahoma,  anchored  in  the  cove  at  the  head  of  the  bay,  and  the 
available  information  is  furnished  on  a  sketch  by  that  vessel.  The 
sketch  shows  foul  ground  extending  about  1  mile  eastward  from 
Cape  Khlebnikof  and  off  the  western  shore  of  the  bay.  The  south 
shore  apparently  is  bold  from  the  head  of  the  bay  to  "Square  Point, " 
but  is  foul  eastward  of  the  point;  there  is  a  cascade  eastward  of 
Square  Point. 

The  Tahoma  entered  on  a  196°  true  (S  by  W  mag.)  course  for 
Square  Point  open  eastward  of  a  notch  in  the  mountain,  until 
close  to  Square  Point,  and  then  followed  the  south  shore  on  a 
269°  true  (W  ^  S  mag.)  course,  midway  between  an  islet  and  the 
south  shore,  and  anchored  in  9  fathoms,  soft  bottom,  close  to  the  head 
of  the  bay.  The  anchorage  is  exposed  from  about  north  to  east 
(magnetic). 

BERING  SEA. 

The  portions  of  Bering  Sea  here  treated  include  the  coast  and 
islands  of  Alaska  northward  of  the  Aleutian  Islands.  Excepting  a 
few  localities,  this  territory  has  not  been  surveyed,  and  the  charts  of 
it  are  only  compilations  from  various  sources,  with  corrections  made 
from  later  information  received;  the  charts  are  necessarily  imperfect 
and  must  not  be  followed  implicitly,  especially  when  in  the  vicinity 
of  the  coast.  Then,  too,  the  currents  are  much  influenced  by  the 
winds,  and  are  imperfectly  known  and  difficult  to  predict,  so  that 
positions  by  dead  reckoning  are  uncertain  and  safety  depends  upon 
constant  vigilance. 

Northward  and  eastward  of  the  100-fathom  line  the  waters  of 
Bering  Sea  shoal  gradually  to  the  coast.  There  are  no  dangers  in 
the  open  sea,  unless  the  Pribilof  Islands,  St.  Lawrence  Island,  St. 
Matthew  Island,  King  Island,  and  Diomede  Islands  be  considered  as 
such.  These,  being  volcanic  in  character  and  rocky,  are  generally 
bold-to,  and  in  approaching  them  in  thick  weather  the  lead  can  not 
be  depended  upon  at  all  times  to  keep  clear  of  them.  The  coast  of 
the  mainland  from  the  head  of  Bristol  Bay  to  St.  Michael,  including 
Nunivak  Island,  is  characterized  by  extensive  banks,  formed  by 
31056°— 16 15 


226  BERING    SEA. 

deposits  from  the  rivers,  which  extend  many  miles  from  shore,  in 
some  cases  out  of  sight  of  land.  Some  of  these  shoals  are  believed  to 
be  quite  steep-to  on  their  seaward  faces,  making  it  unsafe  to  shoal 
the  water  to  less  than  10  fathoms  when  in  their  vicinity. 

In  this  region,  where  fog  and  thick  weather  are  the  rule  during  the 
season  of  navigation,  safety,  when  near  the  coast,  depends  on  the 
use  of  the  lead,  which,  on  account  of  the  generally  regular  bottom, 
will  indicate  the  approach  to  danger.  In  general,  all  the  shores  of 
Bering  Sea  and  the  Arctic  Ocean  are  shallow,  and  when  coasting  it 
should  be  observed  as  a  rule  to  keep  the  lead  going  constantly,  and 
when  north  of  St.  Michael  never  to  shoal  the  water  to  less  than  5 
fathoms  unless  feeling  the  way  in  to  the  land.  Between  St.  Michael 
and  the  head  of  Bristol  Bay  the  water  should  not  be  shoaled  to  less 
than  10  fathoms  under  the  same  conditions. 

There  are  few  aids  to  navigation.  All  of  the  rocky  islands  and 
rocky  cliffs  of  the  mainland  are  freouented  by  thousands  of  birds, 
whose  numbers,  constant  cries,  and  flight  may  serve  to  indicate  the 
approach  to  shore  at  these  places  in  thick  weather. 

The  coast  of  Alaska  from  the  head  of  Bristol  Bay  to  Point  Barrow 
and  eastward  has  driftwood,  which  is  brought  down  from  the  interior 
by  the  rivers  and  carried  by  the  northerly  currents  of  the  sea.  Good 
water  can  always  be  found  in  the  vicinity  of  high  land.  Salmon  are 
plentiful  during  the  open  season  in  aU  the  streams  as  far  north  as 
Kotzebue  Sound,  and  cod  are  plentiful  in  the  vicinity  of  the  passes 
and  in  Bristol  Bay. 

Ice. — Except  in  bays  and  sheltered  places,  the  ice  of  Bering  Sea  is 
detached  fields,  floes,  and  cakes,  which  are  continually  kept  in  motion, 
breaking  up,  piling,  and  telescoping  by  the  action  of  variable  winds 
and  currents.  At  no  time  is  the  sea  one  solid  sheet  of  ice,  and  in  the 
winter,  while  it  is  forming,  it  is  more  scattered  than  in  the  spring, 
when  the  northerly  movement  has  begun  and  it  packs  closer  together. 
The  general  southern  limit  of  ice  is  from  Bristol  Bay  to  the  vicinity 
of  St.  George  Island,  and  thence  about  west-northwest  to  the  Siberian 
shore.  The  southern  edge  is  ragged  and  very  much  scattered,  and 
continued  northerly  winds  sometimes  drive  fields  of  it  far  southward. 
As  a  rule,  no  heavy  ice  will  be  encountered  south  of  the  Pribilof 
Islands,  and  the  ice  in  their  vicinity  is  likely  to  be  nothing  more  than 
detached  fields. 

The  ice  conditions  in  Bristol  Bay  have  so  far  received  little  notice. 
Reports  have  been  received  that  the  bay  is  usually  free  from  heavy 
ice  between  the  middle  of  May  and  June  10.  In  1899  the  steamer 
Jeanie,  of  1,000  tons  and  a  draft  of  18  feet,  reached  Clark  Point,  in 
Nushagak  River,  on  April  4,  and  was  discharged  on  April  15.  At 
this  time  the  ice  in  the  river  above  Fort  Alexander  remained  solid, 
but  two  weeks  afterwards  it  broke  up  and  came  down  the  river  in 
large  pieces,  which  would  have  endangered  any  vessel  at  anchor.  In 
approaching  the  Nushagak  River  some  ice  was  encountered  about 
75  miles  from  Cape  Constantine,  but  not  sufficient  to  seriously  inter- 
fere with  navigation.  On  May  10,  1896,  a  vessel  bound  for  Bristol 
Bay  was  brought  up  by  the  ice,  which  extended  from  Port  Moller  to 
St.  George  Island,  and  she  was  not  able  to  reach  the  Nushagak  River 
until  30  days  later.  It  is  within  reason  to  believe  that  some 
years  Bristol  Bay  is  open  to  navigation  all  winter,  though  the  rivers 
and  sheltered  bays  are  closed. 


BERING    SEA ICE.  227 

The  information  regarding  ice  conditions  in  Kuskokwim  Bay  and 
River  is  very  meager.  In  general,  however,  this  region  may  be 
expected  to  be  clear  of  ice  about  June  1.  See  also  pr-ge  250. 

In  the  spring,  beginning  with  April,  there  is  a  general  northward 
movement  of  the  ice,  the  shores  clearing  ahead  of  the  center  of  the 
sea;  but  it  sometimes  hangs  in  the  bays  and  around  the  islands  later 
than  in  tbe  open  sea.  Seasons  vary,  the  movement  and  position  of 
the  ice  depending  greatly  on  the  direction  of  the  winds.  Generally, 
however,  by  June  1  the  whole  body  of  ice  is  well  up  with  St.  Law- 
rence Island,  and  a  passage  opens  to  its  west  side.  The  eastern  side 
of  the  sea  is  likely  to  be  obstructed  a  little  later  than  the  western  side, 
and  ice  is  often  met  between  St.  Lawrence  Island  and  Nunivak 
Island  in  the  early  part  of  June.  The  breaking  out  of  the  rivers 
toward  the  latter  part  of  May  clears  the  shores,  but  the  ice  is  likely 
to  hold  in  Norton  Sound  several  weeks  later. 

In  general,  for  a  vessel  not  fitted  to  encounter  ice,  Norton  Sound  is 
not  navigable  before  the  middle  oj  June,  often  not  before  June  20  to 
25,  and  has  been  known  to  be  as  late  as  July  10.  On  entering  the 
sound  about  this  time,  strips  of  ice  are  often  encountered  after  the 
sound  can  be  said  to  be  navigable.  From  the  deck  these  may  appear 
extensive  and  solid,  but  from  aloft  clear  water  may  be  seen  beyond 
and  through  them.  At  the  opening  of  navigation  the  ice  is  likely  to 
be  heaviest  and  to  remain  longest  on  the  north  shore,  and,  in  general, 
it  is  the  last  of  June  before  that  part  of  the  sound  is  altogether  clear. 

In  the  fall  young  ice  begins  to  form  on  the  rivers,  and  in  the  bays 
and  sheltered  places  after  October  1,  and  grows  stronger  and  spreads 
according  to  the  severity  of  the  advancing  season.  Navigation  is 
considered  unsafe  in  Norton  Sound  after  October  15. 

Currents. — There  has  been  no  systematic  study  of  the  currents  of 
Bering  Sea,  and  the  almost  constant  fogs  prevent  the  navigator  from 
adding  much  to  our  meager  knowledge  concerning  them.  It  is  said 
that  in  general  the  currents  are  greatly  influenced  by  the  tide  and 
winds.  The  following  observations  apply  to  the  open  season,  when 
the  flow  of  the  currents  is  not  obstructed  by  ice: 

Between  Cape  Cheerful  and  St.  George  Island  the  current  is  not 
believed  to  have  any  decided  set  or  flow  unless  influenced  by  the  wind. 
With  a  strong  wind  a  current  is  likely  to  set  with  it,  but  y%  point 
allowance  in  a  course  will  be  sufficient  to  overcome  any  set  that  will 
be  found  in  this  vicinity  due  to  this  cause. 

Between  St.  Matthew  and  Nunivak  Islands  the  set  of  the  current 
is  northward ;  with  prevailing  northeast  winds  it  sets  northwest,  and 
with  northwest  and  southwest  winds,  northeast.  This  northerly 
current  continues  and  increases  between  St.  Lawrence  Island  and 
the  mainland,  being  stronger  toward  the  mainland  north  of  the  mouth 
of  the  Yukon  River,  where  it  amounts  to  about  1  knot,  except  in  the 
early  summer,  when,  increased  by  the  freshets  in  the  Yukon,  it  may 
amount  to  2  knots  or  more.  A  strong  northeasterly  current  setting 
on  the  Yukon  flats  has  been  observed,  amounting  at  times  to  2J^ 
knots.  The  current  sets  north  across  Norton  Sound  to  Sledge  Island 
and  then  follows  the  coast  to  Bering  Strait.  It  is  strongly  marked 
between  Sledge  Island  and  Bering  Strait. 

In  Bering  Strait  the  current  sets  north,  and  when  not  influenced  by 
wind  its  velocity  is  about  2  knots  an  hour.  Protracted  northerly- 
gales  which  prevail  in  the  autumn  change  its  direction  to  southward, 


228  BERING    SEA CURRENTS. 

but  on  the  cessation  of  the  wind  it  quickly  sets  north  again.  Strong 
southerly  gales  increase  its  velocity  to  3  knots.  The  current  is 
stronger  east  of  the  Diomede  Islands  than  west  of  them. 

A  current  sets  strongly  from  Cape  Newenham  through  Etolin  Strait. 

Tidal  currents. — In  the  southern  part  of  Bering  Sea,  inside  the 
100-fathom  line,  and  through  the  various  passes  in  the  Aleutian 
Islands,  the  tidal  current  sets  northward  or  northeastward  during 
the  rising  tide,  and  southward  or  southwestward  during  the  falling 
tide.  In  some  of  the  passes  it  sometimes  has  a  velocity  of  9  knots; 
when  clear  of  the  passes  its  maximum  velocity  is  about  2J^  knots. 
At  the  Pribilpf  Islands,  Nunivak,  St.  Matthew,  and  St.  Lawrence 
islands  the  tidal  currents  have  considerable  velocity.  The  flood 
current  sets  eastward  and  northward  and  the  ebb  westward  and  south- 
ward. In  Bristol  Bay  the  tidal  currents  have  considerable  velocity. 
They  have  also  considerable  velocity  at  the  Kuskokwim  River  and 
north  to  the  mouth  of  the  Yukon,  especially  in  Etolin  Strait  and  about 
Cape  Vancouver. 

Fog  is  most  prevalent  during  spring,  summer,  and  early  fall,  and  it 
generally  begins  to  clear  about  the  middle  of  October.  In  summer 
fog  is  almost  continuous,  but  few  days  are  clear  from  morning  to 
night,  and  the  tops  of  the  mountains  can  seldom  be  seen.  At  the 
surface  of  the  water  it  is  generally  sufficiently  clear  to  make  out  the 
shore  at  a  distance  of  3  or  4  miles,  but  at  times  it  is  so  thick  that 
nothing  can  be  made  out,  and  under  such  conditions  strangers  should 
not  attempt  to  make  the  land.  During  the  summer  months  the  mist 
and  fog  are  considered  to  be  worse  on  the  south  side  of  the  Aleutian 
Islands  than  on  the  north  side  in  their  immediate  vicinity. 

Weather. — The  most  striking  feature  about  the  weather  in  Bering 
Sea  is  its  great  uncertainty  throughout  the  year.  Good  weather  is 
rare  and  not  lasting,  and  the  winds  can  not  be  depended  upon  to 
remain  long  in  one  quarter.  The  late  spring  and  summer  are  mild 
and  very  foggy,  with  frequent  periods  of  light  weather,  comparatively 
few  strong  winds,  and  considerable  rain.  After  September  1  gales 
become  frequent  and  heavy,  fogs  gradually  lessen,  and  toward  the 
latter  part  of  the  month  snow  often  accompanies  the  storms.  During 
all  the  fall,  gales  are  frequent,  violent,  and  from  almost  any  quarter. 

During  the  fall  and  winter  there  are  often  periods  of  very  low 
barometer  (readings  below  29.00  being  common)  accompanied  by 
moderate  to  strong  gales,  with  rain  or  snow.  These  gales,  though 
sometimes  very  severe,  are  usually  not  so  strong  as  would  be  expected 
by  the  fall  of  the  barometer.  After  December  and  continuing  into 
tne  spring  there  are  often  periods  of  moderate  weather,  and  while 
severe  gales  occur,  they  are  less  frequent  than  in  the  fall.  Strong 
winds  orgales  from  any  quarter  always  bring  thick  weather,  rain,  or 
snow.  With  easterly  or  southerly  winds  the  rain  is  continuous,  while 
with  westerly  or  northerly  winds  the  rain  or  snow  occurs  at  intervals 
in  squalls,  and  when  the  wind  subsides  the  weather  is  likely  to  be  clear. 

Southeast  gales,  with  f  ailing  barometer  and  rising  temperature,  are 
almost  invariably  preceded  by  an  unusual  clearness  of  the  air;  cirrus 
clouds  are  seen  southwestward,  which  gradually  thicken  and  over- 
spread the  sky.  The  wind  usually  shifts  to  southwestward  when  the 
barometer  ceases  to  fall,  but  it  sometimes  backs  from  southeast  to 
northeast,  and  generally  goes  to  northwest  before  subsiding.  Upon 
abating,  the  gale  is  followed  by  light  westerly  winds  and  comparatively 
clear  weather. 


BEEING   SEA.  229 

BRISTOL  BAY. 

Bristol  Bay  may  be  said  to  include  all  that  part  of  Bering  Sea  lying 
east  of  a  line  drawn  from  Cape  Sarichef,  Unimak  Island,  to  the  Kus- 
kokwim  River.  Unimak  Island  and  the  Alaska  Peninsula  bound  it 
on  the  south  and  east,  and  separate  it  from  the  Pacific  Ocean.  The 
Naknek  River  is  at  the  head  of  deep-water  navigation,  while  the  bay 
itself  terminates  in  the  Kvichak  River,  a  few  miles  northward.  The 
region  about  Nushagak  River,  Kulukak  Bay,  and  the  Kuskokwim 
forms  its  northwest  boundary. 

The  shores  are  usually  low  and  without  distinctive  features,  but 
high  mountain  ranges  and  volcanic  cones  extend  along  the  central 
parts  of  Unimak  Island  and  the  Alaska  Peninsula.  These  rugged 
snow-covered  mountains  and  lofty  peaks  would  serve  as  unmistaka- 
ble landmarks  were  they  not  obscured  by  the  almost  constant  fogs 
which  prevail  in  that  region  during  the  summer  months.  The  shore 
and  objects  near  the  sea  level  are^often  seen  beneath  the  fog  when  the 
higher  lands  are  obscured,  and,  therefore,  most  of  the  avauable  land- 
marks are  found  on  or  near  the  beach. 

The  winds  and  weather  in  Bristol  Bay  and  the  other  parts  of  Bering 
Sea  visited  by  the  Albatross  from  the  last  of  May  to  the  1st  of  Sep- 
tember, 1890,  may  be  summarized  in  a  few  words. 

Southwest  winds  prevailed,  but  we  had  them  frequently  from 
southeast  to  northwest.  It  was  boisterous  weather  nearly  half  the 
time,  but  seldom  rough  enough  to  interfere  with  our  work.  We  had 
several  summer  gales  of  moderate  force,  but  no  severe  storms.  Fog 
and  mist  prevailed,  and  a  clear  day  was  the  rare  exception.  The 
tidal  currents  were  strongest  in  the  vicinity  of  Unimak  Pass  and  at 
the  head  of  the  bay;  they  were  greatly  affected,  however,  by  the 
winds.  The  flood  stream  sets  northward  and  slightly  inshore  along 
the  coasts  of  Unimak  Island  and  the  peninsula,  the  ebb  southward 
and  offshore.  The  former  was  invariably  the  stronger,  and  proba- 
bly found  an  outlet  by  sweeping  past  Cape  Constantine  in  the  direc- 
tion of  Cape  Newenham. 

Reports  have  been  received  which  indicate  an  easterly  set,  variable 
in  velocity,  along  the  northern  side  of  Alaska  Peninsula  and  in  Bristol 
Bay. 

COAST   FROM   UNIMAK   PASS   TO   POET   MOLLER. 

Cape  Sarichef,  Unimak  Island,  is  described  on  page  195;  it  is  low 
with  detached  rocks  close  inshore,  around  which  strong  tidal  cur- 
rents sweep.  The  land  falls  away  eastward  in  a  gentle  curve,  form- 
ing an  open  bay,  called  Dublin  Bay,  about  4  miles  in  depth  between 
the  cape  and  Cave  Point,  which  lies  16  miles  from  the  former.  This 
bay  may  be  used  as  a  temporary  anchorage  by  vessels  of  any  size. 
The  holding  ground  is  said  to  be  good.  Cave  Point  is  a  vertical, 
rocky  cliff,  about  150  feet  in  height,  and  takes  its  name  from  a  cave 
on  its  face,  inhabited  by  sea  birds,  which  in  summer  hover  about  it 
in  thousands,  making  it  conspicuous  in  clear  weather  by  their  num- 
bers, and  in  fog  by  their  constant  cries.  The  snow-clad  peak  of 
Pogromni  Volcano,  rising  to  an  altitude  of  6,500  feet  above  the  sea, 
forms  a  striking  background  to  the  low,  monotonous  coast. 


230  BRISTOL   BAY. 

Passing  Cape  Mordvinof,  a  low,  bluff  point  at  out  13  miles  from  Cave 
Point,  the  coast  falls  away  slightly  for  6  miles,  when  it  turns  abruptly 
eastward  for  5  miles,  and  then  takes  a  northerly  direction,  forming 
Urilia  Bay.  This  bay  is  open  northward,  but  affords  protection 
from  all  winds  from  southward  of  east  or  west.  The  approaches  are 
clear,  and  the  water  shoals  gradually  to  6  fathoms,  black  sand,  about 
%  mile  from  shore. 

From  TJrilia  Bay  to  Isanotski  Strait  the  coast  trends  in  a  north- 
easterly direction,  is  very  low,  and  has  several  rocky  patches  extending 
y^  to  1  mile  from  shore,  making  navigation  unsafe  inside  the  12- 
f athom  line.  The  volcano  of  Shishaldin  rises  9,387  feet  about  mid- 
way between  the  above  points  and  7  or  8  miles  inland.  Isanotski 
Strait  is  available  only  for  vessels  of  the  smallest  class. 

From  the  strait  to  Cape  Glazenap,  about  19  miles,  the  coast  retains 
the  same  general  direction  and  is  very  low  until  reaching  the  latter 
point,  which  is  oval  in  form,  about  150  feet  in  height,  and  has  been 
called  Round  Point. 

Izembek  Bay  covers  a  large  area  at  high  tide,  but  much  of  it  is  dry 
at  low  water.  A  small  vessel  may,  however,  find  a  secure  harbor 
behind  the  cape.  The  channel  follows  close  around  the  point,  and 
has  a  depth  of  10  to  12  feet  on  the  bar. 

Amak  Island  is  of  volcanic  origin,  about  2J^  miles  in  length,  1% 
miles  in  width,  and  1,682  feet  in  height.  It  lies  12  miles  northwest 
from  Cape  Glazenap.  The  beaches  are  mostly  huge  bowlders  and 
bluffs  30  to  150  feet  high.  The  central  peak  is  a  dark-brown  rock, 
bare,  rugged,  and  precipitous.  The  southeast  point  is  in  latitude 
55°  25'  N  and  longitude  163°  08'  W.  There  is  foul  ground  off  the 
northwest  end  of  the  island,  several  rocks  awash  or  under  water,  and 
Sealion  Rock  between  2  and  3  miles  distant.  The  latter  is  several 
hundred  yards  in  extent  and  about  150  feet  high,  its  slopes  being 
occupied  by  an  extensive  rookery  of  sea  lions. 

A  reef  about  J4  m^e  lorig  ues  on°  the  southeast  end  of  Amak  Island ; 
about  250  yards  of  this  reef  shows  bare.  A  reef,  which  breaks  in  a 
moderate  swell,  has  been  reported  3  miles  about  63°  true  (NE  mag.) 
from  the  summit  of  the  island. 

It  is  reported  that  a  fair  lee  and  anchorage  with  hard  bottom  can 
be  found  on  the  southeast  side  of  Amak  Island,  and  one  not  so  good 
on  the  southwest  side,  but  the  foul  south  point  of  the  island  must  be 
given  a  wide  berth. 

The  Kudiakof  Islands  extend  about  19  miles  between  Cape  Glazenap 
and  Moffet  Point.  They  are  but  little  above  high  water,  and  some 
of  them  are  connected  by  narrow  spits  at  low  water. 

From  Moffet  Point  the  low  coast  extends  15  miles  to  Gerstle  Bay, 
then  northward  and  eastward  about  55  miles  to  Wolf  Point,  on  the 
western  side  of  the  entrance  to  Port  Moller. 

The  Kudobin  Islands  occupy  the  last  23  miles  of  this  distance. 
They  are  very  low,  and  it  is  difficult  to  distinguish  them  from  the 
mainland,  the  only  distinctive  feature  being  a  knob  about  25  feet 
high  on  the  east  end  of  Kritskoi.  The  land  between  Herendeen 
Bay  and  Nelson  lagoon  is  very  low.  A  cannery  is  operated  in  Nelson 
Lagoon,  inside  the  Kudobin  Islands,  but  no  directions  for  reaching 
it  are  available. 


BRISTOL   BAY.  231 

PORT   HOLLER. 

The  surveys  of  Port  Holier  (chart  8833)  are  incomplete.  A  party 
of  the  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey  made  a  partial  examination  in  1910, 
the  work  being  confined  to  the  vicinity  of  Entrance  Point.  The 
following  information  is  from  the  report  and  examination  by  that 
party  supplemented  by  later  information  furnished  by  the  Pacific 
American  Fisheries,  which  company  operates  a  cannery  in  the  port. 

Port  Moller  is  surrounded  by  high  mountains,  and  there  is  a  high 
ridge  across  its  head.  The  shore  is  steep  and  rocky  except  at  the 
spits.  Kudobin  Islands  are  low  and  afford  no  definite  features  on 
which  a  bearing  can  be  taken.  Doe  Point  and  Point  Divide  are  bluffs 
and  can  be  seen  from  some  distance  outside  of  Entrance  Point. 
Harbor  Point  is  a  low,  narrow,  grassy  sand  and  shingle  spit,  which  can 
not  be  made  out  distinctly  until  nearly  up  with  Entrance  Point. 

Port  Moller  and  Herendeen  Bay  are  indicated  from  seaward  by  a 
valley  receding  into  the  mountains.  The  land  at  the  entrance  is  low 
and  the  chart  indicates  extensive  shoals  in  the  approach,  so  that 
access  would  be  somewhat  difficult  in  bad  weather  even  if  the  charts 
were  based  on  an  accurate  survey.  The  only  channel  of  which  we 
have  any  knowledge  lies  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  entrance,  and 
Entrance  Point,  a  low  grassy  spit,  is  the  leading  mark  for  entering. 
It  is  marked  near  the  end  by  sand  knolls,  some  noticeably  eroded  on 
the  offshore  side.  There  is  deep  water  close  to  its  southwest  end, 
but  a  shoal  extends  some  distance  offshore  from  its  outer  side. 

In  1910,  a  depth  of  14  feet,  with  deeper  water  southwestward,  was 
found  3  miles  329°  true  (NW  1A  W  mag.)  from  Entrance  Point.  A 
report  received  in  1914  indicates  that  this  shoal  is  making  westward, 
that  its  present  western  limit  is  about  longitude  160°  38'  W,  and 
that  a  line  drawn  300°  true  (W  by  N  mag.)  from  the  end  of  Entrance 
Point  is  parallel  to  the  southern  edge  of  the  shoal,  and  passes  about 
34  mile  southward  of  it. 

A  shoal  with  little  water  over  it  and  on  which  the  sea  generally 
breaks  at  low  water  lies  about  %  mile  westward  (true)  from  the  end 
of  Harbor  Point  and  extends  nearly  2  miles  in  a  354°  true  (NNW  J£ 
W  mag.)  direction.  It  then  turns  northward  toward  Entrance  Point 
for  nearly  2  miles.  The  knuckle  at  the  eastern  end  of  the  shoal  lies 
1}4  miles  185°  true  (S  by  E  J£  E  mag.)  from  Entrance  Point  and  is  a 
little  westward  of  a  line  joining  Entrance  and  Harbor  Points.  The 
1914  report  places  the  northern  limit  of  this  shoal  in  latitude  55° 
59.6',  and  its  eastern  edge  as  continuing  in  a  direction  about  334° 
true  (NW  mag.)  from  the  limits  as  described  in  the  first  part  of  this 
paragraph,  and  passing  about  }/%  mile  to  the  westward  of  Entrance 
Point. 

A  channel,  having  a  fairly  uniform  width  of  about  J^  mile  leads 
between  the  two  shoals  here  described,  and  between  the  south  shoal 
and  Entrance  Point,  thence  continuing  southward  as  shown  on  the 
chart.  On  either  side  of  this  channel,  particularly  in  the  narrower 
parts,  the  shoaling  is  said  to  be  so  abrupt  that  the  lead  can  not  be 
relied  upon  to  give  notice  of  danger  in  sufficient  time  to  prevent 
grounding.  The  bight  on  the  southeast  side  of  Entrance  Point  is 
shoal  except  for  the  narrow  channel  which  leads  up  to  the  wharf. 

A  reconnoissance  line  of  soundings  shows  that  the  deep  channel 
continues  past  Harbor  Point,  lying  fairly  close  to  it,  and  for  some 


232  BRISTOL   BAY. 

distance  farther  southeastward  exists  about  as  shown  on  the  chart. 
The  two  shoals  southeastward  of  Harbor  Point  are  about  as  indicated 
on  the  chart,  and  the  bight  on  the  southeast  side  of  Harbor  Point  is 
shoal. 

Good  anchorage  is  found  about  %  mile  from  the  outer  side  of  the 
spit  of  Harbor  Point,  the  southern  end  of  the  point  bearing  177°  true 
(SSE  mag.),  distant  about  1J4  miles,  in  10  to  15  fathoms.  It  is  well 
sheltered  from  the  sea  in  southeast  gales,  but  the  wind  draws  down 
the  bay  with  great  force.  The  shoals  apparently  would  afford  some 
protection  with  on-shore  winds.  Vessels  may  anchor  above  Harbor 
Point,  but  the  shelter  is  less  in  southeast  gales  and  is  apparently  no 
better  with  winds  from  other  directions  unless  from  west  or  north- 
west. The  tidal  currents  at  the  anchorage  have  some  strength,  and 
heavy  tide  rips  occur  off  Harbor  Point. 

The  Pacific  American  Fisheries  maintain  a  cannery  in  Port  Moller, 
its  location  being  about  J4  mu<e  inside  Entrance  Point;  24  feet  of 
water  is  reported  at  the  dock.  Fresh  water  is  piped  to  the  dock. 

The  following  directions  for  entering  were  furnished  in  1914  by 
Caj)t.  Jackson  of  the  steamer  Windber,  and  verified  in  1915  by  Capt. 
Knight  of  the  steamer  Pavlof.  It  must  be  borne  in  mind,  however, 
that  future  changes  in  the  extent  and  location  of  the  shoals  may 
necessitate  radical  changes  in  these  directions.  In  fact,  strangers 
are  advised  to  anchor  outside  and  obtain  information  from  the  can- 
nery before  entering : 

From  off  Walrus  Island  steer  about  120°  true  (E  by  S  mag.)  for  the  end  of  Entrance 
Point.  When  on  the  bearing  a  white  beacon  on  Entrance  Point  should  be  on  range 
with  another  beacon  on  the  high  bluff  across  the  bay.  Hold  this  course  until  %  mile 
off  Entrance  Point,  then  haul  and  round  the  point  not  more  than  %  mile  off.  The 
range  beacons  and  a  number  of  keg  buoys  are  maintained  by  the  cannery  and  will  lead 
in  deep-water  channel  after  the  opening  of  navigation  each  season. 

To  make  the  anchorage  northward  of  Harbor  Point,  pass  %  mile 
southwestward  of  Entrance  Point  on  a  southeasterly  course,  and 
then  bring  the  point  astern  on  a  174°  true  (SSE  J/£  E  mag.)  course 
until  \y±  to  \y2  miles  from  it.  Then  steer  188°  true  (S  by  E  mag.), 
heading  to  pass  about  J4  mile  westward  of  the  end  of  Harbor  Point. 

HERENDEEN   BAY. 

There  is  no  information  regarding  this  region  other  than  that 
which  may  be  taken  from  chart  8833.  In  using  the  chart  it  should 
be  borne  in  mind  that,  except  for  the  area  already  described,  the  sur- 
veys upon  which  it  is  based  were  made  in  1890,  and  that  all  informa- 
tion available  points  to  extensive  changes  since  that  time,  particu- 
larly in  those  areas  exposed  to  the  action  of  the  sea. 

Mine  Harbor  is  small  but  free  from  dangers,  except  Midway  Reef, 
which  extends  y%  mile  from  its  eastern  shore  and  shows  at  half  tide. 
Anchor  northwestward  of  Midway  Reef  in  12  to  15  fathoms,  and  if 
intending  to  remain  any  time  it  is  advisable  to  moor.  A  reef  extends 
600  yards  westward  from  Crow  Point,  the  south  point  of  Mine  Harbor. 
Crow  Reef,  bare  at  low  water,  lies  %  mile  westward  of  Crow  Point 
and  Yi  mile  southward  of  Bluff  Point. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water  in  Mine  Harbor,  full  and  change,  at  8h. 
Om.,  rise  15  feet,  and  it  occurs  at  Entrance  Point  about  2  hours  earlier, 
with  a  rise  of  10  to  12  feet. 


BRISTOL   BAY.  233 

Hague  Channel  is  1  mile  wide  at  its  northern  entrance,  and  is  con- 
tracted to  less  than  ^  mile  between  Point  Divide  and  Doe  Point. 
The  tidal  currents  are  very  strong,  and  near  high  water  they  sweep 
across  the  narrow  channel  and  over  the  flats,  making  it  impossible  to 
steer  a  compass  course.  They  are  more  regular  near  low  tide,  which 
is  the  best  time  to  make  the  passage,  as  the  channel  is  indicated  by 
the  flats  showing  above  water  on  either  hand. 

Johnston  Channel,  Herendeen  Bay,  has  7  to  15  fathoms,  but  is  very 
narrow  with  steep  sides.  It  is  difficult  to  find,  but  once  in,  the 
navigation  is  comparatively  simple,  as  the  tidal  currents  follow  the 
general  direction  of  deep  water.  The  width  of  the  channel  at  the 
northern  entrance,  %  mile  south  of  Point  Divide,  is  *%.  mile,  with 
little  variation  until  near  the  southern  extremity,  where  it  contracts 
to  250  yards.  Having  cleared  the  channel  and  entered  the  upper  bay, 
there  is  ample  room  and  depth  of  water  in  every  direction,  Crow  Reef , 
off  the  south  point  of  Mine  Harbor,  being  the  only  outlying  danger. 

Anchorages  may  be  found  anywhere  oetween  Walrus  Island  and 
Entrance  Point  in  case  of  fog,  and  a  vessel  may  anchor  in  Hague 
Channel,  but  the  tidal  currents  are  strong.  There  are  fairly  good 
anchorages  under  the  north  side  of  Point  Divide  and  Doe  Point, 
where,  near  the  bank,  a  vessel  will  be  out  of  the  strength  of  the  cur- 
rent. The  Albatross  anchored  in  mid-channel,  1  mile  inside  of  the 
above  points,  at  the  time  of  spring  tides,  and  the  flood  came  in  with  a 
bore  between  2  and  3  feet  in  height,  the  patent  log  registering  a 
9-knot  current  for  some  time,  with  a  swell  which  occasionally  splashed 
into  the  scuppers.  There  is  a  fair  anchorage  off  the  northern  entrance 
to  Johnston  Channel,  and  an  excellent  one  at  its  southern  extremity, 
off  Marble  Point,  just  north  of  Shingle  Point,  or,  in  fact,  almost  any- 
where in  the  upper  bay.  The  last  quarter  of  the  flood  tide  is  the  best 
time  to  pass  through  this  channel. 

High  land  rises  at  the  base  of  Harbor  Point  and  extends  northward 
and  eastward  near  the  middle  of  the  peninsula.  Point  Divide  is  50 
feet  in  height,  and  mountain  ranges  rise  a  few  miles  back.  The  coal 
measures  are  found  between  Mine  Harbor  and  the  head  of  Port  Moller. 
Doe  Point  is  40  feet  in  height,  while  the  rest  of  Deer  Island  and  the 
mainland  south  and  west  of  it  are  generally  lower.  The  southern 
shores  of  Herendeen  Bay  are  mountainous,  with  intervening  valleys, 
the  whole  face  of  the  country  being  covered  with  rank  grass  and  wild 
flowers  during  the  summer  months;  but  there  is  no  timber,  except 
occasional  small  poplars,  alder  bushes,  and  willows.  Fresh  winds, 
with  fog  and  mist,  blow  across  the  low  divides  from  the  Pacific, 
obscuring  the  sun  and  greatly  increasing  the  rainfall  in  Port  Moller 
and  vicinity. 

There  are  no  large  fresh-water  streams  entering  the  bay,  which 
/probably  accounts  for  the  absence  of  Eskimos. 

PORT   MOLLER   TO    KVICHAK  RIVER. 

The  coast  is  low  for  19  miles  between  Entrance  Point  and  Cape 
Kutuzof,  which  rises  in  a  rounded  bluff  to  an  elevation  of  150  feet. 

Cape  Seniavin,  11  miles  northward  and  eastward,  is  a  rocky  point 
75  feet  high.  Passing  it  the  low,  monotonous  beach  continues  to 
the  Seal  Islands,  the  only  exception  being  a  cluster  of  small  hillocks 
near  the  beach,  12  miles  from  Cape  Seniavin. 


234  BRISTOL    BAY. 

Seal  Islands  are  several  small  islets,  but  little  above  high  water, 
strung  along  near  the  coast  for  about  10  miles;  thence  to  Strogonof 
Point  the  land  continues  very  low. 

Port  Heiden  is  said  to  be  a  good  harbor,  but  it  has  not  been  ex- 
amined. The  approach  to  the  port  will  be  recognized  by  high,  bold 
headlands,  which  rise  from  its  northern  shore.  Another  report  states 
that  intricate  and  irregular  sand  banks  not  shown  on  the  chart  are 
found  for  a  distance  of  5  miles  offshore.  Depths  of  3  fathoms  are 
reported  on  these  shoals. 

Chistiakof  Island,  low  and  crescent  shaped,  forms  the  seaward  side 
of  the  harbor,  the  channel  lying  between  its  northern  extremity  and 
a  reef  which  makes  westward  about  3  miles  from  the  land  about  2 
miles  northward  from  the  island.  An  extensive  reef  is  also  reported 
to  extend  about  1 J^  miles  off  the  northwest  side  of  Chistiakof  Island. 
It  is  reported  that  there  is  a  rise  and  fall  of  18  feet  on  the  largest 
spring  tides,  and  about  12  to  14  feet  on  ordinary  tides. 

Until  a  proper  survey  of  the  Bristol  Bay  region  has  been  made  it 
must  be  regarded  by  mariners  as  a  dangerous  locality  to  navigate; 
it  is  only  by  the  greatest  vigilance  and  constant  use  of  the  lead  that 
disaster  can  be  avoided  upon  approaching  the  land.  This  is  particu- 
larly true  of  the  northeast  arms  and  approaches  which  receive  the 
waters  of  the  great  salmon  streams  on  which  all  the  Bering  Sea 
canneries  are  located. 

These  rivers  are  the  Igushik,  Wood,  and  Nushagak,  emptying  into 
Nushagak  Bay;  the  Kvichak,  Alagnak,  Naknek,  and  Ugaguk,  which 
empty  into  Kvichak  Bay;  and  the  Ugashik,  next  southward  of  the 
Ugaguk.  These  rivers  are  large  and  discharge  a  great  quantity  of 
water  into  wide  indentations,  locally  still  retaining  the  name  of  rivers, 
which  open  on  the  arms  of  the  great  bay.  The  banks  of  the  rivers 
are  frequently  marshy,  generally  muddy,  and  the  discolored  water  is 
charged  with  a  large  amount  of  sediment,  which  is  deposited,  forming 
the  dangers  to  be  encountered. 

On  account  of  the  funnel-shaped  configuration  of  the  bays  and 
river  entrances,  the  tidal  currents  run  with  great  force,  having  a 
velocity  at  times  of  at  least  6  knots,  and  the  tides  have  a  rise  and  fall 
of  18  to  24  feet;  vast  areas  of  shoals  are  uncovered  at  low  water, 
leaving  only  pools  and  shallows,  and  generally  narrow  channels 
between.  Navigation  in  the  arms  and  approaches  is  only  success- 
fully accomplished  at  or  near  high  water,  even  by  those  thoroughly 
acquainted  with  the  channels. 

From  Port  Heiden  the  same  low  coast  extends  to  Cape  Menshikof 
in  nearly  a  direct  line,  the  high  land  of  Port  Heiden  gradually  receding 
from  the  coast.  A  shoal  inlet  or  river  entrance  lies  about  10  miles 
southward  of  Cape  Menshikof.  It  has  sometimes  been  mistaken  for 
the  Ugashik  River.  Cape  Menshikof  is  a  high  bluff,  extending  some 
distance  along  shore,  with  hilly  country  back  of  it. 

False  Ugashik  is  about  10  miles  below  the  Ugashik  River,  and 
because  of  the  similarity  of  the  shore  line  of  the  two,  False  Ugashik 
has  often  been  mistaken  for  the  Ugashik.  The  charts  show  a  broken 
coast  line  where  this  inlet  should  be. 

Ugashik  River  is  large  and  empties  into  the  wide  indentation 
between  Capes  Menshikof  and  Greig,  the  distance  between  the  capes 
being  about  15  miles.  The  capes  can  be  approached  from  westward 
as  close  as  about  2  miles.  The  coast  between  the  capes  including 


BRISTOL    BAY.  235 

the  river  valley  appears  low.  Smoky  Point,  a  bluff  on  the  north  side 
at  the  entrance,  is  about  7  miles  southward  of  Cape  Greig.  Here 
the  river  is  about  4  miles  wide  at  high  water.  The  indentation  be- 
tween the  capes  and  the  mouth  of  the  river  are  filled  with  shoals. 
There  is  a  channel  with  about  10  feet  at  low  water,  which  is  buoyed 
during  the  season  for  the  use  of  the  cannery  vessels,  but  a  stranger 
could  not  follow  it  with  safety. 

There  is  communication  by  telephone  among  some  of  the  canneries 
at  the  head  of  Bristol  Bay  from  Ugashik  River  to  Nushagak  River. 

Cape  Greig  is  a  prominent  brownish  bluff,  with  a  few  yellow  verti- 
cal stripes,  243  feet  high,  extending  several  miles  along  shore.  It 
appears  to  be  the  seaward  end  of  a  low  ridge  with  low  land  on  each 
side.  This  and  a  peculiar  notched  mountain  some  distance  inland 
are  good  marks.  The  low  coast  continues  from  the  cape  to  the 
Ugaguk  River  and  thence  to  the  Naknek  River  with  hardly  a  dis- 
tinguishing feature  except  Johnston  Hill  a  solitary  elevation  5  miles 
from  the  beach  and  about  9  miles  southward  from  the  mouth  of  the 
Naknek. 

Ugaguk  River  empties  into  the  outer  limit  of  Kvichak  Bay  about 
30  miles  north  of  Cape  Greig,  and  has  Cape  Chichagof  for  its  northern 
entrance  point.  It  is  a  large  river,  about  2  miles  wide  at  the  cannery, 
and  is  the  outlet  of  Lake  Becharof.  It  flows  in  a  general  westerly 
direction  for  about  50  miles.  Tidewater  is  said  to  extend  about  25 
miles  up  the  river;  very  little  is  known  of  the  locality. 

The  lower  part  of  the  river  is  a  wide  bay,  contracted  at  the  mouth, 
and,  like  other  rivers  of  this  district,  at  low  water  a  large  part  of  the 
bed  is  exposed  in  shoals  and  banks  with  narrow  channels  winding 
through  them.  At  the  entrance  shoal  water  extends  several  miles 
offshore,  and  the  small  cannery  steamers  enter  only  from  half  to  full 
tide.  The  channel  into  this  river  is  wider  and  deeper  than  in  Naknek 
and  Kvichak,  and,  if  it  were  properly  buoyed,  vessels  of  moderate 
draft  could  enter  at  high  water,  but  there  is  no  swinging  room  inside. 
The  cannery  transporting  vessel,  a  bark  of  554  tons,  was  carried  in  at 
high  water  and  moored  head  and  stern  alongside  the  low-water  bank. 
A  cannery  is  located  at  Ugaguk,  and  another  on  the  north  shore 
northwestward  from  Ugaguk. 

Naknek  River  may  be  considered  as  the  head  of  deep-water  naviga- 
tion in  Bristol  Bay.  It  enters  Kvichak  Bay  on  the  eastern  side, 
about  25  miles  southward  of  Kogiung.  The  river  has  its  source  in 
the  large  lake  of  the  same  name  as  the  river,  on  which  two  villages  are 
located.  The  river  is  large  and  about  60  miles  in  length. 

It  is  said  that  tide  water  extends  about  25  miles  from  the  mouth, 
where  the  river  is  about  %  mile  in  width,  and  that  at  the  mouth  the 
extreme  rise  and  fall  of  spring  tides  is  over  20  feet. 

Shoals  and  banks,  many  of  which  uncover  at  low  water,  fill  the 
lower  course  of  the  river  and  extend  3  or  4  miles  off  the  mouth,  then 
trend  around  northward  and  join  the  body  of  the  banks  that  fill  the 
upper  end  of  Kvichak  Bay.  At  low  water  the  channel  between  the 
banks  and  flats  is  very  shallow;  cannery  steamers,  drawing  but  7 
feet  of  water,  await  half  tide  before  entering.  Navigation  is  done  on 
the  rising  tide  or  at  high  water.  High  water,  fuh1  and  change,  Ih. 
5m.;  rise  23  feet. 

The  mouth  of  the  river  is  about  3  miles  wide  between  the  headlands, 
which  are  bluffs  about  100  feet  high;  within  the  entrance  the  banks 


236  BBISTOL  BAY. 

converge  quite  rapidly,  and  about  4  miles  from  the  mouth  the  river  is 
about  %  mue  wide. 

The  Albatross  anchored  in  6  fathoms  about  6  miles  247°  true 
(SW  mag.)  from  Cape  Suworof,  the  water  shoaling  rapidly  to  3 
fathoms  toward  the  mouth  of  the  Kvichak  River. 

KVICHAK   BAY   AND   RIVER. 

The  large  arm  at  the  head  of  Bristol  Bay,  extending  northeast  and 
bounded  on  the  south  by  a  line  from  the  south  entrance  point  of 
Ugaguk  River  to  Etolin  Point,  has  been  designated  as  Kvichak  Bay. 
The  upper  part  of  the  bay  is  very  shoal,  and,  as  the  current  is  strong, 
it  can  be  safely  navigated  only  by  small  vessels  built  to  resist  the  shock 
of  repeated  grounding.  It  is  said  that  the  banks  from  the  Etolin 
side  project  halfway  across  the  bay,  and,  with  those  from  the  penin- 
sula side,  confine  the  channel  to  a  comparatively  narrow  limit;  a 
seagoing  vessel,  however,  under  skillful  guidance  and  with  local 
knowledge,  may  reach  a  point  a  few  miles  below  the  mouth  of  the 
Naknek  River,  which  is  about  30  miles  below  the  head  of  the  bay; 
but  some  cannery  men  consider  the  risk  too  great  to  carry  their 
transport  vessels  to  this  point  and  leave  them  there  for  the  season. 

Above  the  mouth  of  the  Naknek  River  the  shoals  begin  to  extend 
across  the  channel,  and,  as  a  point  higher  up  is  reached,  the  whole  bay 
at  low  water  is  filled  with  uncovered  banks,  having  shallow,  narrow 
channels  winding  through  them. 

At  the  head  of  the  bay  is  the  mouth  of  Kvichak  River,  which  is  the 
outlet  to  the  great  lakes,  Iliamna  and  Clark,  lying  on  the  western  side 
of  the  mountain  system  bordering  Cook  Inlet. 

This  region  has  become  an  important  one  in  recent  years  on  account 
of  the  rapid  development  of  the  canning  industry.  There  are  at 
present  19  canneries  and  salting  stations  in  Kvichak  Bay. 

The  following  information  was  furnished  in  1916  by  the  Alaska 
Packers  Association: 

Tides. — The  rise  and  fall  of  tide  at  the  Alaska  Packers  Association's 
Kvichak  cannery  is  normally  about  24  feet  and  the  June  spring  tides 
about  28  feet.  These  figures  are  approximate  only,  there  being  no 
available  data  on  tides  at  this  point. 

Weather  and  ice. — The  weather,  during  the  operating  seasons  from 
May  to  September,  for  the  years  1912  to  1915,  was  very  mild  and  no 
ice  pack  was  encountered  by  the  vessels  en  route  to  this  district. 
However,  ice  is  sometimes  encountered  in  Bering  Sea  soon  after  pass- 
ing through  Unimak  Pass.  At  times  this  is  quite  extensive,  and  if 
held  by  the  winds  will  cause  considerable  delay  to  vessels  in  reaching 
anchorage  in  Kvichak  Bay.  In  1911,  the  last  season  during  which 
there  was  any  extensive  ice  pack,  vessels  were  unable  to  proceed  from 
the  ship  anchorage  off  Naknek  River  toward  Kvichak  River  until  June 
1,  as  the  ice  had  not  broken  up  in  the  river  until  that  date. 

Currents. — The  current  in  Kvichak  Bay  and  River  is  very  strong, 
and  as  a  consequence  the  channel  shifts  more  or  less  each  year. 

There  is  but  slight  variation  from  year  to  year  in  the  approaches  to 
the  ship  anchorage  off  the  Naknek  River,  and  after  passing  this 
anchorage  the  land  is  low  and  flat  on  both  sides  of  the  bay  with  no 
distinguishing  marks  that  would  be  of  any  aid  to  navigation. 


BBISTOL   BAY.  237 

On  account  of  the  method  of  fishing  by  means  of  drift  nets,  buoys 
would  be  a  constant  menace  to  the  gear;  and  no  navigation  aids  are 
maintained  by  any  of  the  companies  operating  at  this  point. 

Pilots. — Competent  pilots  can  be  obtained  by  sending  a  wireless 
message  to  any  of  the  cannery  stations  operating  in  this  district. 

Beyond  Cape  Suworof  the  'bay  is  obstructed  with  shoals  and  the 
channel  becomes  very  narrow  and  tortuous.  At  low  water  only 
about  3  feet  can  be  carried  through.  At  or  near  high  water,  vessels 
of  more  than  12  feet  draft  would  find  it  difficult  to  use  the  channel. 
Vessels  of  14  feet  draft  have  ascended  the  Kvichak  River  as  far  as 
the  mouth  of  the  Alagnak  River.  In  this  reach  there  are  only  three 
places  where  a  vessel  of  200  feet  or  lesj  in  length  may  anchor.  The 
first  is  at  Graveyard  Point;  the  second  is  near  the  mouth  of  Jensen 
Creek;  and  the  third  is  between  the  upper  cannery  of  the  Alaska 
Packers  Association  and  the  mouth  of  the  Alagnak  River. 

Directions. — With  Cape  Greig,  just  north  of  Ugashik,  bearing  112° 
true  (E  mag.),  distant  25  miles,fcthe  course  to  the  anchorage  is  ap- 
proximately 39°  true  (N  by  E  3^  E  mag.).  Follow  this  course  care- 
fully, using  the  lead  when  closing  in  with  the  land,  until  4  miles 
beyond  Johnstons  Hill,  where  anchorage  should  be  obtained  5  miles 
offshore  in  7  to  8  fathoms  at  low  water. 

The  first  vessels  arriving  in  the  spring  should  feel  their  way  with 
the  lead  and  locate  their  position  when  anchoring.  Vessels  arriving 
after  about  May  15  will  have  no  difficulty  in  obtaining  a  suitable 
anchorage,  as  there  are  always  a  number  of  vessels  in  the  bay  by  that 
time. 

Kvichak  River  from  Kogiung  to  Iliamna  Lake  is  50  miles  long.  In 
the  upper  half  of  its  course  it  has  a  current  of  3  to  6  knots,  and  is 
much  broken  by  islands  and  bars  into  narrow,  shallow  channels. 
The  lower  half  is  tidal. 

The  river  is  navigable  by  cannery  tenders  for  about  22  miles  above 
Kogiung,  and  by  launches  and  Columbia  River  boat  5  (when  favored 
by  strong  winds)  for  its  entire  length. 

Iliamna  Lake  is  about  70  miles  long  and  generally  from  7  to  17 
miles  wide.  It  is  about  50  feet  above  tide  water.  Reported  sound- 
ings indicate  a  depth,  at  the  east  end,  of  many  hundred  feet. 

The  lake  is  usually  frozen  from  late  in  December  until  late  in  May. 
The  snow  usually  leaves  the  low  ground  in  April,  remaining  until 
June  in  the  pass  between  Iliamna  Bay  and  Iliamna.  Some  snow 
may  be  expected  in  September,  but  the  ground  is  not  permanently 
covered  at  low  altitudes  until  some  months  later. 

Iliamna  is  the  largest  settlement.  It  is  situated  on  Iliamna  River, 
3J^  miles  above  its  mouth,  and  10  miles  from  Iliamna  Bay.  It  has  a 
United  States  commissioner,  a  Government  school,  and  three  stores. 

A  good  horse  trail  leads  from  the  head  of  Iliamna  Bay  to  Iliarnna, 
a  distance  of  10  miles,  crossing  a  900-foot  summit  3  miles  west  of 
the  bay.  Another  trail  leads  from  the  head  of  Cottonwood  Bay  to 
Iliamna,  17  miles,  crossing  three  summits  1,700,  1,500,  and  1,975 
feet  high,  at  3^,  5,  and  13  miles  from  Cottonwood  Bay,  descending 
to  1,400  and  600  feet  between  the  summits.  These  trails  can  goner- 
ally  be  used  by  horses  from  June  1  to  November  1.  Dogs  are  used 
during  the  remainder  of  the  year. 

Iliamna  can  also  be  reached  by  a  portage  from  the  head  of  Kami- 
shak  Bay  to  the  head  of  Kakhonak  Bay.  This  portage  is  said  to  be 


238  BRISTOL   BAY. 

an  easy  one  over  a  low  pass,  but  it  is  not  much  used  except  by  natives, 
because  of  the  difficulty  of  landing  supplies  on  the  uncharted  coast  of 
Kamishak  Bay. 

From  Iliamna  all  parts  of  Iliamna  Lake  and  Kvichak  River  can 
be  reached  in  boats,  there  being  several  large  sailboats  and  a  gasoline 
launch  at  the  village. 

Newhalen  River  is  about  20  miles  long.  The  unper  10  miles  can 
be  navigated  by  canoes  and  poling  boats.  Rapids  and  reported 
falls  make  even  canoe  navigation  impossible  for  the  lower  10  miles. 
These  rapids  may  be  avoided  by  a  5-mile  portage. 

Lake  Clark  is  about  45  miles  long  and  from  1  to  3^  miles  wide.  It 
is  about  220  feet  above  tide  water,  and  is  tributary  to  Iliamna  Lake 
and  Newhalen  River. 

NUSHAGAK   BAY   AND   RIVER 

are  important  on  account  of  the  extensive  salmon  fishing  and  a 
number  of  large  canneries  which  are  operated  during  the  summer. 
The  entrance  of  the  bay  is  on  the  north  side  of  Bristol  Bay,  between 
longitude  158°  18'  and  158°  40'  W.  It  is  15  miles  wide  at  the  en- 
trance between  Protection  Point  and  Etolin  Point,  and  extends 
about  12  miles  in  a  northwesterly  (mag.)  direction  to  Ekuk,  where  it 
is  7  miles  wide.  Here  it  turns  to  a  northerly  (mag.)  direction  for  9 
miles  to  Nushagak,  where  it  is  about  3  miles  wide.  The  surveys 
extend  from  the  entrance  to  the  mouth  of  Wood  River,  the  results  of 
which  are  shown  on  chart  9050. 

Nushagak  Bay  and  River  so  far  as  surveyed  are  obstructed  by 
extensive  shoals  near  the  shores,  and  by  long  bars,  partly  bam  at 
low  water,  which  generally  extend  in  the  direction  of  the  channels. 
In  the  absence  of  aids,  navigation  is  safe  only  in  the  daytime,  when 
the  marks,  some  of  which  are  distant  peaks,  can  be  seen.  The  worst 
dangers  in  the  approach  are  the  extensive  shoals  southward  and  south- 
eastward of  Cape  Constantine,  the  outer  one  being  nearly  out  of  sight 
of  land. 

The  peninsula  of  Cape  Constantino  is  low,  rolling  tundra  country, 
with  bluffs  in  places,  the  greatest  elevation  being  shown  on  the  chart. 
Nichols  Hills,  125  feet  high,  are  small  sand  knolls,  the  highest  part  of 
a  ridge  that  follows  the  eastern  side  of  the  cape,  and  lie  5  miles  north- 
westward of  Protection  Point.  At  the  southwest  end  of  the  cape 
(lat.  58°  26'  N)  and  on  the  southeast  side  of  the  cape  (lat.  58°  25'  N) 
are  the  entrances  of  two  lagoons  that  can  be  entered  by  boats  at  high 
water  when  there  is  no  surf. 

Shoals  with  little  water  on  them  in  places  extend  6  miles  southward 
from  Cape  Constantine,  and  the  outer  shoal  (Ustiugof)  lies  8  to  9 
miles  southeastward  from  the  cape.  These  shoals  are  in  the  form  of 
long  ridges  trending  in  the  direction  of  the  set  of  the  tidal  currents 
around  the  cape  to  and  from  Nushagak  Bay.  They  are  steep-to, 
especially  on  the  off-shore  side,  and  the  lead  will  not  give  sufficient 
warning  to  avoid  them.  Ustiugof  Shoal  is  a  narrow  ridge  with  a 
least  depth  of  13  feet,  and  has  a  length  of  8  miles  in  a  52°  true  (NNE 
%  E  mag.)  direction  with  depths  less  than  4  fathoms.  Its  southern 
end  lies  in  lat.  58°  14.5'  N;  long.  158°  46'  W.  There  are  depths  of 
11  fathoms  or  more  close  to  its  southeast  side.  From  a  vessel  near 
the  shoal  Cape  Constantine  can  be  seen  in  clear  weather,  but  the 


NUSHAGAK   BAY.  239 

greatest  care  is  required  when  southward  or  southeastward  of  the 
cape  and  in  sight  of  it.  The  shoaler  ridges  are  generally  indicated 
by  rips,  or  breakers  at  low  water,  but  there  is  generally  nothing  to 
indicate  Ustiugof  Shoal. 

Protection  Point,  the  eastern  end  of  Cape  Constantine,  is  a  low 
marshy  spit  which  extends  1J^  miles  from  the  higher  land.  There 
is  the  entrance  of  a  lagoon  on  the  north  side  of  the  point  2  miles  west- 
ward of  its  end,  which  is  closed  at  low  water,  but  at  other  times  boats 
can  enter,  although  the  current  is  strong  on  the  ebb.  A  narrow  shoal 
awash  in  places  at  low  water  extends  4%  miles  southward  from  the 
point,  its  southern  half  lying  about  1  mile  from  shore;  there  is  a 
narrow  channel  for  boats  between  the  point  and  the  north  end  of  the 
shoal.  A  detached  shoal  with  15  feet  on  it  lies  2  miles  eastward  from 
the  point. 

The  low  spit  eastward  of  Nichols  Hills  forms  a  cove,  dry  at  low 
water,  that  can  be  entered  by  boats  at  high  water  and  affords  shelter 
except  with  northerly  winds. 

Igushik  River  has  three  salteries  on  the  west  side  near  the  entrance, 
and  vessels  up  to  about  24  feet  draft  have  been  taken  out.  The  chan- 
nel into  the  river  is  not  surveyed.  The  flat  on  the  eastern  side  of  the 
channel  leading  to  the  mouth  of  the  river  shows  for  nearly  its  full 
length  at  low  water.  The  bar  at  the  entrance  of  the  channel  has  a 
depth  of  12  to  14  feet  on  it,  and  lies  about  iy^  miles  southeastward 
of  the  mouth  of  the  river  and  8%  miles  northward  from  Protection 
Point. 

Igushik  Ridge,  on  the  west  side  of  Igushik  River,  is  prominent, 
having  a  greatest  elevation  of  about  260  feet  near  its  northern  end, 
where  it  breaks  sharply  to  the  river.  The  peninsula  eastward  of  the 
river  is  low,  and  on  its  eastern  side  is  a  slatted  beacon,  upper  half 
black,  lower  half  white.  The  range  of  the  beacon  and  the  summit  at 
the  north  end  of  Igushik  Ridge  marks  the  turning  point  for  the  cross- 
over southwestward  of  Ekuk. 

Snake  River  is  not  used  except  by  fishing  boats.  The  channel  lead- 
ing to  the  mouth  of  the  river  has  a  depth  of  about  8  feet,  and  is  well 
defined  at  low  water  by  the  flats,  which  uncover,  except  at  the  en- 
trance, the  latter  lying  about  3  miles  northeastward  of  the  beacon 
described  in  the  previous  paragraph. 

The  land  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  bay  is  low,  rolling  tundra,  and 
the  entrance  point  is  rounding  without  a  distinct  point.  Etolin  Point 
is  here  applied  to  the  middle  and  highest  one  (elevation  90  feet)  of 
three  prominent  bluffs,  1  to  1^  miles  apart.  A  rounded  hill  about 
150  feet  high  lies  1J£  miles  northeastward  of  Etolin  Point,  and  is  one 
of  the  first  summits  to  show  when  approaching.  A  higher  ridge  lies 
1^2  miles  farther  inland,  but  neither  is  prominent. 

The  3-fathom  curve  lies  6J/2  miles,  and  the  5-fathom  curve  8  miles, 
from  the  shore  southeastward  of  Etolin  Point.  The  shoaling  is 
gradual,  and  the  lead  is  a  good  guide  in  approaching  the  eastern  shore 
when  outside  of  a  line  joining  Etolin  and  Protection  Points.  Above 
this  line  there  are  long  shoals,  most  of  which  show  in  places  at  low 
water,  in  the  eastern  half  of  the  bay. 

Ekuk  Bluff  is  170  feet  high  and  is  prominent  from  Nushagak  Bay. 
A  spit  extends  1 J4  miles  northward  from  the  bluff.  Ekuk  is  a  native 
village  on  the  spit  at  the  foot  of  the  bluff,  and  there  is  a  cannery  on 


240  NUSHAGAK   BAY. 

the  north  end  of  the  spit.  The  lagoon  inside  the  spit  is  bare  at  low 
water. 

Clark  Point  is  low  and  is  marked  by  two  canneries  and  a  high  water 
tank.  A  ridge,  150  feet  high  with  a  bluff  at  the  water,  lies  %  mile 
southward  from  the  point  and  is  the  prominent  feature  from  the  bay. 

Clark  Slough,  1  ^  miles  northeastward  of  Clark  Point,  is  navigable 
for  launches  about  17  miles  at  high  water.  The  bar  at  its  entrance 
has  a  depth  of  about  3  feet  at  low  water.  There  is  a  cannery  on  the 
northern  side  at  its  entrance. 

Nushagak  post  office  is  on  Nushagak  Point,  6J^  miles  northward 
from  Clark  Point.  There  are  two  canneries,  a  school,  and  Russian 
church.  The  point  is  a  prominent  ridge  250  feet  high,  eastward  of 
which  is  a  deep  valley.  On  the  eastern  shore  2  and  5  miles  north- 
ward of  Nushagak  are  a  disused  cannery  and  a  native  village. 

The  western  shore  from  Coffee  Point  to  Snag  Point  is  generally  a 
line  of  bluffs.  Dillingham  post  office,  a  native  village,  and  a  cannery 
are  on  Bradford  Point  abreast  Williams  Island,  the  latter  grassy  and 
awash  at  highest  tides.  The  Government  courthouse  is  at  Dilling- 
ham. There  are  two  canneries  and  a  high  tank  west  of  Snag  Point. 

Wood  River  has  its  entrance  northward  of  Snag  Point,  and  has  a 
length  of  about  24  miles  to  Aleknagik  Lake.  Its  width  varies  from 
about  600  yards  in  its  lower  part  to  about  50  yards  where  it  joins  the 
lake.  A  depth  of  3  to  3  J^  feet  at  low  water  can  be  carried  15  miles  up 
the  river  and  not  more  than  2  J^  feet  to  the  lake,  though  at  high  water 
4  feet  can  be  carried  this  distance.  The  lake  is  about  24  miles  long. 
There  is  a  cannery  on  the  south  shore,  just  inside  Snag  Point. 

Prominent  features. — Northward  of  the  bay  is  a  chain  of  prominent 
mountains,  some  of  which  are  described  in  the  sailing  directions. 
They  are  snow  covered  in  early  summer,  but  bare  except  in  the  ravines 
by  the  middle  of  July.  In  clear  weather  the  peaks  show  from  a  long 
distance  seaward,  but  much  of  the  tune  they  are  obscured  by  clouds 
and  haze.  Many  of  the  summits  are  shown  on  the  chart. 

Channels. — The  channel  generally  used  is  near  the  middle  of  the 
bay,  and  leads  in  a  depth  of  about  16  feet  over  the  "outer  bar,"  lying 
7  miles  203°  true  (S  H  w  mag.)  from  Ekuk  Bluff.  Southwestward  of 
Ekuk  the  channel  crosses  the  bay  over  several  bars  where  there  are 
depths  of  12  to  14  feet.  It  then  follows  the  eastern  shore  to  the 
anchorage  off  Clark  Point.  The  deepest  draft  of  the  cannery  vessels 
entering  the  bay  is  about  24  feet. 

The  channel  on  the  eastern  side  above  Clark  Point  shoals  gradually 
to  8  feet  at  Nushagak. 

The  channel  to  the  canneries  on  the  western  side  crosses  the  river 
at  Clark  Point,  where  the  depth  is  about  12  feet,  and  follows  the 
western  shore  above  Coffee  Point  at  a  distance  of  about  ]/±  mile. 

Anchorages. — There  is  no  anchorage  in  the  outer  bay  sheltered 
from  all  winds.  In  southwest  weather  the  western  side  of  the  bay 
should  be  selected,  and  in  northeast  weather  the  eastern  side.  With 
winds  from  east  to  south  (mag.)  there  is  no  shelter,  and  a  heavy  sea 
makes  into  the  bay.  The  strong  current  causes  a  vessel  at  anchor  to 
lie  stern  or  broadside  to  the  sea  when  the  wind  opposes  the  current. 
The  bars  seem  to  afford  little  protection.  In  northerly  weather  any 
part  of  the  bay  is  sheltered,  but  the  wind  does  not  appear  to  blow 
with  force  from  that  direction  during  the  summer. 


NUSHAGAK    BAY.  241 

There  is  good  anchorage,  sheltered  from  southwest  winds,  for  ves- 
sels of  12  feet  or  less  draft  1  mile  21°  true  (N  mag.)  from  Protection 
Point  in  about  3^  fathoms.  Deeper  draft  vessels  should  anchor 
farther  northeastward. 

Above  Ekuk  Spit  good  anchorage  will  be  found  wherever  the  depth 
will  permit.  The  cannery  vessels  are  anchored  or  moored  off  their 
respective  plants,  except  those  at  Nushagak,  which  are  anchored  in 
the  channel  between  it  and  Clark  Point.  This  part  of  the  bay  is 
very  choppy  in  heavy  weather,  but  the  sea  seldom,  if  ever,  is  heavy 
enough  to  endanger  a  vessel.  The  bottom  is  sand,  but  the  anchor 
holds  well  if  given  sufficient  scope,  say  60  fathoms.  The  currents 
are  strong,  and  care  should  be  taken  to  avoid  dragging.  Vessels 
remaining  long  are  anchored  in  line  in  the  channel  to  interfere  as 
little  as  possible  with  the  nets. 

Supplies. — The  nearest  point  at  which  coal  can  be  purchased  is 
Unalaska.  Some  provisions  can  be  obtained  at  the  companies' 
stores.  Fresh  meat  is  not  generally  obtainable,  and  game  is  scarce. 
Plenty  of  fish  can  be  had  during  the  season.  Fresh  water  can  be 
boated  off  from  the  cannery  wharves.  The  cannery  launches  and 
tugs  go  to  the  wharves  at  high  water.  That  part  of  the  cannery 
wharves  extending  beyond  high  water  is  removed  during  the  winter. 
The  water  is  fresh  at  some  of  the  river  mouths  on  the  last  of  the  ebb, 
but  it  is  too  muddy  for  boilers  or  drinking.  Northward  of  Dilling- 
ham  there  is  a  sparse  growth  of  timber,  which  becomes  heavy  farther 
inland.  Southward  of  Dillingham  there  are  only  occasional  clumps 
of  alder  bushes. 

Repairs. — The  large  tides  and  flats  make  it  easy  to  beach  a  vessel 
of  moderate  draft  (say  18  feet).  A  good  place  is  at  Clark  Point  just 
above  the  cannery.  Small  machine  repairs  can  generally  be  done  at 
the  companies'  shops. 

Communication. — The  mail  schedule  is  monthly,  by  steamer  during 
the  summer  from  Seward  by  way  of  Unalaska,  and  in  winter  from 
Katmai  by  dog  team.  Some  of  the  canneries  have  communication 
by  telephone,  and  there  are  radio  stations  at  Clark  Point  and 
Nushagak.  There  is  little  travel  in  summer  except  by  boat  on 
account  of  the  soft  tundra  country  and  numerous  lakes.  There  are 
some  small  native  villages  above  Ekuk,  and  a  few  white  men  remain 
during  the  winter. 

Weather. — The  weather  is  variable,  but  it  is  considered  better 
than  farther  westward.  Spells  of  bad  weather  occur,  and  their  dura- 
tion increases  in  the  late  summer.  In  August  and  September,  1909, 
there  was  much  stormy  weather.  Southwesterly  winds  predomi- 
nated in  the  early  summer,  and  easterly  winds  later. 

Easterly  winds  bring  thick  weather  and  rain,  and  are  accompanied 
by  low  or  falling  barometer.  Southwesterly  winds,  if  moderate, 
bring  fair  weather,  but  if  strong,  bring  rain.  Northwesterly  winds 
bring  fine,  clear  weather,  but  seldom  blow  steadily.  In  settled 
weather  the  wind  may  be  light  from  any  direction,  accompanied  by 
showers.  After  a  gale  there  is  usually  no  shifting  of  the  wind  or 
sudden  breaking  of  the  storm,  but  the  wind  decreases,  and  there  is  a 
gradual  return  to  fair  weather. 

Fog  sometimes  sets  in  from  sea,  but  there  is  little  fog  during  the 
summer. 

31056°— 16 ]6 


242  NUSHAGAK    BAY. 

Ice. — Nushagak  Bay  is  usually  open  to  navigation  the  latter  part 
of  May,  but  the  movement  of  tne  ice  is  variable,  depending  on  the 
direction  of  the  wind.  Northeast  winds  drive  it  out  of  the  bay.  It 
is  stated  that  the  arrival  of  the  cannery  vessels  has  been  as  late  as 
June  17.  The  cannery  vessels  leave  Bristol  Bay  the  latter  part  of 
August,  the  pack  having  been  completed.  It  is  not  known  when  ice 
begins  to  form,  but  it  is  probably  late  in  the  fall. 

Tides  are  influenced  to  some  extent  by  strong  winds.  The  cur- 
rents have  considerable  strength,  the  ebb  being  the  stronger,  on 
account  of  the  discharge  from  the  rivers.  The  maximum  ebb  current 
observed  is  3.8  miles,  and  flood,  2.9  miles.  The  ebb  usually  begins 
shortly  before  high  water  and  continues  to  run  after  low  water, 
roughly  about  6^  hours  ebb  and  6  hours  flood.  The  period  of  slack 
water  is  usually  short.  The  currents  generally  set  fair  with  the  chan- 
nels, but  in  navigating  the  bay  the  course  is  often  across  the  current, 
and  allowance  must  be  made  for  it. 

Currents. — The  currents  follow  in  general  the  direction  of  the 
channel;  the  velocity  is  influenced  by  freshets  and  continued  winds, 
which  also  affect  the  times  of  slack  water.  A  current  of  over  5  knots 
may  be  experienced  at  tunes. 

NOTE. — The  times  given  in  the  Tide  Tables  for  Kodiak  are  expressed 
in  one  hundred  and  fiftieth  meridian  time ;  while  the  time  used  locally 
is  one  hundred  and  sixty-fifth  meridian  time;  the  following  figures 
applied  to  the  Kodiak  one  hundred  and  fiftieth  meridian  time  gave 
the  time  of  slack  water  or  strength  of  current  in  one  hundred  and 
sixty-fifth  meridian  time  direct. 

Off  Protection  Point. — The  mean  velocity  of  the  current  at  strength 
is  2.2  knots  on  the  flood  and  3  knots  on  the  ebb.  Slack  water  before 
the  flood  occurs  at  the  time  of  low  water  at  Kodiak,  and  slack  water 
before  the  ebb  30  minutes  before  the  time  of  high  water  at  Kodiak. 

Off  Etolin  Point. — The  mean  velocity  of  the  current  at  strength  is 
2  knots  on  the  flood  and  2.5  on  the  ebb.  Slack  water  before  the  flood 
occurs  30  minutes  after  the  time  of  low  water  at  Kodiak,  and  slack 
water  before  the  ebb  at  the  time  of  high  water  at  Kodiak. 

Off  Clark  Point. — The  mean  velocity  of  the  current  at  strength  is 
2.3  knots  on  the  flood  and  3.2  on  the  ebb.  Slack  water  before  the 
flood  occurs  1  hour  20  minutes  after  the  time  of  low  water  at  Kodiak, 
and  slack  water  before  the  ebb  40  minutes  after  the  time  of  high  water 
at  Kodiak.  In  three  days  observations,  2.5  knots  was  the  greatest 
f.ood  and  3.8  the  greatest  ebb  current  observed. 

Off  Coffee  Point. — The  mean  velocity  of  the  current  at  strength  is 
2.5  knots  on  the  flood  and  3.4  on  the  ebb.  Slack  water  before  the 
flood  occurs  1  hour  50  minutes  after  the  time  of  low  water  at  Kodiak, 
and  slack  water  before  the  ebb  50  minutes  after  the  time  of  high  water 
at  Kodiak. 

Between  Clark  and  Coffee  points. — The  greatest  strength  of  the  flood 
or  ebb  occurs  4  hours  after  the  time  of  low  water  and  high  water  at 
Kodiak,  respectively. 

Off  Dillingham. — The  mean  velocity  of  the  current  at  strength  is 
2.3  knots  on  the  flood  and  3.2  knots  on  the  ebb.  Slack  water  before 
the  flood  occurs  2  hours  20  minutes  after  the  time  of  low  water  at 
Kodiak,  and  slack  water  before  the  ebb  1  hour  30  minutes  after  the 
time  of  high  water  at  Kodiak. 


BRISTOL   BAY.  .  243 

DIRECTIONS,    NUSHAGAK   BAY  AND   RIVER. 

The  channels  and  bars  are  probably  subject  to  constant  change  due 
to  the  action  of  currents,  and  to  a  smaller  extent  by  the  action  of  the 
sea.  Changes  of  considerable  extent  are  reported  by  those  of  long 
experience.  A  margin  of  safety  should  therefore  be  allowed  for  the 
soundings  found  by  the  survey.  It  is  also  well  to  remember  that  with 
a  very  low  tide  the  water  may  fall  as  much  as  2  feet  below  the  plane 
of  reference  of  the  chart. 

The  navigation  of  the  bay  is  not  easy,  and  a  stranger  should  proceed 
with  great  caution.  Tide  rips  may  be  taken  as  good  evidence  of  shoals. 
The  shoals  are  long  ridges  trending  in  the  direction  of  the  set  of  the 
tidal  currents,  and  a  course  should  not  be  laid  across  the  currents 
unless  sure  of  the  position,  as  the  danger  of  stranding  is  greatly 
increased.  A  stranger,  unless  sure  of  his  position,  should  navigate 
only  on  a  rising  tide. 

It  is  recommended  for  vessels  bound  to  Nushagak  Bay  to  make 
Cape  Greig,  which  is  high  and  easily  recognized,  and  then  shape  the 
course  for  the  entrance,  favoring  the  Etolin  Point  side  in  preference 
to  the  Cape  Constantine  side.  The  currents  that  may  be  experienced 
when  crossing  from  Cape  Greig  are  not  known,  but  there  may  be  con- 
siderable set.  Great  care  should  therefore  be  exercised  in  approaching 
the  entrance,  and  the  lead  should  be  used  constantly.  The  land  at 
the  entrance  when  first  seen  in  approaching  is  indefinite,  and  presents 
no  feature  that  can  be  readily  identified. 

Capt.  McMullen,  of  the  steamer  Dora,  makes  the  foUowing  sugges- 
tions for  approaching  Nushagak  Bay:  From  Amak  Island  steer  to 
pass  about  10  miles  off  Port  Heiden,  as  there  are  some  large  houses 
there  which  are  easily  seen  over  Chistiakof  Island.  A  good  departure 
can  be  taken  from  here  in  daylight,  as  the  shore  along  the  coast  has 
no  other  landmarks  to  be  taken  as  a  guide.  From  Port  Heiden  run 
up  along  the  coast  until  Cape  Greig  is  abeam,  distant  about  10  miles, 
then  haul  up  for  Nushagak  Bay,  course  344°  true  (NW  %  N  mag.) ; 
if  the  tide  is  ebbing  allow  about  %  point  to  the  right,  and  the  same 
to  the  left  if  the  tide  is  flooding.  This  course  should  lead  to  a  posi- 
tion about  5  miles  off  Protection  Point  when  abeam. 

The  usual  route  up  Nushagak  Bay  is  to  pass  5  or  6  miles  off  Protec- 
tion Point,  where  there  is  a  black  and  white  beacon  about  30  feet 
high,  and  shape  the  course  for  a  position  with  the  highest  part  of 
Ekuk  Bluff  bearing  58°  true  (NE  %  N  mag.), distant  4J^  miles.  If 
the  mountains  northward  are  showing,  the  range  of  peak  X  in  line 
with  the  point  where  the  slopes  of  peaks  T  and  S  meet  will  lead  to 
that  position;  the  course  on  the  range  is  342°  true  (NW  y%  N  mag.), 
passing  5%  miles  off  Protection  Point,  and  the  distance  above  Pro- 
tection Point  is  14^  miles.  There  is  a  break  of  considerable  breadth 
to  the  right  of  the  range  peaks,  between  them  and  the  prominent 
notched  peak  marked  E  on  the  chart.  Peak  X  is  the  left  one  of  a 
pair  of  sharp  peaks,  the  right  one  being  hidden  behind  S  when  on  the 
range. 

On  this  course  the  lead  should  be  kept  going  constantly,  not  only 
to  insure  the  immediate  safety  of  the  vessel,  but  also  to  pick  up  the 
16-foot  shoal  which  crosses  the  channel  10 J^  miles  above  Protection 
Point  abeam.  In  thick  weather,  particularly,  the  identification  of 
this  shoal  not  only  fixes  the  position  of  the  vessel,  but  also  shows  how 


244  NUSHAGAK   BAY. 

much  allowance  must  be  made  for  current  in  running  down,  by  log, 
the  remaining  four  miles  to  the  change  of  course.  During  the  sum- 
mer a  spar  buoy  is  usually  maintained  by  the  cannery  people  to 
mark  the  change  of  course  from  range  A  to  range  B. 

In  clear  weather,  by  far  the  best  method  of  navigating  the  bay  is 
by  means  of  horizontal  angles  measured  with  the  sextant  and  plotted 
on  the  chart  by  means  of  the  three-arm  protractor.  Capt.  McMullen 
used  this  method  in  preference  to  any  other,  and  commends  it  highly. 

Follow  the  range  14  y^  miles  above  Protection  Point  until  the 
prominent  red  water  tank  standing  above  the  canneries  just  clear  of 
the  bluff  at  Clark  Point  shows  in  the  middle  of  a  deep  depression  in  the 
ridge,  1%  miles  eastward  of  Nushagak  Point.  At  this  point  the 
beacon  on  the  shore  eastward  of  Igushik  River  will  be  in  line  with  the 
summit  at  the  north  end  of  Igushik  Ridge,  bearing  278°  true  (WSW 
%  W  mag.).  The  left  end  of  the  mountains  northwestward  will  also 
be  approximately  in  line  with  the  north  foot  of  Igushik  Ridge. 

Steer  for  the  water  tank  at  Clark  Point  on  the  range  described  in 
the  ^receding  paragraph,  course  32°  true  (N  byE  mag.),  for  1  mile, 
crossing  a  bar  with  12  to  14  feet  over  it,  until  the  highest  part  of  Ekuk 
Bluff  bears  66°  true  (NE  mag.).  Then  head  for  the  bluff,  taking  care 
to  keep  the  bearing  on  and  not  to  be  set  off  by  the  current,  which 
leads  across  two  bars  in  a  depth  of  over  14  feet.  Continue  this  course 
for  2*^  miles  until  about  1  mile  from  the  bluff.  Then  steer  344°  true 
(NW  y%  N  mag.)  for  about  2  miles  and  pass  J^  to  %  m^e  on°  the  spit 
northward  of  Ekuk  Bluff.  When  the  cannery  at  the  north  end  of  the 
spit  bears  103°  true  (E  %  N  mag.),  distant  about  1  mile,  steer  21° 
true  (N  mag.)  for  Nushagak  Point  and  anchor  J^  mile  or  a  little  less 
off  the  cannery  at  Clark  Point,  in  5  to  6  fathoms  (low  water). 

Vessels  can  pass  eastward  of  the  outer  bar  by  standing  on  the  range 
of  peak  Z  in  line  with  the  notch  in  peak  E,  bearing  346°  true  (NW  % 
N  mag.),  until  the  left  summit  of  a  saddle  peak  (the  last  toward  the 
left  of  the  distant  high  mountains)  is  in  range  with  the  north  foot  of 
Igushik  Ridge,  bearing  287°  true  (W  %  S  mag.),  being  careful  not  to 
overrun.  Stand  on  the  latter  range  1J^  miles  until  on  the  range  of 
peaks  X,  T,  and  S  of  a  preceding  paragraph.  The  346°  true  (NW  % 
N  mag.)  course  leads  about  J^  mile  westward  of  a  bar  which  shows 
about  6  feet  at  low  water,  the  course  being  changed  when  abreast  its 
northern  end.  By  this  route  vessels  can  proceed  to  an  anchorage 
below  the  upper  oars  at  low  water,  from  which  it  is  not  difficult  to 
get  in  when  there  is  sufficient  depth  on  the  bars. 

Clark  Point  to  the  upper  canneries. — From  Clark  Point  the  channel 
crosses  the  bay,  where  the  least  depth  is  about  12  feet,  and  then  fol- 
lows the  western  shore  above  Coffee  Point  at  a  distance  of  about  % 
mile.  Above  Coffee  Point  the  channel  is  narrow  in  places,  with  steep 
slopes  and  very  shoal  water  on  both  sides.  It  should  be  navigated 
with  great  caution  by  a  stranger,  and  on  a  rising  tide. 

From  a  position  J/2  to  %  mile  off  Clark  Point  steer  319°  true 
(NW  by  W  y<i  W  mag.),  with  the  water  tank  in  range  with  a  small 
knoll  (apparently  a  clump  of  alders)  on  the  ridge  astern.  Hold  the 
range  for  %  mile  after  peak  C  is  in  range  with  the  highest  part  of  a 
low  bluff  3  miles  above  Coffee  Point,  bearing  2°  true  (N  by  W  %  W 
mag.).  Then  steer  20°  true  (N  y%  W  mag.)  for  Bradford  Point  for 
1 14  miles  until  Coffee  Point  bears  325°  true  (NW  by  W  mag.),  distant 
%  to  1  mile.  Then  steer  353°  true  (NNW  J^  W  mag.)  for  l^g  miles 


NUSHAGAK   BAY.  245 

to  a  position  500  to  600  yards  from  shore  at  the  first  break  in  the  bluff 
y%  mile  above  Coffee  Point. 

For  the  next  3  miles  the  channel  is  about  300  yards  wide.  The 
mid-channel  is  generally  J4  mile  from  shore — a  little  more  at  the  head 
of  the  bight  1J^  miles  northward  of  Coffee  Point,  and  a  little  less  at 
points  y%  mile  southward  and  the  same  distance  northward  of  this 
bight.  The  channel  is  then  about  1  mile  wide  to  Bradford  Point,  and 
the  western  shore  is  clear  if  given  a  berth  of  J4  mile. 

Follow  the  western  shore  at  Bradford  Point  at  a  distance  of  J4  mile 
until  about  3/2  mile  above  the  courthouse,  and  then  keep  y%  mile  from 
shore.  Anchorage  in  4  to  5  fathoms  (low  water)  may  be  had  about  J/£ 
mile  from  the  shore  at  the  canneries  southwestward  of  Snag  Point. 
The  shoal  eastward  of  the  channel  above  Bradford  Point  is  eastward 
of  a  line  from  the  courthouse  to  the  high  tank  at  the  cannery  above, 
bearing  41°  true  (N  by  E  %  E  mag.). 

Peak  C  is  a  sharp  peak  at  the  western  end  of  alow  detached  mountain 
ridge,  and  is  the  first  mountain  to  the  left  of  peak  B,  which  is  the  most 
conspicuous  toward  the  head  of  the  bay.  In  making  the  turn  2  miles 
southward  of  Coffee  Point  it  should  be  noted  that  the  prolongation 
southward  of  the  shore  from  Coffee  Point  to  the  bight  1 J^  miles  above 
intersects  the  range  over  the  water  tank  on  Clark  Point  at  a  point 
near  the  flat  bare  at  low  water  that  makes  out  from  the  western  shore. 

CAPE   CONSTANTINE   TO   CAPE   NEWENHAM. 

The  area  between  Cape  Constantine  and  Cape  Newenham  is  unsur- 
veyed,  and  there  are  indications  that  the  present  charts  are  consid- 
erably in  error.  Vessels  laying  a  course  from  outside  Ustiugof  Shoal 
to  pass  about  2  miles  off  Cape  Peirce,  in  thick  but  otherwise  moderate 
weather,  have  reported  making  Hagemeister  Island  right  ahead. 
This  may  be  due  either  to  a  northerly  set  in  this  vicinity  or  to  errors 
in  the  chart,  or,  more  probably,  to  a  combination  of  both.  In  the 
thick  weather  which  constantly  prevails  in  this  locality  safety  is 
assured  only  by  constant  use  of  the  lead. 

Walrus  Islands  are  three  islands  and  three  rocks,  all  above  water, 
extending  16  miles  east  and  west  and  about  6  miles  north  and  south. 

Round  Island,  the  easternmost  of  the  group,  is  nearly  2  miles  long, 
%  mile  wide,  and  about  800  feet  high,  its  west  end  being  in  latitude 
58°  35'  N,  longitude  160°  01'  W. 

Crooked  Island  is  between  4  and  5  miles  in  length  and  2  miles  in 
greatest  width.  The  eastern  part  is  rather  low,  but  toward  the  west- 
ern extremity  the  elevation  is  nearly  equal  to  that  of  Hound  Island. 
There  is  quite  a  large  bay  on  the  northeast  side,  but  it  was  not 
examined. 

High  Island,  the  westernmost  of  the  group,  is  4  miles  in  length, 
about  1  mile  in  width,  and  900  feet  or  more  in  height. 

The  Twins  are  two  isolated  rocks  4  miles  southward  of  Crooked 
Island,  the  larger  300  and  the  smaller  100  feet  in  height. 

Black  Rock,  about  150  feet  high,  lies  1  mile  northward  of  the  south- 
east end  of  Crooked  Island. 

No  other  outlying  dangers  were  seen  in  passing  between  the  islands 
and  the  mainland.  From  6  to  10  fathoms  were  found  abreast  the 
group,  the  depth  gradually  decreasing  to  3  fathoms  off  the  north  end 


246  BRISTOL   BAY. 

of  Hagemeister  Island.  The  course  was  near  the  shore,  however, 
and  more  water  would  doubtless  have  been  found  in  mid-channel. 

Hagemeister  Island  lies  9  miles  west  of  High  Island  and  is  14  miles 
in  length  and  8  in  width.  It  is  mountainous  except  for  about  5  miles 
at  the  north  end.  Shoals  surround  the  island  and  extend  eastward 
20  to  25  miles,  including  the  area  between  Hagemeister  and  the 
Walrus  Group. 

Hagemeister  Strait  is  about  16  miles  in  length  and  lies  between  the 
island  of  that  name  and  the  mainland.  It  is  3  to  4  miles  wide,  but 
shingle  spits  contract  it  in  two  places  to  less  than  2  miles.  On  a 
passage  through  the  strait  made  by  the  Fish  Commission  steamer 
Albatross  the  least  water  found  was  4J^  fathoms.  Good  anchorage 
was  found  under  Tongue  Point,  the  shingle  spit  making  out  from  the 
mainland  about  midway  of  the  channel.  From  the  above  anchorage 
the  Albatross  stood  directly  to  sea,  passing  within  a  mile  of  the  south- 
western extremity  of  Hagemeister  Island;  thence  206°  true  (S  % 
W  mag.),  shoaling  the  water  to  3  fathoms  7  miles  from  the  island. 
Greater  depths  might  possibly  be  found  by  taking  a  more  westerly 
course.  It  is  reported  that  there  is  anchorage  under  the  spits  at 
both  ends  of  Hagemeister  Island.  The  tidal  currents  are  very  strong 
through  the  channel.  The  vessel  was  visited  by  a  number  of  Eskimos 
while  at  anchor  under  Tongue  Point. 

Cape  Peirce  is  of  moderate  height  and  symmetrical  form.  Depths 
of  10  fathoms  are  found  2  miles  southward  of  the  cape,  and  good 
anchorage  in  10  fathoms  of  water  is  found  inside  Shaiak  Islet  (lying 
just  eastward  of  the  cape). 

There  are  reports  of  good  anchorage,  sheltered  from  northerly 
weather,  in  the  bight  northwestward  of  Cape  Peirce. 

The  same  report  states  that  a  shoal  area  makes  off  westward  (true) 
from  the  cape,  having  depths  of  from  2  to  3  fathoms.  The  extent  of 
this  shoal  and  the  least  water  to  be  found  on  it  are  unknown.  To 
make  the  anchorage  from  eastward,  give  Cape  Peirce  a  berth  of  about 
3  miles,  and  steer  9°  true  (N  by  W  mag.)  for  the  junction  of  the  north- 
west end  of  the  sand  beach  with  the  rocky  shores,  and  select  anchorage 
at  will  off  the  sand  beach.  The  approaches  from  westward  are  clear 
except  for  the  shoal  above  mentioned. 

KUSKOKWIM   BAY  AND   RIVER, 

from  Cape  Newenham  to  Bethel,  are  shown  on  charts  9103  and  9104. 

Cape  Newenham  is  the  landfall  for  this  region,  and  can  be  approached 
close- to  with  deep  water.  It  is  the  end  of  a  peninsula  formed  by  a 
series  of  rough  saw-tooth  mountains.  These  mountains  terminate 
in  a  level  plateau  which  forms  the  immediate  cape.  In  southerly 
weather  a  heavy  sea  and  tide  rips  occur  off  Cape  Newenham. 

Jagged  Mountain  is  a  well-defined  peak,  the  highest  of  the  Cape 
Newenham  group.  Viewed  from  northward  its  slopes  appear  jagged. 

Security  Cove,  9  miles  northeastward  of  Cape  Newenham,  is  a  good 
anchorage  except  with  northwest  winds;  the  usual  summer  gales  are 
southeasterly.  The  bottom  is  even  and  shoals  gradually.  The  best 
anchorage  is  about  %  mile  northeastward  of  Castle  Rock,  on  the 
range  of  Castle  Rock  and  the  first  rocky  promontory  southwestward, 
in  3J/2  fathoms,  mud  bottom.  Fresh  water  can  be  procured  from  a 
stream  which  enters  the  cove. 


KUSKOKWIM   BAY.  247 

There  is  also  good  anchorage  in  the  middle  of  the  small  bight  on 
the  southwest  side  of  Castle  Rock,  in  3J^  fathoms,  good  holding 
ground.  This  anchorage  is  less  affected  by  the  ground  swell  making 
along  the  coast  from  Cape  Newenham  than  the  anchorage  in  Security 
Cove. 

Castle  Rock,  the  southwest  point  of  Security  Cove,  is  a  small, 
prominent  headland,  299  feet  high,  joined  to  the  land  by  a  low  neck. 

At  the  northeast  point  of  Security  Cove  there  is  a  conspicuous 
pinnacle  rock,  169  feet  high  and  covered  with  light  tundra. 

Chagvan  Mountain  is  a  smoothly  shaped  mountain  terminating 
in  two  rounded  knobs  about  1,540  feet  high,  which  lies  between 
Security  Cove  and  Chagvan  Bay. 

Chagvan  Bay  has  a  narrow  shoal  entrance.  Inside  it  is  very  shoal 
and  cut  up  by  bars  that  are  bare  at  low  water. 

Red  Mountain  is  a  conspicuous  reddish-colored  mountain  just 
south  of  Goodnews  Bay.  From  northward  it  appears  as  a  long 
ridge  with  the  highest  part  at  its  northern  end.